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Prof.Dr.Ing. Volker Bertram

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VIII Conference on Port Logistics and Transport The Ship – Technological Limits. Prof.Dr.Ing. Volker Bertram. Historical development Limiting factors Main dimensions Size and power Other aspects Conclusion. Container shipping started in the 1950s. Rapid growth of ship size. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • VIII Conference on Port Logistics and TransportThe Ship Technological LimitsProf.Dr.Ing. Volker Bertram

  • No. * Historical developmentLimiting factorsMain dimensionsSize and powerOther aspectsConclusion

  • No. * Container shipping started in the 1950s

  • No. * Rapid growth of ship sizefirst-generation ~1000 TEU

    Panamax~4500 TEU

    Post-Panamax~8000 TEU

    Megaboxer>12000 TEUsince 1988

  • No. * Historical developmentLimiting factorsMain dimensionsSize and powerOther aspectsConclusion

  • No. * Several factors limit ship sizeTechnical aspects:- limits for main dimensions - power - ... Soft aspects:- available cargo - logistics - intermediate storage - ...

  • No. * Logistics may pose stricter limitsQuestions to discuss:- Do we have enough cargo to fill larger ships? - Is it more economical to serve different slings? - Do the economies of scale in transport outweigh the costs for dredging, crane infrastructure, etc? - Will the same turn-over time in port be feasible? - ...

  • No. * Historical developmentLimiting factorsMain dimensionsSize and powerOther aspectsConclusion

  • No. * Building facilities ?Source: HansaCan we build bigger container ships?

  • No. * No problemmillion-ton docks exist... Source: Mitsubishi H.I.

  • No. * How about locks ?Source: HansaWill they pass through the main shipping routes?

  • No. * Panama Canal as bottleneckNew locks:

    lockship

    length 427.0 m365.76 mwidth 55.0 m 48.77 mdepth 18.3 m 15.24 m

    New Panamax:12000...13500 TEU

  • No. * Loa = 365.60 m < 365.76 mB = 48.60 m < 48.77 mT = 15.00 m < 15.24 mNew Panamax up to 13.400 TEU all present vessels in Korea have this design based on co-operative study of GL / HHI

  • No. * No increase in draught Limits reached

  • No. * Offshore ports discussed in media

  • No. * How about cranes ?Outreach ? Will we need new terminals?

  • No. * Crane Outreach Limits approachedNo new terminals, but width limited

  • No. * Historical developmentLimiting factorsMain dimensionsSize and powerOther aspectsConclusion

  • No. * Container ships need a lot of powerMain engine of 8200 TEU container ship:Max. power: 68650 kW 12 cylinder, 160 t/cylinderFuel consumption: 230 t/day at 25 kn

  • No. * New diesels for bigger shipsSingle engine concept so far maintained

    JIT growth of diesel engines

  • No. * So far just more cylinders addedSingle Propeller / 2 Stroke Engine12 CylinderP=68.500 kWn=104 min-1m=2150 tL=24,6 m14 CylinderP=80.000 kWn=104 min-1m=2400 tL=28 m16 CylinderP=92.000 kWn=104 min-1m=2650 tL=31,5 m

  • No. * Limits reached for propeller loadingRudder cavitation as consequence of high propeller loading

  • No. * Historical developmentLimiting factorsMain dimensionsSize and powerOther aspectsConclusion

  • No. * Global strength No problemGlobal strength analyses performed by GL

  • No. * Slamming loads & whipping No problemDynamic analyses performed by GL

  • No. * Steel thickness no limiting factor78 mmWelding technology has progressed Ultra-high tensile steels under development

  • No. * How about stacking containers?

  • No. * Limits reached in practiceISO standard and GL rules limit stacking More tiers only for lower weight of containers a. 32 t per 40 container for 10 tier b. 29 t per 40 container for 11 tier c. 26 t per 40 container for 12 tier

  • No. * Larger dynamic forces on deck

  • No. * 67 m from keel to funnelStacking limits reasonable heightAir draught up to 56.0 m8 tiers = 23.168m 3.4 m~ 7.0 m

  • No. * Historical developmentLimiting factorsMain dimensionsSize and powerOther aspectsConclusion

  • No. * ConclusionGrowth of container ships not yet finishedStrength of containers limits heightMaximum draught reached Global strength can be handled by advanced engineeringTwin-engine, twin-screw ships can push power limit

    Larger ships technically feasible

  • No. * The End ?Thank you for your attention?

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