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  • Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN 1

    PRODUCTION OF MICROALGAE BIOMASS (Scenedesmus almeriensis) IN A FARMER

    GREENHOUSE

    Emilio Molina GrimaDpto. Ingeniera Qumica

    Universidad de Almera

    E-mail: emolina@ual.es

  • 2Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1) Microalgas: caracterizacin y particularidades

    MicroorganismosMicroorganismos unicelularesunicelulares fotoautotrficosfotoautotrficos

    LUZLUZMicroalgas

    COCO22

    Ms microalgas

    Nutrientes,agua

    OO22

    MetabolitosMicroorganismos (diferencia con las macroalgas)

    Fottrofos (aunque flexibles) : su fuente de energa es la luz

    Auttrofos: Su fuente de carbono es el CO2

    Gran velocidad de duplicacin por ser microorganismos

  • 3Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1) Microalgas: caracterizacin y particularidades

    BiomasaBiomasa de de composicincomposicin complejacompleja: : componentescomponentes de de intersintersProtenas y otros nutrientes: alimentacin humana y piensos para ganadoProtenas y otros nutrientes: alimentacin humana y piensos para ganado

    Capacidad quelante: biorremediacinCapacidad quelante: biorremediacin

    cidos grasos poliinsaturadoscidos grasos poliinsaturados

    ClorofilasClorofilas

    CarotenoidesCarotenoides

    Enzimas antioxidantes (SOD)Enzimas antioxidantes (SOD)

    Pigmentos fluorescentesPigmentos fluorescentes

    Componentes de gran inters en comparacin con otrasbiomasas de origen vegetal (plantas terrestres o macroalgas)

    Componentes de gran inters en comparacin con otrasbiomasas de origen vegetal (plantas terrestres o macroalgas)

    ExopolisacridosExopolisacridos

    Compuestos bioactivos: antifngicos, antivirales, citotxicosCompuestos bioactivos: antifngicos, antivirales, citotxicos

    ACUICULTURAACUICULTURA

    Biotoxinas marinasBiotoxinas marinas

  • 4Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1) Microalgas: caracterizacin y particularidades

    DiversidadDiversidad de de especiesespecies

    Muchas especies catalogadas y disponiblesMuchas especies catalogadas y disponibles

    Slo unas pocas estudiadas y aprovechadas comercialmenteSlo unas pocas estudiadas y aprovechadas comercialmente

    Gran potencialidad de productos y aplicacionesGran potencialidad de productos y aplicaciones

    Haematococcus pluvialisHaematococcus pluvialis Phaeodactylum tricornutumPhaeodactylum tricornutumDunaliela salinaDunaliela salina

    Protoceratium reticulatumProtoceratium reticulatum

  • 5Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1) Microalgas: caracterizacin y particularidades

    DiversidadDiversidad de de especiesespeciesIsochrysis galbanaIsochrysis galbana

    Skeletonema costatumSkeletonema costatum Tetraselmis suecicaTetraselmis suecica

    Phorphyridium cruentumPhorphyridium cruentum Chlorella sp.Chlorella sp.

    Anabaena.Anabaena.

  • 6Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    2) Sistemas de cultivo y produccin a gran escala

    Sistemas abiertos: Sistemas abiertos: openopen pondsponds y y racewaysraceways

    Cultivo de SpirulinaCultivo de Spirulina

    Cultivo de Dunaliella salinaCultivo de Dunaliella salina

    Biomasa rica en protenaCrece a pH muy altoResistente a condiciones agresivas

    Biomasa rica en protenaCrece a pH muy altoResistente a condiciones agresivas

    Produccin de -carotenoHalotoleranteLuminosidad y salinidad favorecen el proceso

    Produccin de -carotenoHalotoleranteLuminosidad y salinidad favorecen el proceso

    D. salina en open ponds D. salina en raceways

  • 7Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

  • 8Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    Objective

    To study the business possibilities that may offer the tubular photobioreactor technology under a farmer greenhouse, as those existing in Almera, South Spain, to produce algal biomass.

  • 9Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    Starting-up

    Discovery of new strain,Scenedesmus almeriensis.

    Local bloom: adapted to environment

    Extraordinary producer of Lutein (and Zeaxantin)

    Clean carotenoid profile

  • 10Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    18S rDNA and ITS rDNA sequencing was employed

    Sequences deviated from the most closely related species by 11 sequences position in the 18S rDNA exon region and in the two group I introns

    The new strain Scenedesmus almeriensis has been deposited in the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP) code CCAP 276/24

    Scenedesmus almeriensisCHARACTERIZATION: rDNA analysis

    Prof. Thomas FriedlExp. Phycol. Cult. Collect. AlgaeSAG, Gottingen 37073 Germany

    1.- S. almeriensis and the interest of lutein: the new strain

    TITULO: Nueva especie de microalga y su aplicacin para consumo animal, humano y en la obtencin de carotenoidesNMERO DE PATENTE: Solicitud N P200500374FECHA: 5 de Febrero de 2005SOLICITANTE: Cajamar, Universidad de Almera.

