PSYCHOLOGY Perceptual Organization. Perceptual Illusions z

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  • PSYCHOLOGY Perceptual Organization
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  • Perceptual Illusions zhttp://www.yorku.ca/eye/m-lillu.htm
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  • Objectives 1.Understand how illusions help us understand perception 2.Understand perceptual organization principles
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  • Outline zA. Intro & illusions zB. Organizational Principles 1.Form perception xFigure/Ground xGestalt grouping 2.Depth perception Binocular cues - retinal dispartity, convergence Monocular cues - 8 3.Motion Perception - stroboscopic, phi phenomemon 4.Perceptual Constancy - size & shape, size & distance, light, color
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  • Perception zWhat can we learn from looking at the visual illusions #1-6 in your textbook? zIllusion reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret sensation.
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  • Perceptual Illusions
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  • Perceptual Organization: Muller-Lyer Illusion
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  • Illusions Muller-Lyer Illusion zWe interpret the arrows as cues for distance & length yThe arrows at the ends of the lines make them appear of different lengths
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  • Room Illusion
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  • Perceptual Organization: Size-Distance Relationship
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  • Illusions What assumptions do we make about rooms? z90 degree angles zSize & distance (we make the false assumption that they are the same distance way) zTo fool us they distorted the shape of the room
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  • St. Louis Arch zTaller than wider? zWider than taller?
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Height
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  • St. Louis Arch Explanation: yRelative Height - we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away
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  • Perceptual Illusions
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  • Illusions Hans- Wallachs - glowing blue worm zGestalt principles grouping principles lead you astray in this puzzle Apply grouping principles like - continuity
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  • Perceptual Illusions
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  • Illusions Hoffman - ripple illusion zIt is a shading technique using light & shadows
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  • Perceptual Illusions
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  • Illusions zPeople tend to overestimate distance in the fog yLight & Shadow issues yRelative Clarity issues zWhere can this information be useful in the real world?
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  • Perceptual Illusions
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  • Perception zWhat can we learn from looking at the visual illusions #1-6 in your textbook? zIllusion reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret sensation.
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  • Which sense dominates? Visual Capture tendency for vision to dominate the other senses Ex. - movie theater, roller coaster
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  • Perceptual Organization: Gestalt Our brains do more then just register info, we filter & infer to make sense Gestalt = whole tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
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  • Necker Cube zThe whole may exceed the sum of the parts z8 circles - people tend not to notice the circles but the whole box
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  • Perceptual Organization: Illusory Contours
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  • Fig. 15.2 zIs there really a line down the middle? zYour eye perceives one
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  • Outline M15 zA. Intro & illusions zB. Organizational Principles 1.Form perception xFigure/Ground xGestalt grouping 2.Depth perception Binocular cues - retinal dispartity, convergence Monocular cues - 8 3.Motion Perception - stroboscopic, phi phenomemon 4.Perceptual Constancy - size & shap, size & distance, light
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  • Form perception Our brains do more then just register info, we filter & infer to make sense by discriminating what it is - form We organize and interpret meaning
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  • What is it?
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  • Perceptual Organization Form perception Figure and Ground--organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground); Reversible figures
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  • What is it?
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  • Perceptual Organization: Gestalt Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
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  • Gestalt grouping prin. Grouping Principles a)proximity--group nearby figures together b)similarity--group figures that are similar c)continuity--perceive continuous patterns d)closure--fill in gaps e)connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected
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  • PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles
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  • PerceptualOrganization: Closure Gestalt grouping principles are at work here.
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  • PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles Gestalt grouping principles are at work here
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  • PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles Impossible doghouse
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception ability to see objects in three dimensions allows us to judge distance Somewhat innate ability as shown by infants
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Visual Cliff
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  • Depth perception 1. Binocular cues a)retinal disparity images from the two eyes differ closer the object, the larger the disparity (floating finger sausage) b)convergence neuromuscular cue - two eyes move inward for near objects
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  • 2. Monocular Cues a)relative size smaller image is more distant b) Interposition (overlay) closer objects blocks distant object
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Size
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Interposition
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  • Monocular cues c) relative clarity hazy object seen as more distant d) texture coarse --> close fine --> distant
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  • Perceptual Illusions
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  • Monocular cues e) relative height higher objects seen as more distant
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Relative Height
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  • Monocular cues f) relative motion closer objects seem to move faster g) linear perspective parallel lines converge with distance h) relative brightness closer objects appear brighter
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Light and Shadow
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Perspective Techniques
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Illusory Depth
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  • Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception Illusory Depth Explanation
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  • Motion Perception 1.Stroboscopic movement - still pictures can be perceived as moving ( cartoons & film) 2.Phi phenomenon - 2 adjacent stationary lights blink on/off in succession are perceived as moving
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  • Perceptual Constancy Perceptual Constancy perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal image change color shape size
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  • Size & distance p.239
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  • Monster & Ponzo illusions zMonster - linear perspective, relative height; cues to distance & size zPonzo - we perceive the bar as farther away as being larger based on experience
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  • Moon illusion zMoon looks larger at the horizon then it does high in the sky zExplanation: cues to objects distances at the horizon make the moon seem farther away zSimilar to the monster & ponzo illusion
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  • Perceptual Organization- Brightness Contrast
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  • Perceptional Constancy 1.Shape 2.Size & distance 3.Color 4.Lightness/Brightness
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  • Concentrate on the 4 dots in the middle for 30 sec.
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  • Which is line is longer?