Text of PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS. What’s Your Discipline? Careful with those Deadlines! ...
Whats Your Discipline? Careful with those Deadlines! Consider Smaller, Grad- specific Conferences When in Doubt, Ask Your Advisor! Funding? CHOOSING A CONFERENCE
What to do: Read instructions carefully Have a reasonably complete project Have a good outline Introduction, objectives Methods Results Conclusion/implications Catchy title Tell a story, be specific What not to do: Go over word count Propose something you havent done yet Write in generalities SUBMITTING A GOOD ABSTRACT
Know Your Audience! To Script or Not to Script Follow the Formula Data and Findings Matter, not Lit Review Practice! One Sure Way to Annoy Your Chair? PREPARING THE ORAL PRESENTATION
What? A detailed abstract An opportunity to discuss your work in detail An outline for a manuscript Why? Sometimes you dont have a choice Can engage people in conversations Help generates other ideas Main message quickly and widely Average time at a poster is 90 seconds! WHAT IS A POSTER AND WHY DO IT?
What makes a good poster? Focused Graphic Ordered Readable Make sure you Read instructions (particularly size) Know your main message Think about your oral presentation Use an appropriate template Avoid too much text http://www.ohio.edu/mediapro duction/templates/ http://www.ohio.edu/mediapro duction/templates/ WHAT MAKES A GOOD POSTER?
Kenyan Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Perspectives of Discipline and Misbehavior Gillian H. Ice, Ph.D. 1 ; Sharon V. King, Ph.D. 2 ; Eunice Owino 3 ; Sister Paul Anastasia 3 1Department of Social Medicine, Ohio University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH; 2 Georgia State University Gerontology Institute, Atlanta, GA; 3 St. Elizabeth Joot Social Services, Ahero Help the Aged, Ahero, Kenya ABSTRACT In Kenya, AIDS has orphaned approximately two million childrenmany now in the care of family elders. Intergenerational relation- shipsspecifically child misbehavior and disciplineis one under-researched topic among this growing population of older African caregivers. This pilot study applies a phenomenological perspective to describe the meanings of misbehavior and discipline strategies among a sample of 46 Kenyan grandparents raising grandchildren in the rural western province of Nyanza, Kenya. The grandparents reported misbehavior in three categories: breach of domestic norms [disobedience, use of vulgar language, refusal to ask permission, ignoring domestic responsibilities]; breach of social norms [substance abuse, theft, prostitution, destruction of property], and attitudinal inappropriateness [rudeness, selfishness, quarrelsomeness, disrespect for elders]. Misbehavior was attributed to peer influence, frustration about unemployment and impoverished conditions, negative parental role models, hunger, mental disability, and feelings of being unloved. Grandparents varied in their strategies to discipline their grandchildren. Some believed they were too old and physically weak to discipline and ignored misbehavior, sought Gods intervention to manage children, or turned grandchildren over to law enforcement authorities. Others believed caning or other forms of corporal punishment was the most effective strategy, but some preferred to employ education and verbal discipline. Prevailing themes were the need for community support and government intervention to help grandparents manage misbehaving grandchildren. This theme reflects the grandparents combined traditional and contemporary perspectives of their unanticipated parenting role. The findings imply that service interventions for these families should include parenting support, community education, and advocacy for national caregiving policies. METHODS Data were collected from a subset of the Kenyan Grandparents Study (KGS). KGS is a longitudinal study designed to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health and wellbeing of grandparents caring for orphaned children. The overall sample included 292 grandparents. Half were caregivers of orphans, half were non caregivers (see map). The sample characteristics of caregivers included in this project are presented in Table 1. Caregiving status was defined as having at least one child under or equal to the age of 18 who had lost at least one parent. Qualitative data were collected by interview in Dholuo by native speakers and then translated into English. Participants were asked a series of questions about the misbehavior of their grandchildren and strategies for dealing with the misbehavior. Content analysis was conducted to identify emergent themes. CONCLUSIONS Prevailing themes were the need for community support and government intervention to help grandparents manage misbehaving grandchildren. This theme reflects the grandparents