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PRODUCTION OF FOAMED CONCRETE WITH A METHOD OF MIXING

Norasyikin ht. Md. Yusof

Bachelor of Engineering with Honours (Civil Engineering)

2009

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARA WAK

BORANGPENGESAHAN

JUDUL: PRODUCTION OF FOAMED CONCRETE WITH A METHOD OF MIXING

SESI PENGAJIAN: 2009-2010

Saya NORASYIKIN BT. MD YUSOF (HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis * ini elisimpan di Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. 2. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat

salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. 3. Membuat pendigitan untuk membangunkan Pangkalan Data Kandungan Tempatan. 4. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat

salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. 5. ** Sila tandakan ( ...j ) eli kotak yang berkenaan

D SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972).

TERHAD (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan).

TIDAK TERHAD

Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS) (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

Alamat Tetap: Pos l14A Bt 5 1f4 JIn Muar, Mukim 2 Bagan,

DR MOHAMMAD IBRAHIM SAF A WI (Nama Penyelia)

Tarikh:

Catatan:

83000 Batu Pahat, Johor.

Tarikh: ---------------- ----------------

* Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah, Sarjana dan Sarjana Muda. ** Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasaJorganisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD.

This project report attached here to, entitle "PRODUCTION OF FOAMED

CONCRETE WITH A METHOD OF MIXING" prepared and submitted by

NORASYIKIN BT. MD YUSOF (13431) as a partial fulfillment of the requirement

for degree of Bachelor of Engineering with Honors in Civil Engineering is hereby

read and approve by:

(Dr Mohammad Ibrahim Safawi)

Project Supervisor

Faculty of Engineering

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Date:

PRODUCTION OF FOAMED CONCRETE WITH A METHOD OF MIXING

NORASYIKIN BT. MD. YUSOF

This project is submitted to Faculty of Engineering,

University Malaysia Sarawak in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the

Degree of Bachelor of Engineering with Honours (Civil Engineering) 2009

For my beloved father and mother,

Sister, Brother in law, younger brother and fiance

Thanks for everything.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillah, first and foremost, thank you to Allah S.W.T with His

companion, guidance, and wishes this project complete successfully. Thanks to my

supervisor, Dr. Mohd Ibrahim Safawi B.Mohd Zain for his help, guidance and

attention in accomplishing this thesis successfully.

Special thanks also for UNIMAS Civil Engineering Laboratory technicians

En Nur Adha b. Hj Abdul Wahab for their help and cooperation during laboratory

work. Their willingness to share their knowledge and time with me during the

research is a valuable experience.

I would like to express my utmost thanks and gratitude to my beloved family,

my mother, father, sister, brother in law, younger brother and my fiance. I would

never have been able to complete this thesis without your continuous love and

support.

Lastly, not forgetting to all my coursemates and friends, who give me support

and help whenever I needed them.

ABSTRACT

In the history of the construction industry, lightweight concrete or foamed

concrete is a special concrete which can very useful in the construction sector

because it is very lightweight and it can compact by itself at each angle of foamwork.

Many researchers have been done in overseas, and show that foamed concrete is free

flowing material which is ideal for wide range of application. Moreover, material

used to produce concrete is cheap to normal concrete. The objective of this thesis is

to determine strength of concrete by using different material such as superplasticizer

and without using superplasticizer follow by mixing by using water and without

using water. The addition of chemical admixture such as superplasticizer (in the

form of liquid) can help achieve as it can produce mortar of normal workability but

with an extremely high strength owing to a very substantial reduction in the

water/cement ratio. There are three test that been through at concrete laboratory such

as Flow Table Test, Curing Test and Strength test in order to understand and look out

character of the concrete. An inspection from this project can show the nature of

foamed concrete when strength test will be done.

