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160 may be obtained, and the system is quicker relieved than by any internal remedy that can be administered. If relief be not quickly evident, tracheotomy ought to be performed. But the prognosis in all sueh cases is from’the first unfavourable; for inflammatory action is not confined to the glottis and its appen- dages ; the larynx, trachea, and bronchii, are all involved; for in cedema glottidis, it is erroneous to suppose the disease located only in the oedematous or infiltrated parts. The fatal condition now illustrated is but a termination of a peculiar and malignant form of acute laryngitis; and it may be questioned whether, whenever the symptoms have progressed so far as to indicate <edema glottidis, the powers of life have not ebbed too low to hope that any remedies can be successfully employed. PROVINCIAL MEDICAL AND SURGICAL ASSOCIATION. Thirteenth Anniversary Meeting, held at Sheffield, on Wednesday, July 30, and Thursday, July 31. (From the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal.) FIRST GENERAL MEETING. THE Council having met at half-past nine, at the Cutler’s Hall, the first general meeting was held at the same place at one o’clock, when the chair was taken by the President, Dr. Ro- bertson. Dr. HASTINGS then announced that the president elect, Dr. Corden Thompson, who was nominated at Northampton, in the preceding year, to succeed to the chair on the retirement of Dr. Robertson, had written to the secretary of the Association, and had declined to accept the office, on the ground that he differed from some members of the Association on the subject of medical protection. The meeting would therefore have to choose a successor. Dr. J. C. WILLIAlIfS, of Nottingham, said he did not expect to be called upon to address the meeting, because he was not till that time aware of the non-acceptance of the office of president. Indeed, it did not seem at all in accordance with the usual prac- tice of the Association, the meetings of which were proverbial for harmony and good feeling. He therefore felt that to the society Dr. Thompson was lost, but de mortuis nil nisi bonunt. He (Dr. Williams) had resided in Sheffield many years ago, when he had the pleasure of living with the father of the present Dr. Favell, and from his knowledge of that gentleman would, if it met with the pleasure of the meeting, propose that Dr. Favell should be the president of the Association. Dr. JEFFREYS, of Liverpool, begged to second the motion. He was placed in somewhat an anomalous position, for there had hitherto been little difficulty in finding a president to succeed the gentleman who was about to retire. That position had usually been considered a high honour, and therefore, the posi- tion in which he now stood, was one of complete novelty ; and it was the more so, inasmuch as the society was now at the very height of its prosperity. He was himself a perfect stranger to Dr. Favell; but, at the same time, was fully aware that his qua- lifications and conduct were precisely such as had been so well described by Dr. Williams. He hoped, therefore, that the Asso- ciation would have Dr. Favell in the chair next year, and would feel great pleasure in seconding the motion which had been pro- posed by Dr. Williams. The motion was carried unanimously. Dr. RoBERTSON then said -Gentlemen, permit me, before resigning the chair to my successor, to express the pleasure I feel at meeting you on the present occasion, and at seeing the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association assembled to hold its thirteenth anniversary in the important and populous town of Sheffield. The year during which I have had the honour of presiding over the Association has been one of unusual agitation and excitement. Suspense and anxiety have pervaded all classes of the profession, on account of the legislative measures proposed to parliament for the reform and re-construction of our profession. It is not my intention to trouble you with any com- ments on this all-engrossing subject; were I to do so, it would be only the 11 crambe bis m!7/:’es coeta," inflicted upon you, at the risk of much weariness and some disgust. On this point I can- not do better than borrow the eloquent language of a highly- gifted and distinguished member of our Association-I mean Dr. Cowan, of Reading. His words are of such sterling value and importance, that it were well if they could be stereotyped, as a motto to each successive volume of our Transactions; I had almost said, to every weekly number of our Journal. They are as follows: " We should not forget that the true elements of medical reform are rather personal than corporate; that a high standard of individual conduct must be adopted, if, as a body, we would be purified ; and that whatever delays may attend the in- troduction of legislative reform, there is a power entrusted to every one of us of internal reformation; of a sound and healthy training of the moral and intellectual faculties; of diligence in the pursuit of science ; of modesty in the self-estimation of attainments ; of moderation in all desires for mere applause or emolument; of refusal to stoop to what is selfish and degrading; of rightly estimating the holy luxury of doing good-a power far more important than the best regulated charters, the true and only lasting element of our individual or collective prosperity. It has been truly said, that a profession, every member of which had these qualities in abundance, might indeed have quacks for its rivals, but would triumph without a combat." . PRESIDENT’S ADDRESS. Dr. FAVELL then took the chair, and proceeded to thank the Association for the high honour they had conferred upon him by choosing him to occupy the distinguished position in which they had that day placed him. He also accepted the office with plea- sure, inasmuch as it gave him an opportunity of welcoming to the town of Sheffield the learned body whom he had then the honour of addressing. It was true, that they had no magnificent specimens of architectural skill to which he could direct the at- tention of the Association on its visit to Sheffield, nor had they any splendid squares connected with the town ; at the same time, there were some things which could not but afford intense inte- rest to every man of scientific mind. Sheffield is situated in a basin, or rather, on the side of a hill surrounded by hills, which contributed much to the health of its inhabitants. Indeed, Shef- field was pretty well off as regarded comfortable houses and sewerage, for the town was thoroughly drained. These circum- stances, combined with others, had rendered Sheffield a very healthy place of its size, although most of the members of that Association would be aware that a disease was very prevalent amongst the grinders-and since he had pledged himself that whenever the town should be honoured by a visit from that So- ciety he would bring the subject before them, he would proceed to make it the subject of his inaugural discourse. The many fires from furnaces rarefied the air of the town, and this, there was no doubt, caused a greater draught from the high hills which surrounded the town, rendering it, as compared with some others, comparatively free from epidemic diseases, nor was it often the seat of any malignant fevers. These things, too, might be partly attributed to the healthy state in which the dwellings of the lower orders were kept; for in Sheffield they had no cellars to live in, as they had in some places. Dr. Favell then read an excellent and elaborate paper on the grinder’s asthma, the subject referred to. Dr. STREETEN read the- REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Notwithstanding the difference of opinion entertained by gen- tlemen belonging to the Association upon some important points connected with the reconstitution of the profession, now so keenly agitated, your Council have the gratification of stating that no falling off has taken place in the number of members. The total number of members, on the 6th of August last, the day before the anniversary meeting, amounted to one thousand seven hundred and fifty-six. The accession of the Taunton Association on the day of meeting brought the number up to one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four; and the number now on the lists of the Association, notwithstanding the secession of some gentlemen, who, mistaking, in part at least, the objects of the Association, have been led to differ from the principles hitherto acted upon, and a serious loss sustained in the decease of several respected members, amounts to one thousand nine hun- dred and twenty-seven. The customary detailed statement of accounts will be laid before the meeting by the treasurer, for the inspection of the members; but as the attention of the meeting is necessarily otherwise much occupied, your Council would recommend the appointment of two gentlemen as auditors, to whom this state- ment may be referred for examination, in order that it may be regularly verified, and if approved of, subsequently passed by the Chairman of the meeting. The gross receipts and expen- diture during the past year are as follow:- TRANSACTIONS AND JOURNAL. The Council, in compliance with the practice adopted on pre- vious occasions, have now to draw attention to the publications of the Association. The volume of Transactions, which has

