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    !Tbe Coastal EnviroDDlentai Profile+f: Lingayen Gulf, Philippines

    Edited by

    '-'iana T. McManusand_' Chua Thia-Eng

  • Environmental Frofile Gulf, P.b.ilippines

    Edited by

    L i m a T. WManu~ and Chua ' Thia-Eng

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ United States Coastal Resources Management Project

    Technical Publications Series 5

  • The Coastal Environmental Profile of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines

    EDITED BY LlANA T. MCMANUS AND CHUA THIA-ENG

    Published by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian NationsIUnited States Coastal Resources Management Project

    Printed in Manila, Philippines

    McManus, L.T. and T.-E. Chua, editors. 1990. The coastal environmental profile of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. ICLARM Technical Reports 22, 69 p. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines.

    Cover (Front): A landsat photo of Lingayen Gulf in the western coast of Luzon. Philippines, showing its coastal features. Note the mountainous regions in the eastern and southwestern parts which are major sources of runoff and sediment deposited into the major rivers and tributaries which empty into the gulf. (This photo is a rectified image based on data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.)

    (Back, top left and right): (a) Coral reef communities of Bolinao, Pangasinan. (b) A fishing village on Silaqui Island, located on the 3-km wide reef flat of Bolinao. (Bottom left and right): (a) Gleaners on the tidally exposed reef flat. (b) Women and children gathering invertebrates, mostly clams, snails and urchins from the reef flats. (Photos by J.W. McManus.)

    ISSN 01 15-5547 ISBN 971 -1022-49-4

    ICLARM Contribution No. 514

  • Contents

    List of Tables

    List of Figures vii

    List of Acronyms and Abbreviations viii

    Peso-Dollar Conversion Rates, 1976-1 990 x

    Foreword xi

    Preface xiii

    Chapter 1. Introduction, Liana T. McManus, CesarZ. Luna and Flordeliz Y. Guarin Objectives and Scope 3 Definitions 3

    Chapter 2. Natural Resources, Cesar 2. Luna and Julius M. Concepcion Coral Resources Forest Resources Mineral Resources

    Chapter 3. Economic Sector, Geronimo T. Silvestre and Adelaida L. Palma Capture Fisheries Coastal Aquaculture

    Chapter 4. Pollution, Mary Ann Leah L. Maaliw Marine Pollutants Action Plans and Mitigating Measures

    Chapter 5. Population and Socioeconomics, Liana T. McManus and Rebecca A. Rivera 38

    Chapter 6. Institutional and Legal Framework, B. Norman V. Kalagayan Indigenous Rudiments of Coastal Zone Law The Present State of Philippine Coastal Zone Law Disposition and Management of Fisheries Disposition and Management of Forests Disposition and Management of Minerals Disposition and Management of Lands Government Coastal Zone Programs and Projects Local Government Community Development and Social Work Program Toward a Community-Based Coastal Resources Management

    iii

  • Chapter 7. Coastal Resources Management Issues and Plan Formulation, 62 Liana T. McManus 63 Coastal Resources Management Issues Development of a Coastal Area Management Plan 6 6

    References

  • List of Tables

    Status of corals in Bolinao and Hundred Islands, Pangasinan and in San Fernando, La Union. Volume (t) of coral reef fish landed by municipal fishermen in Pangasinan and La Union, 1983-1 985. Estimates of seaweed production in Lingayen Gulf. Estimates of annual invertebrate catch (t) and value of catch (P) from Lingayen Gulf, 1983. Distribution of marketed invertebrate species along the Lingayen Gulf coast. Estimates of aquarium fish production in Bolinao, Pangasinan. Aquarium fish caught with sodium cyanide (NaCN) in their adult and semiadult forms. Area (ha) and percentage of forest lands to total land area in Pangasinan. Area of forest lands, by kind, in Region 1. Area of forest lands, by kind, in Pangasinan. Area of forest lands, by kind, in La Union. Quantity and estimated value (B) of mineral production in Pangasinan: 1983 and 1984 (preliminary estimates). Magnitude and value of annual landings in LGSA, 1976-1 984. Mean value of marine landings in LGSA, 1976-1 984 and their equivalent values in 1 984. Magnitude and value of annual landings in Lingayen Gulf, 1976-1 984. Magnitude and value of marine landings from Lingayen Gulf, April 1 983-March 1984. Types of fishing methodigear used in Lingayen Gulf as compiled from various studies conducted in the area. Trawl number, aggregate gross tonnage and landings in Lingayen Gulf, 1976-1 984. Inventory of municipal fishing gear used in the different municipalities bordering Lingayen Gulf. Frequency of use of the more important municipal fishing gear in Lingayen Gulf. Estimates of catch rate and annual catch for selected fishing gear in Lingayen Gulf, April 1983-March 1984. Mean annual landings by municipal gear type in LGSA, 1980-1 984. Distribution of the number of municipal fishermen and banca, by sector, in Lingayen Gulf as of 1985. Fish species occurrence reported in Lingayen Gulf as compiled from previous studies in the area.