combined traditional and contemporary perspectives of their unanticipated parenting role. Orphans face many psychosocial problems and stressors that may lead to inappropriate behavior, yet grandparents lack the tools for meeting the emotional needs of orphans. Because corporal punishment is common in Kenya, grandparents may feel that they are too old or weak to effectively discipline their grandchildren. Other research from KGS indicates that inappropriate behavior of grandchildren is a considerable source of stress for grandparents. RECOMMENDATIONS These findings imply that service interventions for these families should include parenting support, community education, and advocacy for national caregiving policies. Alternative approaches to disciplining children can be taught to grandparents using local womens and mens groups as venues. These group members can then train others in discipline techniques. Strategies to meet the psychosocial and mental health needs of orphans may act to reduce discipline problems and therefore reduce the burden on grandparents. Orphaned children living outside the extended family are at a greater risk for an HIV infection and are more vulnerable to social, economic, and psychological effects. This demonstrates the importance of helping grandparents to continue their role of caregiving. THREE CATEGORIES OF MISBEHAVIOR: BREACH OF SOCIAL NORMS Misbehavior that represented a breach of social norms included: Substance abuse Theft Prostitution Destruction of property They steal, especially chickens from near-by farms. Grandmother, Age 63 They steal, drink alcohol, and smoke bhang (hemp). Grandmother, Age 65 They loiter, are violent, and engage in prostitution. Grandmother, Age 60 GRANDPARENTS ATTRIBUTED MISBEHAVIOR TO: Peer influence Frustration about unemployment, lack of schooling, and impoverished conditions Negative parental role models Hunger, mental disability Feelings of being unloved Absence of parents They [go to] discos and cinemas with others where they learn bad behavior. Grandfather, Age 66 They [their parents] disciplined them but not much. It is... the way they are raised. Grandfather, Age 68 They have, a foolish thought that they are not loved. Grandmother, Age 73 They misbehave because they are parentless and lack contact with parents Grandfather, Age 59 They need education and parental love since they are orphans. They require basic needsfood, shelter, and clothes. Grandfather, Age 66 THREE CATEGORIES OF MISBEHAVIOR: ATTITUDINAL INAPPROPRIATENESS Grandparents reported behavior which exhibited attitudinal inappropriateness such as: Rudeness Selfishness Quarrelsomeness Disrespect for elders They eat everything and do not consider the other children who are upset about it. Grandmother, Age 66 They do not respect older people... and beat grandparents. Grandfather, Age 76 He does not listen to my advice, fulfill his assignments, or respect his elders. Grandmother, Age 73 They are rude, undisciplined, and always quarrel with each other. Grandmother, Age 60 STRATEGIES TO MANAGE MISBEHAVIOR Grandparents varied in their strategies to discipline their grandchildren. Ignore misbehavior Use verbal discipline Use corporal punishment Withhold food Seek help from relatives Seek help from community leaders Seek spiritual intervention Contact law enforcement authorities Insist that the government intervene The local chief, uncles, and cousins help me discipline them. Grandmother, Age 66 I try to talk to them politely, teaching them on what to do and not to do. Grandfather, Age 71 I am old now, and I cannot counsel them properly. I am doing little to support them due to my age Grandmother, Age 63 I pray or let the authorities arrest the child. Grandmother, Age 66 I insist on discipline, deny them food, and give a thorough caning. Grandfather, Age 60 The government needs to discipline them or put them in institutions. Grandmother, Age 76 THREE CATEGORIES OF MISBEHAVIOR: BREACH OF DOMESTIC NORMS Grandparents reported some misbehavior as a breach of domestic norms: Disobedience Use of vulgar language Refusal to ask permission Ignoring domestic responsibilities They take things without my permission. Grandmother, Age 63 They do not graze the cattle well and leave them to destroy other peoples crops. Grandmother, Age 73 Table 1: Select Sample Characteristics VariableCaregi ver N=36 Non- Caregi ver N=10 Total N=46 Age69.9 (8.3) 67.6 (6.1) 69.4 (7.9) Female (%)41.760.045.7 Married (%)63.930.056.5 Widowed (%)36.170.043.5 Polygynous19.40.030.7 # Children in homestead 1.8 (1.4) 0.9 (1.0) 1.6 (1.3) # Orphans1.9 (1.1) Acknowledgements: This project was funded by the OU Baker Fund, OU-COM Research Award and the National Science Foundation under Grant No.0515890. Thanks to our Kenyan Field Team. A special thanks to the communities in Nyando & Kisumu Districts for their hosp