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may be obtained, and the system is quicker relieved than by anyinternal remedy that can be administered. If relief be notquickly evident, tracheotomy ought to be performed. But theprognosis in all sueh cases is from’the first unfavourable; forinflammatory action is not confined to the glottis and its appen-dages ; the larynx, trachea, and bronchii, are all involved; for incedema glottidis, it is erroneous to suppose the disease located

only in the oedematous or infiltrated parts. The fatal conditionnow illustrated is but a termination of a peculiar and malignantform of acute laryngitis; and it may be questioned whether,whenever the symptoms have progressed so far as to indicate<edema glottidis, the powers of life have not ebbed too low tohope that any remedies can be successfully employed.

PROVINCIAL MEDICAL AND SURGICALASSOCIATION.

Thirteenth Anniversary Meeting, held at Sheffield, on Wednesday,July 30, and Thursday, July 31.

(From the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal.)

FIRST GENERAL MEETING.THE Council having met at half-past nine, at the Cutler’s Hall,the first general meeting was held at the same place at one

o’clock, when the chair was taken by the President, Dr. Ro-bertson.

Dr. HASTINGS then announced that the president elect, Dr.Corden Thompson, who was nominated at Northampton, in thepreceding year, to succeed to the chair on the retirement of Dr.Robertson, had written to the secretary of the Association, andhad declined to accept the office, on the ground that he differedfrom some members of the Association on the subject of medicalprotection. The meeting would therefore have to choose asuccessor.

Dr. J. C. WILLIAlIfS, of Nottingham, said he did not expect tobe called upon to address the meeting, because he was not tillthat time aware of the non-acceptance of the office of president.Indeed, it did not seem at all in accordance with the usual prac-tice of the Association, the meetings of which were proverbialfor harmony and good feeling. He therefore felt that to thesociety Dr. Thompson was lost, but de mortuis nil nisi bonunt.He (Dr. Williams) had resided in Sheffield many years ago, whenhe had the pleasure of living with the father of the present Dr.Favell, and from his knowledge of that gentleman would, if itmet with the pleasure of the meeting, propose that Dr. Favellshould be the president of the Association.