  • Top ten farnilies/groups which make up trawl catches in Lingayen Gulf during the late 1940s, late 1970s and early 1980s. Catch composition of selected municipal fishing gear in Lingayen Gulf. Estimates of profitability in 1980 for the commercial fisheries of Lingayen Gulf. Estimates of profitability in 1980 for the municipal fisheries of Lingayen Gulf. Rates of loan repayment by fishermen in Region I, Philippines. Distribution of privately owned brackishwater fishponds in Pangasinan. The 1988 prices per kilogram of pond-cultured fish at the Dagupan public market. Mine tailings produced in Baguio Mining District. Ranges of soluble heavy metal contents of paddy soils at inlet portion of or settling basin in paddy fields of ARIS. Copper concentration (ppm) of leaves of rice plants in ARIS. Trace element content of stream sediment in tailings-affected rivers, Agno and Bued, in Pangasinan. Metal concentration of sediment from monitoring points along Bued River, Patalan River and Lingayen Gulf, Pangasinan. Concentration of toxic metals in the Agno River Basin. Concentration of noxious metals in Lingayen Gulf. Population, area and population density for municipalities and coastal villages around Lingayen Gulf. Population growth rates for the period 1985-1 988 in municipalities and coastal villages of Lingayen Gulf. Average family size and population distribution for the three sectors of Lingayen Gulf. Dialects spoken in municipalities around Lingayen Gulf and percentage of population speaking them. Employment by major occupation group in Pangasinan and La Union, January-March 1985. Occupations of coastal inhabitants of Lingayen Gulf and percentage of population engaged in them. Average monthly income and disbursements (F) of families living around Lingayen Gulf. Monthly income from fishing and family expenses (P) of small-scale fishermen of Lingayen Gulf. Partial list of NGOs in La Union as of 30 June 1985.

  • List of Figures

    Estimated mean circulation currents of Lingayen Gulf. Map of Lingayen Gulf showing the geographical divisions of its internal waters and surrounding coastal areas. Western coast of Lingayen Gulf. Area of operation by fishing gear in Lingayen Gulf. General location of payao or fish shelters used in purse seine operations in Philippine waters. Range of operations for selected municipal fishing gear in Sector I of Lingayen Gulf. Range of operations for selected municipal fishing gear in Sector II of Lingayen Gulf. Range of operations for selected municipal fishing gear in Sector Ill of Lingayen Gulf. Relative trawl CPUE in Lingayen Gulf in the late 1940s, late 1970s and early 1980s. Distribution of fishponds in Pangasinan and La Union. Location of monitoring points for water quality of the Agno River Irrigation System (ARE).

    vii

  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

    ASEANIUS CRMP

    A 0 ARlS BFAR BFD BL BMG BP C A CPUE CSWCD CZMC CZMTF D A DENR DLGCD DNR DOT EEZ EFPP EIA E IS EMB 0 ERDB FA0 FIDC-NMRC

    FMB FOR1 GT h P INMRP lRRl KKK LGC LGMP LGSA LO I

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ United States Coastal Resources Management Project

    Administrative Order Agno River Irrigation System Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Bureau of Forest Development Bureau of Lands Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences Batas Pambansa Commonwealth Act catch per unit effort College of Social Work and Community Development Coastal Zone Management Committee Coastal Zone Management Task Force Department of Agriculture Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Local Government and Community Development Department of Natural Resources Department of Tourism Exclusive Economic Zone Expanded Fish Production Program Environmental impact assessment Environmental impact statement Environmental Management Bureau Executive Order Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau Fisheries Administrative Order Fishery Industry Development Council-Natural Resources

    Management Center Forest Management Bureau Forest Research Institute gross ton horsepower Integrated National Mangrove Research Program International Rice Research Institute Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran Local Government Code Lingayen Gulf Management Project Lingayen Gulf Statistical Area Letter of Instruction

    viii

  • MEY MNR MOA MSI-UP MSSD MSY NAMRIA NCSO NEDA NEPC NLSF NGO NMC NPCC OSY PB PD P P ~ PP m PP t PTA RA RDC REMlC REMlN SB SP TURF UNDPIUNESCO

    Maximum economic yield Ministry of Natural Resources Memorandum of Agreement Marine Science Institute-University of the Philippines Ministry of Social Services and