Professional EditingTypes of Professional EditingHierarchy of Editorial Concerns
Developmental EditingAcquisitions editors
Outside Editor (acquisitions editors)Self-EditorConsult with author, determine purpose, audience, big picture, genre; guides project from very early stage (the idea stage) up to draftDevelopmental editing at the planning stage, weighing options, altering the plan.
May consult with others to bounce ideas
Substantive EditingSMEs, external reviewers, referees, publication editors
Outside Editor Self-EditorContent checked for accuracy, consistency, and completeness.Fact checked, source credibility checkedOrganizationContent (add, remove, redesign, etc.)Done during drafting AND after draft is assembled. Content Facts/sourcesOrganizationContent
Outside Editor Self-EditorSentence level errors: grammatical, syntactical, stylistic, spelling(?), typos (?)
Manuscript preparation, adherence to style guide (MLA, APA, etc.)Some copyediting during draftingWord spelling/grammar checkSeveral read-throughs, Print and read-throughRead aloud/recordGive to a friend
High-Level Concerns (HLCs)purpose, audienceAchievement of purpose (and sub-purposes)Inclusion of (only) necessary informationClarity of purposePlacement of purpose
High-Level Concerns (HLCs)purpose, audienceAppeal to audience Audience appeals for achieving purpose (motivate to act)Ethically (ethos): purposeful, credible, ethical, professionalEmotionally (pathos): connect to audiences values, interests, needs (even when it isnt obvious to the audience)Logically (logos): make good sense! Logical to audience, provide context, explanations, supportMaintain goodwill (not alienated, angry, or ignored), use of you-attitude, reader benefits, and positivity
Mid-Level Concerns (MLCs)organization, chunking of information, overall usability Organization that best achieves purpose and appeals to audienceOrganization typical of genre/message typeLogical organization
Mid-Level Concerns organization, overall usability (design) Overall usability (design)Chunking information (longer texts)Genre appropriateness, adherence to conventions, ease of usefind information easily, graphic highlighting, lists, non-text elements for interest and usability, images for highlighting important information, adherence to the principles of good document design
Low-Level Concerns generally sentence level Sentence Level: punctuation, grammar, spelling, typos, correct style Traditional Elements of Style = Correctness: standard adherence to conventionsClarity (and conciseness): simply stated, avoid business-ese, canned phrasesAppropriateness: of words & sentences for purpose, subject, reader, and contextDignity: not sexist, culturally sensitive, generally sensitive, (not stupid!)
General ConnectionsHigher-level concerns developmental editing
Mid-level concerns substantive editing
Lower-level concerns copyediting
Lower-level editingcommon areas for improvement
ClarityUse words with a single meaning fixed fast repaired quickly or attached firmly?
Use words with neutral connotation (neutral to positive)Thin or scrawny?Self-confident or conceited?Relaxed or lazy?Inquisitive or nosy?
Clarityuse plain language Avoid prolix nebulosity.
use caution with jargon and acronymsI talked about my pedagogical approaches to the instruction of university-level learners in computer-mediated classroom environments at the CEA.
ClarityUse concrete languageAvoid cliches not by a long shot left holding the bag run of the mill come full circle let the chips fall where they may Avoid generalizations when possiblealways, few, most, towards the left, a little
Avoid unclear pronoun referencesThe solutions were prepared in test tubes and later transferred. They were also sterilized.
Our patients enjoy the warm days while they last.
Avoid unclear modifiersOnly press the red button in an emergency.
Word Endings:Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a clear manner.
At about noon the sky darkened, a breeze sprang up, and a low rumble announces the approaching storm.
Parallelism Generally, treat items the same way(?)
Descriptors (like in same order):Toms purple book bag is ten inches wide, holds three books, and has a water bottle holder.Janes red tote bag is twelve inches wide, holds four books, and has a pocket for a cell phone. (color measure capacity extras)Erics bag is really small and made of nylon.
Also includes terms, units of measure, directions, & symbols
Parallelism Generally, treat items the same way(?)
Lists of ItemsPenalties for common violations include:Jaywalking: death by paper cutsJail time: for traffic violationsIf you are caught with open containers, you will be sent homeSpeeding will result in a ticketParallelism Generally, treat items the same way(?)
Fewer words & fewer syllables
demonstrateendeavoris contingent uponsubsequent toutilizethe majority ofin close proximityaware of the fact that= show= effort, try= depends= after= use= most= near= know
Eliminate redundancycollect together contributing factorpersonal opinion perfectly clear completely eliminate the month of January
Avoid sentence openers There is a coaxial cable connecting the antenna to the receiver.
There is a danger of explosion in second mineshaft.
It was his bad attitude that got him fired.
I am writing this letter because I wish to apply for the position.Conciseness
Nouning = turning verbs into nounsWe must conduct an investigation of all parking violations before we can give consideration to your fine.We must investigate all parking violations before we can consider your fine.
conduct an investigation of provide a description ofconduct a test of make a discovery of = investigate= describe= test= discover
Generally, use active voice(what is the exception to this?)
Passive Voice the subject is acted uponThe girl was chased by the dog.
Active Voice - the subject performs the action
The dog chased the girl. Conciseness
Jack resents his assistant because he is competitive.Problem:Revision:
Jack resents his assistant because he is competitive.Problem: unclear whether Jack or his assistant is competitive.Revision: Because Jack is competitive, he resents his assistant.
Being so well known in the computer industry, I would appreciate your advice.Problem:Revision:
Being so well known in the computer industry, I would appreciate your advice.Problem: unclear whether writer or reader is well known in the computer industryRevision: Because you are well known in the computer industry, I would appreciate your advice.
Do not enter the test area while contaminated.Problem:Revision:
Do not enter the test area while contaminated.Problem: unclear whether the reader should not enter when the reader is contaminated or when the test area is contaminatedRevision: Do not enter a contaminated test area.
Care should be taken with the dynamite.Problem:Revision:
Care should be taken with the dynamite.Problem: unnecessary use of passive voice; wordyRevision: Take care with the dynamite.Be careful with the dynamite.
It is vital that you complete your homework. Problem:Revision:
It is vital that you complete your homework. Problem: unnecessary sentence opener (it is); wordy; vital can be replaced with more familiar word.Revision: Doing your homework is important.Homework is important.
Your conclusion is in agreement with mine.Problem:Revision:
Your conclusion is in agreement with mine.Problem: weak verb; wordyRevision: I agree with your conclusion.I agree.
Our acceptance of the offer is a necessity.Problem:Revision:
Our acceptance of the offer is a necessity.Problem: weak verb; nouning (acceptance)Revision: We must accept the offer.
My diagnosis was not inaccurate.Problem:Revision:
My diagnosis was not inaccurate.Problem: double negativeRevision: My diagnosis is accurate.
I suggest you reduce the number of beverages you consume.Problem:Revision:
I suggest you reduce the number of beverages you consume.Problem: wordy; beverages and consume can be replaced with more familiar words.Revision: Drink less.
We expect a refund of our full purchase expenditure. Problem:Revision:
We expect a refund of our full purchase expenditure. Problem: business-ese, jargon; redundancy, expenditure can be replaced with a more familiar word. Revision: We expect a refund.
*Used examples of actual documents students turned in. Easy to see where they are wrong, much harder to fixMentioned that sometimes, you just have to rewrite. This is editing.****Logical organization, for ex: a warning about a step before the step
*Chunking of information for people in a hurry info in the middle of chunks sometimes ignored. (dont put warnings in the middle of a paragraph)For readability, not as burdensome
**Doesnt give colorX inches wide vs really smallNo capacity, no extrasmaterial