Dr. JEFFREYS, of Liverpool, begged to second the motion. Hewas placed in somewhat an anomalous position, for there hadhitherto been little difficulty in finding a president to succeedthe gentleman who was about to retire. That position hadusually been considered a high honour, and therefore, the posi-tion in which he now stood, was one of complete novelty ; and itwas the more so, inasmuch as the society was now at the veryheight of its prosperity. He was himself a perfect stranger toDr. Favell; but, at the same time, was fully aware that his qua-lifications and conduct were precisely such as had been so welldescribed by Dr. Williams. He hoped, therefore, that the Asso-ciation would have Dr. Favell in the chair next year, and wouldfeel great pleasure in seconding the motion which had been pro-posed by Dr. Williams.The motion was carried unanimously.Dr. RoBERTSON then said -Gentlemen, permit me, before

resigning the chair to my successor, to express the pleasure Ifeel at meeting you on the present occasion, and at seeing theProvincial Medical and Surgical Association assembled to holdits thirteenth anniversary in the important and populous townof Sheffield. The year during which I have had the honour ofpresiding over the Association has been one of unusual agitationand excitement. Suspense and anxiety have pervaded allclasses of the profession, on account of the legislative measuresproposed to parliament for the reform and re-construction of ourprofession. It is not my intention to trouble you with any com-ments on this all-engrossing subject; were I to do so, it wouldbe only the 11 crambe bis m!7/:’es coeta," inflicted upon you, at therisk of much weariness and some disgust. On this point I can-not do better than borrow the eloquent language of a highly-gifted and distinguished member of our Association-I meanDr. Cowan, of Reading. His words are of such sterling valueand importance, that it were well if they could be stereotyped, asa motto to each successive volume of our Transactions; I hadalmost said, to every weekly number of our Journal. They areas follows: " We should not forget that the true elements ofmedical reform are rather personal than corporate; that a highstandard of individual conduct must be adopted, if, as a body, we

would be purified ; and that whatever delays may attend the in-troduction of legislative reform, there is a power entrusted to

every one of us of internal reformation; of a sound and healthytraining of the moral and intellectual faculties; of diligence inthe pursuit of science ; of modesty in the self-estimation ofattainments ; of moderation in all desires for mere applause oremolument; of refusal to stoop to what is selfish and degrading;of rightly estimating the holy luxury of doing good-a powerfar more important than the best regulated charters, the true andonly lasting element of our individual or collective prosperity.It has been truly said, that a profession, every member of whichhad these qualities in abundance, might indeed have quacks forits rivals, but would triumph without a combat."

.

PRESIDENT’S ADDRESS.Dr. FAVELL then took the chair, and proceeded to thank the

Association for the high honour they had conferred upon him bychoosing him to occupy the distinguished position in which theyhad that day placed him. He also accepted the office with plea-sure, inasmuch as it gave him an opportunity of welcoming tothe town of Sheffield the learned body whom he had then thehonour of addressing. It was true, that they had no magnificentspecimens of architectural skill to which he could direct the at-tention of the Association on its visit to Sheffield, nor had theyany splendid squares connected with the town ; at the same time,there were some things which could not but afford intense inte-rest to every man of scientific mind. Sheffield is situated in abasin, or rather, on the side of a hill surrounded by hills, whichcontributed much to the health of its inhabitants. Indeed, Shef-field was pretty well off as regarded comfortable houses andsewerage, for the town was thoroughly drained. These circum-stances, combined with others, had rendered Sheffield a veryhealthy place of its size, although most of the members of thatAssociation would be aware that a disease was very prevalentamongst the grinders-and since he had pledged himself thatwhenever the town should be honoured by a visit from that So-ciety he would bring the subject before them, he would proceedto make it the subject of his inaugural discourse. The manyfires from furnaces rarefied the air of the town, and this, therewas no doubt, caused a greater draught from the high hills whichsurrounded the town, rendering it, as compared with some others,comparatively free from epidemic diseases, nor was it often theseat of any malignant fevers. These things, too, might be partlyattributed to the healthy state in which the dwellings of the lowerorders were kept; for in Sheffield they had no cellars to live in,as they had in some places.

Dr. Favell then read an excellent and elaborate paper on thegrinder’s asthma, the subject referred to.

Dr. STREETEN read the-

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL.

Notwithstanding the difference of opinion entertained by gen-tlemen belonging to the Association upon some important pointsconnected with the reconstitution of the profession, now sokeenly agitated, your Council have the gratification of statingthat no falling off has taken place in the number of members.The total number of members, on the 6th of August last, the daybefore the anniversary meeting, amounted to one thousandseven hundred and fifty-six. The accession of the TauntonAssociation on the day of meeting brought the number up to onethousand seven hundred and eighty-four; and the number nowon the lists of the Association, notwithstanding the secession ofsome gentlemen, who, mistaking, in part at least, the objects ofthe Association, have been led to differ from the principleshitherto acted upon, and a serious loss sustained in the decease ofseveral respected members, amounts to one thousand nine hun-dred and twenty-seven.The customary detailed statement of accounts will be laid

before the meeting by the treasurer, for the inspection of themembers; but as the attention of the meeting is necessarilyotherwise much occupied, your Council would recommend theappointment of two gentlemen as auditors, to whom this state-ment may be referred for examination, in order that it may be

regularly verified, and if approved of, subsequently passed bythe Chairman of the meeting. The gross receipts and expen-diture during the past year are as follow:-

TRANSACTIONS AND JOURNAL.