11

ABSTRAK

Dalam sejarah industri pembinaan, konkrit ringan atau konkrit busa adalah

konkrit khas yang amat berguna dalam industry pembinaan kerana sifatnya yang

ringan dan boleh mampat dengan sendiri di dalam setiap ruang acuan. Banyak kajian

yang telah dijalankan di luar Negara, menunjukkan bahawa konkrit busa mempunyai

sifat yang mengalir dengan sendiri di mana ianya digunakan secara meluas.

Tambahan lagi, bahan yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan konkrit ini murah dan

dapat mengurangkan kos pembinaan. Tujuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk

menentukan kekuatan konkrit dengan mengunakan bahan yang berbeza seperti bahan

menggunkan superpemplastikan dan tidak mengunakan bahan superpemplastikan

diikuti dengan campuran yang mengandungi air dan campuran yang tidak

menggunkan air. Penambahan bahan tambah kimia seperti superpemplastikan

(dalam bentuk cecair) dapat membantu untuk menghasilkan ciri yang lebih baik

dengan menghasilkan mortar dengan kebolehkerjaan biasa bagi mempunyai kekuatan

yang tinggi apabila nisbah airlsimen dikurangkan. Terdapat tiga jenis ujian yang

dijalankan seperti ujian kebolehkerjaan, ujian rendaman dan ujian kekuatan untuk

mengetahui dan melihat sifat-sifat concrete tersebut. Pemerhatian daripada kajian ini

menunjukkan sifat konkrit buih apabila ujian kekuatan dilaksanakan.

111

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT II

ABSTRAK III

TABLE OF CONTENT IV

LIST OF TABLE VIll

LIST OF FIGURE IX

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Objectives of Study 2

1.3 Limitation of Study 2

1.4 Outline of the Thesis 3

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 6

2.2 Foam Concrete 6

2.3 Type of Foamed concrete

2.3.1 Wet Foam 8

2.3.2 Dry Foam 8

2.4 Method of mixing 9

IV

2.4.1 Inline System (Wet Method)

2.4.2 Inline System (Dry Method)

2.4.3 Pre-foamed Method

2.5 Water Cement Ratio

2.6 Strength Criteria

2.7 Material Properties

2.8 Characteristic of Foamed Concrete

2.9 Typical Application

2.10 Mixer

2.10.1 Drum Mixer

2.10.2 Rotating Drum Mixer

2.11 Superplasticizer

2.11.1 Nature of Superplasticizer

2.11.2 Advantages of Superplasticizer

2.11.3 Characteristic of mortar using Superplasticizer

2.12 Pozzolan

2.13 Pulverised Fuel Ash

2.12.1 Benefit of Fly Ash

2.14 Properties of Mortar

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

3.1

3.2

3.3

General

Preparation of Foamed Concrete

Mixing Procedure

v

9

10

10

11

12

13

13

14

16

17

17

17

18

19

20

22

25

26

29

32

32

33

3.3.1 Mixing with Super plasticizer 33

3.3.2 Mixing without Super plasticizer 34

3.4 Equipment 35

3.4.1 Flow Table Test 35

3.4.2 Drum Mixer 36

3.4.3 Mortar Mixer 36

3.4.4 Foam Generator 37

3.4.5 Air Compressor 38

3.4.6 Cylinder 38

3.4.7 Formwork 39

3.5 Material use in Experiment 40

3.5.1 Cement 40

3.5.2 Water 41

3.5.3 Sand 41

3.5.4 Forming agent 42

3.5.5 Super Plasticizer 42

3.5.6 Pozzolan 43

3.6 Experimental Program 43

3.6.1 Casting 45

3.6.2 Curing 46

3.7 Production of Foamed Concrete 46

3.7.1 Flow Table Test 47

3.7.2 Strength Test 48

3.7 Summary 48

VI

CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Compressive Strength Test

4.3 Mortar Flow Test

4.4 Summary

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 General

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

Vll

49

50

58

62

63

63

65

66

68

LIST OF TABLE

Tables Page

Table 2.1 Typical Properties of Foamed Concrete 13

Table 2.2 Main Features and Characteristic of Foamed Concrete 16

Table 2.3 Classification, Composition and Particle charact

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