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Priyo Budi Purwono, dr Kuliah Mikrobiologi. Introduction “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” A specific type of virus (a retrovirus) An enveloped virus,

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  • Priyo Budi Purwono, drKuliah Mikrobiologi

  • IntroductionHuman Immunodeficiency VirusA specific type of virus (a retrovirus)An enveloped virus, 100 nm diameterss +RNA genomeenzyme reverse transcriptaseReceptor : CD4 molecule of T helper lymphocyte, macrophages

  • AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV is the virus that causes AIDS Disease limits the bodys ability to fight infectionA person with AIDS has a very weak immune systemHigh risk of Opprtunistic Infection

  • New HIV Infections in 2002 by Age Group

  • HIV

  • The Role of T lymphocyte

  • Transmission (body fluid)3 i :Intrauterine, or post partum, mother to child infection (vertical infection)Intravenous : tranfusion, needle stick injuryIntercourse, genital lession/ ulceration

  • High Risk Group for HIV infectionIntra vena drug user (NAPZA)Unhealthy sexual behaviourHIV infected sexual partnerBlood tranfussionHealth care worker

  • Stage 1 Seroconvertion illness10-50%Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infectionwindow period Serology test and western blot negativeRNA viral load may positif Infected person can infect other people

  • Stage 2 - AsymptomaticLasts for several years This stage is free from symptomsThe virus is not latent, but multiplying actively in cellHIV antibodies are detectable in the blood

  • Stage 3 Persistent Generalised Lymphadenopathy (PGL)

    PainlessSymetrical25 % asymtomatic

  • Stage 4 AIDS related features or Complex (ARC)The immune system weakensOral or vaginal candidiasisCervical dysplasia, carcinomaChronic diarrheaSel CD4 >200/l

  • Stage 5 - AIDS20 AIDS defining illnesses (ADIs)Opportunistic infection occureHIV encephalopathyWasting syndrome (loss of BW >10%)Fever and chronic diarhhoeaCD4 count
  • Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDSBacterialTuberculosis (TB)Strep pneumonia

    ViralKaposi Sarcoma (HHV 8)CMVHerpes simplex

  • Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDSParasiticPneumocystis cariniiToxoplasmosis


  • Blood Detection TestsEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA)Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA)Western Blot Confirmatory testPolymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)Viral load HIV

  • Pre-test CounselingTransmissionPreventionRisk FactorsVoluntary & ConfidentialReportability of Positive Test Results

  • Post-test CounselingClarifies test resultsNeed for additional testingPromotion of safe behaviorRelease of results

  • TheraphyHAART (Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy), Triple therapy :2 NRTI and 1 NNRTI or2 NRTI and 1 PI

    NRTI : Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorNNRTI : Non Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase InhibitorPI : Protease Inhibitor

  • Antiretroviral DrugsNucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitorsAZT (Zidovudine)Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitorsViramune (Nevirapine)Protease inhibitorsNorvir (Ritonavir)

  • Control & Preventionavoid intravenous drug abuseSterile needle for injectionSafe equipment and disposalScreen blood donorSafe sex : Prostitution regulationSex and Drug abuse educationStop negatif stigma

  • Question ?Apakah ibu hamil dengan HIV positif selalu menular pada anak ?Seorang PSK datang ke LSM dengan membawa hasil tes HIV yang negatif, apa saran/tindakan saudara ?

  • Keep aware !!