The Council, in compliance with the practice adopted on pre-vious occasions, have now to draw attention to the publicationsof the Association. The volume of Transactions, which has

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recently been issued, has been so arranged as to form either the- commencement of a new series, or the continuation of thevolumes formerly published, so as to meet the convenience ofmembers generally; and the Council trust that the improvedform and manner in which the series now commenced appears,will meet with the approbation of the Association. The Journalof the Association has been regularly issued in weekly numberssince the last anniversary; but as a committee was appointed lastyear to furnish a special report on this subject, the Councilconsider that any observations from them are uncalled for, andwould be premature, until the production of the report of thatCommittee.

BRANCH ASSOCIATIONS.

The accession of a new and important branch to the Associa-tion, formed by the members of the Taunton and East SomersetMedical Association, was announced at the last anniversary.Since then, the members resident in the counties of Kent andSurrey, and the eastern parts of Sussex, have formed themselvesinto a branch, under the name of the South-eastern branch.

BENEVOLENT FUND.

The claims upon the Benevolent Fund, during the past yearhave been unusually numerous and pressing; and the centralcommittee of the Benevolent Fund, on whom the duty of inves-tigating these claims devolves, have distributed not less than.6220, in small donations, to twenty-six distressed members ofthe profession, or their destitute families. The available fund is

consequently at present completely exhausted.MEDICAL REFORM.

Having touched upon those subjects which more immediatelyrefer to the internal management of the Association, the Councilhave now to report the progress which has been made on thesubject which has so generally engrossed the attention of the pro-fession since the last anniversary-medical reform; and moreespecially the proceedings of the Association connected there-with. (Here follow details well known to our readers.)A special report of the Council, having reference to a claim

made by Dr. Hennis Green, at the last anniversary, for compen-sation on account of losses sustained by him on the ProvincialMedical Journal, and since referred to arbitration, was then read.The report gave a detailed account of the circumstances, and ofthe final result of the arbitration, from which it appeared that theaward was in favour of Dr. Green, and that the amount of com-pensation adjudged was S516 1 its. 4d. The report concluded, inconformity with the terms of arbitration, by recommending the ’,decision of the arbitrators to the adoption of the meeting.

This report was adopted.Mr. MARTIN, of Reigate, called attention briefly to the subject

of establishing a school for the education of the sons of profes-sional men, and to the fact of the proposition having been atfirst deemed practicable; but that afterwards, when it was foundto require a considerable amount of capital, the plan had not beenresponded to as its promoters at first expected it would be.Dr. ToOGOOD, of Bridgewater, then moved-" That a com-

mittee be appointed to advise with the Council in any proceed-ings which may become necessary in reference to the progress of

the measures for medical reform, and that the committee consistof-Dr. J. C. Williams, Nottingham; Dr. Lyon, Manchester;Mr. Garlick, Leeds; Dr. Chadwick, Leeds; Mr. Ness, Helmsley;Mr. Crang, Timsbury; Mr. Martin, Reigate; Dr. Mackness,Hastings; Mr. Thomas, Sheffield ; Mr. Ceely, Aylesbury; Dr.Jeffreys, Liverpool; Mr. Gwynne, Wem ; Mr. Bottomley, Croy-don ; Mr. Cartwright, Oswestry; Mr. Nunneley, Leeds; withpower to add to their number."

Mr. JACKSON, of Sheffield, seconded the motion, which wasunanimously agreed to.The thanks of this meeting were then given to Dr. Robertson,

the retiring president, and he was appointed a vice-president ofthe Association.

Dr. FoRBES, of London, moved-" That the sum of .E100 bepaid over to the treasurer of the Benevolent Fund of the kssocia-tion, to be appropriated to the purposes of that fund."

Dr. HASTINGS suggested the propriety of Dr. Forbes with-’drawing his motion for the present year. He found, on lookinginto the state of the funds, that it was necessary to be very cau-tious in the expenditure, and that without great care the Associ-ation might be minus in the next year, and a balance due to thetreasurer. He thought, therefore, that such a motion should beproposed at a time when the funds were in a more prosperouscondition.

Dr. FopBEs said, that if he could get any assurance that thereshould be a strict investigation into the subject, he felt that some-thing would ultimately be done for benevolence as well as for- science; and, in withdrawing his motion, he begged to say, that

if he had the pleasure and advantage of attending that meetinganother year, he should think it his duty to bring forward amotion of a similar nature to that which he had just withdrawn.The business of the morning being finished. Mr. SOUTHAM, of

Salford, then read a case on Ovaribtomy, and the meeting ad-journed until the evening.

WEDNESDAY EVENING.-SECOND GENERAL MEETING.The members assembled at about eight o’clock, and the presi-

dent having taken the chair, the report of the central committeeof the Benevolent Fund was read.

ANNUITY FUND.