  • 11Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1.- S. almeriensis and the interest of lutein: LUTEIN

    An adequate intake of this product might help to prevent or ameliorate the effects of degenerative human diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    Supplements containing lutein enriched extracts are usually prescribed for these patients in order to supply the recommended daily intake of lutein (6 mg/day)

    Using microalgal biomass makes possible to formulate lutein complements with only 1 g of dry biomass, that supply the recommended daily dose of lutein

    Potential market of lutein is around 90 millions people in the world and increasing

    Lutein is the major carotenoid present in the biomass of Scenedesmus almeriensis

  • 12Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1.- S. almeriensis and the interest of lutein: OTHER SOURCES

    SourceSource foodfood Lutein Lutein contentcontent((mgmg/100g)/100g)

    KaleKale 38.538.5

    SpinachSpinach 12.212.2

    CressCress 12.112.1

    ChardChard 11.911.9

    CollardCollard 8.98.9

    S. almeriensisS. almeriensis 600*600*

    Comparison withdietary sources of lutein

    Digestibility and effective absorption of most dietary sources is unknown and may vary with patient, clinical condition and food elaboration.

    Comparison withcommercial sources of lutein

    SpeciesSpecies Free Free luteinlutein

    (mg/100(mg/100g)g)

    Mono/diestMono/diestersers

    (mg/100g)(mg/100g)

    Total Total lutein lutein

    (mg/100(mg/100g)g)

    TagetesTagetes patulapatula 3.63.6 128.8128.8 132.4132.4

    TagetesTagetes erectaerecta 1.21.2 67.267.2 68.468.4

    Calyces (mean)Calyces (mean) 0.380.38 4.294.29 4.674.67

    Champion Champion orange (orange (T T patulapatula))

    00 569569 569569

    Mixed speciesMixed species((T. T. erectaerecta))

    2.82.8 137.3137.3 140.1140.1

    S almeriensisS almeriensis -- -- 600*600*

    Piccaglia et al (1998) Lutein and lutein ester content in different types of Tagetes patula and T. erecta Industrial Crops and Products, 8, 45-51

    Lutein content of Scenedesmus almeriensis greatly overpassesthe dietary and commercial sources of this compound

    *Average content

    *Preliminary data

  • 13Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    Microalgal sources of lutein

    *Average content Del Campo et al., (2000) J. Biotechnol. 76, 5159Del Campo et al., (2001) J. Biotechnol. 85, 289-295Shi et al. (2002) Biotechnol. Prog. 18, 723-727

    In addition to Scenedesmus almeriensis, very few other microalgae strains has been proposed as lutein producers, S. almeriensis being the most promising of them

    a referred to the land area shaded by the tubes

    MicroalgaeMicroalgae ContentContent(mg/100g)(mg/100g)

    Lutein productivity and Lutein productivity and conditionsconditions

    Chlorella Chlorella zofigiensiszofigiensis 342342 Laboratory scale.Laboratory scale.

    MuriellopsisMuriellopsis spsp 430430 Outdoors 50 L external tubular Outdoors 50 L external tubular photobioreactor 170 mg/mphotobioreactor 170 mg/m22 dayday

    Chlorella Chlorella protothecoidesprotothecoides 535535 Heterotrophic, laboratory scale, Heterotrophic, laboratory scale, productivity 49 mg/L dayproductivity 49 mg/L day

    Scenedesmus almeriensisScenedesmus almeriensis 600*600* Outdoors 4000 L external tubular Outdoors 4000 L external tubular photobioreactor 386.66 mg/mphotobioreactor 386.66 mg/m22

    dayday

    1.- S. almeriensis and the interest of lutein: OTHER SOURCES

  • 14Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    1.- S. almeriensis vs. Marigold

    Yield of Marigold vs S. almeriensis

    Biomass Marigold:

    S. almeriensis:

    1200 kg dry petals/yr = 480 g/m2 yr

    18000 g/m2 yr

    Lutein Marigold:

    S. almeriensis:

    22 Kg/Ha yr

    1411 Kg/Ha yr

    Marigold:

    S. almeriensis: 4000 L tubular photobioreactor, occupied land, in greenhouse, current productivity (not optimized)

    4 harvest/yr, best conditions for commercial cultures (Bosma et al. 2003)

    Bosma et al. (2003) Optimizing marigold (Tagetes erecta) petal and pigment yield Crop Science, 43

    The yield of Scenedesmus almeriensis greatly overpasses the current sources of lutein

  • 15Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Univ. Almera, SPAIN

    2.- Characterization of the new strain: Growth model ( vs Iav)

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    0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

    Iav, E/m2s

    Gro

    wth

    rate

    , 1/h

    The growth rate was a function of average irradiance inside the culture, no influence of