Production Transportation - Biofuel

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    Whats so Advanced about Advanced Biofuels?

    Advanced Biofuels

    A Primer on Advanced BiofuelsWith Extra Slides for TeachersFor a Truly Sustainable Renewable Future

    Advanced Biofuels USAwww.AdvancedBiofuelsUSA.org

    1Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Ex r li

    This teaching tool complements Whats so

    vance

    a out

    vance

    o ue s,

    a s e

    presentation about creating sustainable, low nput, g energy output renewa e qu

    fuels. It includes, after the presentations, slides with

    Questions and thoughts about the presentation Class projects adaptable to all ages Advanced class research suggestions

    2Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA 3

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    Economical Sustainable

    Advanced Biofuels

    Waste and Residues Use Existing Infrastructure

    Transportation Increase Efficiencies in Biomass

    Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA 4

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    How will

    We

    Economicall

    Produce

    Renewable Advanced Biofuels?

    , nutrient inputs and high per acre yields,

    Identify agricultural

    and

    forestry

    waste

    and

    Develop high conversion efficiency processing

    breakthroughs in enzymatic and biochemical

    5Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    How will

    We

    Economicall

    Produce

    Renewable Advanced Biofuels?

    Utilize existing refinery, transportation and distribution s stems whenever necessar

    Assure that complete production systems are , ,

    and socially

    6Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Overcoming the

    Advanced Biofuel Production

    1. Make all components of biomass available for biofuel production (Use the whole plant )2. Improve the efficiency of biomass to biofuel

    conversion

    (Do it

    faster,

    cheaper,

    sustainably ). n m ze t e cost o omass transportat on

    (Move more for less )

    University, industry, and government researchersare pursuing a number of different paths toovercome these technical barriers

    7Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Making Plant Biomass va a e or o ue ro uc on

    1. Overcoming The Limits of Sugar Fermentation

    Ethanol made from corn kernels or from sugar cane is ma e y a process ca e ermentation,

    or anaerobic respiration. Only single or two unit , monosaccharide or

    disaccharide, sugars can be used for ethanol fermentation

    8Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Making Plant Biomass Ava a e or B o ue Pro uct on

    1. Overcoming The Limits of Sugar Fermentation

    These simple sugars, such as glucose, ,

    limited supply in all plant cells walls,

    So, supplies of biofuels produced from

    na ura y occurr ng s mp e sugars are limited

    9Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Making Plant

    Biomass

    Available for Biofuel Production

    Additional simple sugars are available in plant and tree cell walls, but are in more complex forms that

    production

    Plant cell walls are composed primarily of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin

    Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA 10

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    Making Plant

    Biomass

    Available for Biofuel Production

    Tree cell walls have an additional com onent li nin . This is the woody material that

    gives trees

    great

    tensile

    strength

    Ce u ose, emice u ose, an pectin are composed of monosaccharides strung

    toget er, t ey are ca e polysaccharides

    polysaccharides and alcohols

    Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA 11

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    Making Plant Biomass

    3. Biomass RecalcitranceA sim lified model showin the interaction of the ma or

    Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin,& lignin intertwine to createcomplex cell wall matrices

    polysaccharides in the cell wall

    This complex structure protectsplants and trees from disease,

    moves nutrients, and provides for

    These complex structures alsorestrict access to the simplesu ar com onents

    Current technologies to break upbiomass: acid, ammonia, steam,or ressure are ener and cost intensive

    M. E. Himmel et al., Science 315,

    804 -807 (2007) 12Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Making Plant Biomass Available for Biofuel Production

    4. Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    Researchers are pursuing four different

    1. Reverse engineer plant cell wall genetics to

    wall matrices

    . ap m cro a ro ng enzymes o sso ve cell wall sugars

    13Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Making Plant Biomass Available for Biofuel Production

    4. Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    Researchers are pursuing four different approac es o overcome omass recalcitrance

    . ree p ants an trees w t ce wa structures more amenable to

    4. Reduce costs and energy requ remen s o c em ca processes

    14Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Making Plant Biomass Available for Biofuel Production

    5. Examples of Research Results

    University of Georgia researchers have discovered the genetic pathway for several types of plant biomass

    Atlantic Biomass has adapted microbial enzymes to produce

    soluble sugars from hemicellulose biomass North Carolina State researchers have produced fast growing

    poplar trees with significantly lower proportions of lignin biomass

    Michigan State researchers are working on a process to recycle ammonia , thereby reducing the cost of that biomass

    15Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Goals

    Expand types of biofuels produced beyond

    Expand the types of plant sugars/alcohols or algae fats/oils that can be used as feedstocks

    be converted to biofuel

    Decrease the cost of conversion processes16Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Improve Conversion of Biomass to Biofuel Scientific Research Challenges

    ermen a on s m e o pro uc ng a co o s such as ethanol (CH3CH2OH)

    a limited number of sugars , no polysaccharides

    can be used To pro uce ig er energy ue s; gaso ine, iese , or jet fuel, hydrocarbon compounds such as octane C H need to be roduced from lant biomass

    To produce hydrocarbons from plant biomass, oxygen a oms ave o e remove rom sugars

    17Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Improve Conversion of Biomass to Biofuel merg ng c ent c ec no og es

    systems, such as the Virent aqueous reforming process converts sugars to hydrocarbons called alkanes.

    Advantages: Can use a wide variety of polysaccharide sugars, has low energy inputs, adaptable to existing petroleum

    re ner es Challenges: Need to increase amount of

    omass car on trans erre to a anes18Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Improve Biomass to Biofuel Conversionmerg ng ec no og es

    Pyrolysis/Rare Metal Cataylst : High ,

    specific metal catalysts can produce liquid as well as gas hydrocarbons from biomass.

    Advantages: Can use a wide variety of biomass,

    does not

    require

    pre

    processing

    biomass

    to

    ,

    refineries Challen es: Need to increase amount of

    biomass carbon transferred to hydrocarbons, current efficiency is about 18%, reduce energy

    19Copyright 2008 Advanced Biofuels USA

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    Improve Biomass to Biofuel Conversionmerg ng ec no og es

    Enz matic Process : Reducin enz mes can

    remove oxygen

    atoms

    from

    sugars

    producing

    compounds suitable for advanced biofuel

    Advantages: Can use a wide variety of monosaccharide or polysaccharide sugars, has low energy inputs, adaptable to