Mr. DANIELL then read a paper containing a proposition forthe establishment of an Annuity Fund, from which we extractthe following paragraphs:-

.. The proposition I am about to submit to the members of thisAssociation, appears to my mind of so much importance, that Ido not apologize for the liberty I take in proposing it.

" The plan I have to propose to obviate the miseries of want incase of infirmity, or in case of death, has already been madeknown to you.in the pages of the Provincial Medical and SurgicalJournal, but I deem it necessary, in a very succinct way, to laythe plan again before you. I ask, then, simply for an annualsubscription of one guinea, which I wish to accumulate for fiveyears, that a capital may be insured.

. " If one thousand gentlemen will instantly enrol themselvesmembers of this Provident anq. Self-supporting Fund,’ we shallfind. at the end of five vears. our accumulations. includine inte-rest, will amount to -about j66,000. Now, with the interest onthis capital, and the yearly subscriptions, we have an availableincome of .61,200 a year. The claims upon this income it mightbe difficult to calculate; but I will put them at a maximum-saythree per cent. ; and admitting that .625 per annum were allowedto each disabled member, L750 would be consumed ; and

averaging at the same rate widows and orphans, and allowingthem- &pound; 15 per annum, X450 would be required. This would ofcourse consume the ael,200; but I am confident I am overratingour liabilities, particularly as it regards disabled and superannu-ated members. Money must be found for incidental expenses,for the payment of a secretary to the institution, and for othermatters ; and I feel no hesitation in saying there would be amplefunds for such purposes, because it is clear that applicants wouldnot be numerous at the first, and cases might present themselveswhere it would only be necessary to make up an income; that is,add a little to what the parties already possessed. On this sub-ject, perhaps, difficulties might arise, and questions of right mightinterfere with the decisions of a committee; I throw out the hint,but I do not insist upon its adoption. At any rate, you will agreewith me, that thirty disabled members in a thousand is a largeproportion; my belief is, that the heaviest claims will be those ofwidows and orphans. I have proposed a low annual subscription,merely to show what strength there is in union; but if you willconsent to double this sum, and pay two guineas yearly, you maythen allow double the amount of annuity; furnishing to the reci-pients not only bread, but comforts. This, then, as far as figuresare concerned, is my proposition. Simple it may be, possessingno merit as an original plan, except in its application to this As-sociation. Your own good sense and judgment will see how easilythe matter might be arranged; and its freedom from complicationis, in my opinion, its best recommendation.

" By way of amplification, I must be permitted to express a fewthoughts. You will recollect that this is a self-supporting fund,as much as any provident society can be so called; the incomederived from it is perfectly free from the imputation of a charit-able gift; strictly so called, its recipients are not to be considereddependent on charity, and this fact draws a line of demarcationbetween this fund and the one already established, called the, Benevolent Fund.’ Parties subscribing to the Provident Fundhave a claim to their money-a just and equitable claim, and theproudest amongst us need not be ashamed to receive it, pro-viding their poverty and unfitness to labour render them properobjects.

" Gentlemen, I need not dwell upon the precariousness of sucha profession as ours,-I need not urge the dangers by which themedical practitioner is surrounded, -that he is compelled to walk,in the exercise of his duties, amidst the ptstilence which ragethat noon-day ;’ that the nature of his avocations perpetually sub-jects him to privations and difficulties, and that his mental andbodily exertions are of a character which require stamina of ironcombined with an energy of mind but rarely the lot of mortals.I say, gentlemen, I need not dwell on these subjects, because Iam addressing those who daily feel and experience the bittertruthfulness of our harassing position. Yet there are some

points upon which it might be worth while to dilate a little." How very common is it for the great mass of mankind to

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comment upon the gains of the medical practitioner,-how readythey are, with gibes and witticisms, to make the matter of ourremuneration a subject for satire, and often of reproach ; and yet,if you take the aggregate of our body, and compare their gainswith their labour, and place beside them the physical wear andtear of an equal number of shopkeepers, you will find the lattergrow wealthy, with comparatively little trouble, while the formerremain poor, in spite of all their exertions. And why is this ?Because the one deals in articles of daily consumption, and if hisprofits be small, they are regular ; while the other is only neededin emergency, which, when once over, his profits are thought toolarge to be paid ! The butcher, the baker, the grocer, and thetailor, have their claims, or they withhold their supplies; but- should the medical practitioner withhold his for the same reason,society is in arms, and every pauper feels himself at liberty tocomment on the inhumanity of his conduct. Do you wonder,under such circumstances, that poverty is rife amongst us ? Butlet us take another view.

