“Psychologists investigating perception are increasingly insistent that what is perceived depends upon the observer’s perceptual frame of referenceâ€‌

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  • Psychologists investigating perception are increasingly insistent that what is perceived depends upon the observers perceptual frame of reference. Robert T. Oliver, Forward, Philosophy, Rhetoric and Argumentation, ed. Maurice Nathanson and Henry W. Johnstone, Jr. (University Park, Pennsylvania, 1965), pp. x-xi
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  • By Robert B. Kaplan
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  • Three decades of research: 60s - Kaplan discovered problem of L2 organization
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  • Cultural organizational structures strongly influenced by background of the student Linguistic emphasizes the influence of the writers first language (L1) organizational structures Educational Explanations reviews the background of how writers developed their organizational skills L1 writer is using a schematic code natural to their background while the native English reader is using theirs.
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  • Language and writing are cultural experiences Linguistic patterns and rhetorical conventions from a first language often transfer to writing in ESL and can cause interference. When international students or bicultural students are made aware of their natural pattern they develop an awareness of this tendency in their own writing. When their linguistic / cultural tendencies are made clear, students can develop effective strategies for adapting to meet the expectations of the target language community. Awareness of cultural rhetorical patterns can help teachers support success of international/ bicultural students in academic courses. Contrastive Rhetoric In the Classroom
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  • Application
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  • Reverse Engineering Short text selection
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  • Students compile linear information into paragraphs and essay Breakdown the context in a visual form, example graphic organizers Advertising All Over the World Recreate text using outline form Outline for Advertising All Over the World I. Australian Advertisement A. Energizer Batteries B. Jacko Australian football hero C. Failed in US a. Different customs II. Selling products is the goal A. Advertising global B. New way to sell C.World becoming smaller III. Problems with language and culture A. Customs B. New messages in ads a. Translation doesnt work i.Example Chevy Nova ii. Example Brannif Airlines IV. Different Styles of communication A. Firms write new ads B. Exact words a. U.S., Britain, Germany C. Ads with feelings a. Japan Australian Advertisement Selling products is the goal Problems with language and culture Different Styles of communication Energize r Batteries Jacko Advertising global New way to sell Customs New messages in ads
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  • This method prevents plagiarism.
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  • . "... A pedagogy of critical contrastive rhetoric calls for the initiation of broad educational initiatives among teachers, whether of writing or of subjects that require writing, so that expectations are situated within the multiple realities of a myriad of students writing in English for numerous purposes... " (R. Kubuta, Toward Critical Contrastive Rhetoric).