" If, by a combination of circumstances, a medical gentleman.obtains extensive practice,-if he proves to the neighbourhood inwhich he resides, that he is worthy of confidence, and is thusextensively sought after,-is the lot of such a man to be envied?His mind is in a perpetual fever of excitement; cases demanding.his utmost energy are hourly presenting themselves; disease anddeath are his ordinary companions : he meets with them in the.chambers of the great, under canopies of costly state,’ or on thepauper’s pallet, amidst filthiness and destitution. Mortal agony,in its multifarious phases, besets him at every turn, and if a sparkof human sympathy is in his bosom, it perpetually rises to disturbhis tranquillity. Add to this, he is fixed like a polypus to therock of his locality, and can never move from his position withthe freedom and the ease of other men. But if his practice belarge, his expenditure is equally so ; he must have his horses, his- earriages, his servants, his whole establishment, proportionate tohis relative importance. What, then, is the result ? Why, thatin nine-tenths of such cases he dies poor! Bear in mind the

perpetual claims upon his benevolence, the demands of societyfor his gratuitous labours, the calls upon his hospitality, the

necessity for maintaining his rank, and a multitude of et ceteras,which deprives him of his wealth as fast as he earns it. So trueit is, that great buildings have corresponding shadows!

" All men are not qualified by nature to undergo the fatigues,the weariness, and the watching, attendant upon the duties of ourcalling; hence it is, that persons endowed with high mentalaccomplishments have found their bodily strength wasted byexcess of action ; and long before they could realize a provisionfor their families, the wind has murmured its hollow dirge-songover their graves, and the cold sod been moistened by the widow’sand the orphan’s tears. If there be one picture of sorrow more thananother capable of touching the heart of man, and awakening thedeep sympathies of our nature, it will surely be found in thebereaved family of a member of our profession, who has died in.circumstances of poverty and destitution.

It I know it may be said that our country is inundated withassurance companies, where men may secure provision for theirfamilies, by a yearly outlay upon their lives. But will this meetthe difficulty? Will this furnish the object I design? Assuredlynot. I know the condition of many a provincial surgeon, whohas no other dependence but his practice. I know how hard hestruggles to keep up appearances; with what difficulty he meetshis yearly payments, his rent, his bills for housekeeping, hisexpenses for the education of his children, his assessed taxes, and,, God save the mark,’ his tax on income : I know the amount ofhis parochial remuneration, which, in nine-tenths of the Unionsof this kingdom, is not sufficient to pay his drug bill for themedicine administered to the paupers. It may be said by per-sons in authority, that I exaggerate in this statement, but I will,if called upon. prove it beyond controversy. I know how he is

paid too by his private patients in nine cases out of ten-not by.golden pictures of her Majesty, but in kind; in hay and corn foritis horse, in griskins and legs of pork for his household, in cheeseand batter, in eggs and bacon ! It is true, these things may be.necessary for his consumption, and that tradesmen expect advan-tage to be mutual; but there is, nevertheless, a vast differencebetween going to market with ready money, purchasing what,may be wanted, and paying for it, compared with the system ofmutual benefit. That which is sent to work out a bill is not

always of the best quality; it is invariably dearer, and sent inlarger quantities than may be necessary, so as to induce waste.If the practitioner were paid in money, he would be very carefulhow he laid it out; and knowing his probable wants, he wouldperhaps be prudent in laying it by. At all events, he cannot,with all claimants, pursue this course. He cannot, like tithes,pay his taxes in kind ! With facts like these before us,-and Iappeal to any country practitioner if I have said one word which

is not borne out by facts,-how is such an one to pay 201. or 301.a-year to insure his life? And will he, if infirmity overtakeshim, reap any advantage from this insurance ?

" The proposition which I have had the honour of makingbefore this assembly, simple as it is, is nevertheless capable, ifpromptly and vigorously acted upon, of obviating many of thosepictures of misery which I have ventured to portray.

" An objection might be raised: aged men anticipating theirspeedy unfitness for the exercise of their professional duties,might enter as members of this self-supporting institution,’ andbecome immediate recipients of its bounty, or their familieschargeable. And suppose they did. Will the wealthy amongstus desire to withhold their guineas, when they find them so noblyappropriated ? I know not what may be my own lot. I presumenot to anticipate the morrow : it may be bright and shining-itmay be gloomy and overcast: but if I know my own heart, Ishall cast my guinea into the treasury of this institution, and prayGod that neither I nor mine be partakers of its benefits."Two able retrospective addresses were then delivered :

the one on surgery, by Mr. T. P. TEALE, of Leeds, the other onmedicine, by Dr. COWAN, of Reading.

THIRD GENERAL MEETING.Dr. CHADWICK, of Leeds, stated, that in consequence of the

decision which the Association had come to in their meeting ofyesterday, in reference to the result of the arbitration on theclaims of Dr. Hennis Green, it became necessary to determine inwhat manner the sum required for the discharge of the obligationthey had taken upon themselves should be raised. The questionhad come under the deliberation of the Council at their meetingthis morning, and he now begged to move-

" That as the funds of this Association are not in a state to bearthe charge of so large a sum, and as the honour of the Asso-ciation is pledged to the payment of it, the amount be raised bythe members, by a voluntary subscription of from five shillingsand upwards."Mr. NEWNHAM, of Farnham, seconded the motion, which was

carried unanimously.Mr. GARLICK, of Leeds, thought that the Association was

bound to meet the demand, and recommended that any surplusamount should be transferred to the Benevolent Fund. He thoughtthat they should endeavour to raise more than 5001., for if not,gentlemen would be making their calculations, and no more thanthat sum would be collected. He begged to move-

" That if the amount of the subscription intended to defray theclaim of Dr. Hennis Green exceed the required sum, the surplusbe applied to the increase of the permanent Benevolent Fund."The motion was seconded by Dr. RADFORD, of Manchester.Dr. GREEN objected to mixing up his claim with the Bene-

volent Fund.The President said, that if a larger sum were collected than

would be wanted, the distinct resolution which had been just pro-posed explained its application, and therefore the subject wouldnot, as had been suggested, be at all mixed up with the BenefitFund.

REPORT OF THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE.

Mr. MARTIV, of Reigate, read the following report from thecommittee appointed to consider the subject of establishingschools for the sons of medical men :-The committee appointed at the meeting at Northampton last

year, for the purpose of’devising a plan for the establishment of aschool, or schools, for the sons of medical men, having, as theresult of their deliberations, issued a printed prospectus, whichhas been reprinted in the JP.ron:KCM/ Meca5/ and Surgical Jour-nal, inviting subscriptions to the proposed plan, assembled at theTontine Hotel, Sheffield, on Wednesday, the 30th July, whenthere were present-Mr. Hodgson (in the chair,) Dr. Hodgkin,Dr. Edwards, Mr. Nunneley, Mr. Daniell, and Mr. Martin,secretary, who beg to report to this meeting as follows

" That, so far as the attention of the medical public has beendirected to the subject, and opinions expressed on the plan pro-posed, the latter have for the most part been decidedly favourable." On one point only has any objection of importance been

offered, and that is, as to the required uniformity of religious instruction in the first proposed school: but the committee are ofopinion that a diversity on this most important subject would bequite incompatible with the harmonious operation of any scholas-tic establishment of the kind contemplated.

" They feel assured, also, and have no doubt of the concurrenceof this meeting, that whatever legislative measures may beadopted with respect to the medical profession, an improvedclassical and general education will be absolutely required ofthose youths who are desirous of entering the profession.

" The committee are further of opinion, that the plan, of whicha mere outline only has been offered, is perfectly practicable-is

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worthy of the support of the profession; and having that support,with united action only, might assuredly be fully realized.

" But, notwithstanding its apparent desirableness, and thefavour with which the suggestion was first received, subscriptionsto the amount of 16101. only have been promised.

" They therefore request a more efficient patronage of theplan, now, that for a time, at least, there will be less occasion fordiscussion on the public affairs of the profession. Time will thusbe afforded for cool and deliberate thought, on the subject of thepreliminary education of the sons of medical men, whether theyare destined for the profession of their fathers, or for any otherprofession.

" The committee, for the present, rest in the confident hope fora more efficient support of their plan, that they may be enabled,by a proper amount of subscriptions, to invite a meeting of thesubscribers, for the purpose of further proceedings.

" JosEPH HODGSON, Chairman.thomas MARTIN, Secretary."

REPORT OF THE REFORM ACOMI%IITTEE. -

Dr. WILLIAMS, of Nottingham, read the following report of thecommittee appointed at the previous meeting, to take into consi-deration the present aspect of the subject of medical reform, ob-serving that the committee had drawn it up, after a full consider*

I

ation of the question, and after duly weighing the speech whichSir James Graham had recently made.

" In accordance with the instructions of the Association, thecommittee have taken into serious consideration the question of imedical reform." They think it right that the Association acknowledge to Sir

James Graham their obligation for the great attention and timehe has given to the subject, and the opportunity he has afforded ithe profession for the deliberate discussion of his proposed medi-cal bills. ’

" The committee not being in possession of the Right Hon.Baronet’s last Bill, as it is not yet printed, they cannot possibly enterinto any detail, but they unhesitatingly urge upon the Associationthe propriety of again representing to Sir James Graham thenecessity of embodying in his legislative measures those prin-ciples to which the members have before pledged themselves,and to which they have taken the liberty of calling his attention.They think it necessary, also, to entreat he will make it im-

perative upon all who may hereafter be admitted to practise inany of the recognised branches of the profession, that they shall,in their common entrance through one portal, undergo such anexamination as shall exhibit a competent knowledge in all thedepartments of medical science.

" Further. that this examination shall be uniform in every part ofthe United Kingdom, and shall be a legal qualification for practice." The committee think that any measure which shall not

recognise this uniformity of examination will be unsatisfactoryto the profession, and detrimental to the best interests of thepublic.

" On behalf of the committee,(Signed) "J. F. WILLIAbiS, Chairman.

" Sheffield, July 31st, 1845."

It was moved by Mr. HEY, of Leeds, and seconded by Mr.EDWARDS, of Wolverhampton, and carried unanimously-

" That the Report of the Reform Committee, now read, be re-ceived and adopted."

It was then moved by Mr. CRANG, of Timsbury, and secondedby Mr. NESS, of Helmsley- .

" That the thanks of this meeting are due, and are herebygiven, to those gentlemen who have read papers and presentedcommunications at this meeting."Moved by Dr. CoopER, of Hull, seconded by Dr. BLACK, of

Manchester-" That the thanks of this meeting be given to Dr. Favell,

for the able manner in which he has conducted the business atthis anniversary."The meeting terminated at half-past five o’clock.On the same day, the members and their friends sat down to

an excellent dinner at the Cutlers’ Hall. The evening waspassed in the utmost harmony and good feeling, and the proceed-ings seemed to afford the most unmixed satisfaction to all partiespresent.

DEFENCE OF CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS.THE recent articles in The Tinies elicited the following letterfrom A CHYMIST," which was published in that journal onTuesday, the 5th inst. :-

To the Editor of THE TIMES.Sir,-Your article of this day upon medical legislation con-

veys opirions so perfectly opposed to facts, that I am tempted to

protest against their application, though against an authority whogenerally and deservedly commands so much respect.Your remarks carry a sweeping censure upon chymists-a

censure unjust and undeserved-a censure that I am sure youwould not have cast upon so large, important, and useful a bodyof men, had you not been grossly deceived by ex parte repre-sentations. In every profession, business, or calling, that there.are bad men, ignorant, wanting in common honesty and

humanity, I doubt not ; but I affirm that no body of men carryout the moral obligation that their position in society involves.with more integrity than the chymists, who are now makinggreat efforts, and with signal success, to raise the standard oftheir own qualifications as pharmaceutists and chymists, in thefull application of the word. We do not offer ourselves in com-petition with the medical profession, but we do strive to maintain.our just claims in medical legislation.

I I could answer many of the remarks you make reflecting uponour ability, usefulness, and integrity ; I could contrast with our-own the apothecaries’ shops, the general quality of their drugs,and knowledge of them, their attainments in chymistry, whichalone can enable them to examine the many simple and com-pound agents that pass through their hands, and the amount.of salary given to the assistant who dispenses them ; but re-

crimination is not my object. All I ask is, that you will allowthis brief protest against your conclusions to have the same

publicity as the censure they convey.I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

A CHYMIST

THE CLUB SYSTEM EXAMINED." Pray you peruse this letter,

Write from it, if you can, in hand or phrase."TWELFTH NIGHT.

To the Editor of THE LANCET.Sin,-The purport of the letter now submitted to the readers ofyour widely -circulated publication, is a subject upon which pre-vious comments have been made in your columns, and is one that.still demands the serious consideration of all those who reallyentertain honest and disinterested feelings regarding the status,respectability, and general welfare of the profession, seeing-as.every unprejudiced person must see-that the inquiry relates, notmerely to a particular district, nor pertains to the few, but, onthe contrary, involves the length and breadth of the country;and, now, well-nigh every general practitioner is either imme-diately or indirectly affected by the evil complained of-an evilthat has hitherto (and bids fair for continuance) been attendedwith the most injurious results. This, Sir, is the unprofessionaland derogatory system of Farming Ciubs"-a system most pre-judicial to the interests of the surgeon, degrading to the membersof a learned body, who, from the very nature of their calling,assume some share of gentility, and admirably calculated to placeboth the professors and the profession of the healing art stilllower than poor-law unions, empiricism, and the like, wouldmake it. Verily, there is a need of reform! And most desir-able will it prove if legislative or other enactments can have thehappy effect of putting a stop to the injury in question, and withit a long train of incidental evils.

In this locality (which is entirely an agricultural district) there.are, within a circuit of a few miles, no less than a round dozen,of these clubs and societies, consisting of Druids, Shepherds, Od<lFellows, Poor Man’s Friendly Societies, and the like. Manybelonging to their ranks-if it might not be said the majority-are day-labourers and farm-servants, in whom it is highly com-mendable for having joined institutions which, in time of need,afford benefits of the most considerable importance to theworking-man, and more especially if he has a family to providefor out of his scanty earnings, as then, even in the most pros-perous times, and under the most felicitous circumstances, whenthe numerous wants of those dependent upon him are supplied,little, if anything, remains as a surplus beyond his expenditure-nay, with sucli the greatest economy and management are requi-site, in order that the outlay should not exceed the income. Ifmisfortune or sickness should happen, the weekly supplies beingcut off, an application to the parochial authorities becomes un-avoidable. The institutions in question, however, when the poorman is disabled by accident, or laid on the bed of sickness, bytheir liberal allowance, render such application for subsistence-unnecessary, and thus not only are the purses of the ratepayers.spared, but the labourer also preserves that feeling of independ-ence and honest pride arising from self-support, freeing him fromthe calamitous sufferings of abject poverty, being unsubjectedto the bounties of charity, and, it may be, the neglect of his moreopulent neighbours.

It is stated that these institutions have for their majority as