Privacy Issues in the Application of Biometrics Marina Gavrilova

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    24-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Privacy Issues in the Application of Biometrics Marina Gavrilova
  • Slide 2
  • Outline Introduction Privacy from the philosophical concept to human rights The European Personal Data Directive The role of privacy-enhancing technologies Looking to the future Social and psychological context of the application of biometric methods Conclusions
  • Slide 3
  • Introduction Biometric methods of authentication offer a more secure link between a specific individual and a non-human entity. Numerous trials and deployments demonstrate the wide range of possible application: restriction of access to physical spaces and electronic resources to those individuals who have been previously cleared; denying the opportunity for potential fraudsters to assume multiple identities; enforcing accountability for individuals undertaking electronic transactions; matching facial images from CCTV cameras to databases of criminals
  • Slide 4
  • Introduction Concerns appear to centre on the threats to the end users privacy. For many, the widespread use of biometric technologies in films and the perception of these techniques as perfect have reawakened the fears of an all-knowing computer systems able to track every citizen and consumer, perhaps placing the reputation of the individual at risk. Also, the future possibilities of the use of DNA data in tracking people, and in the linking of biometrics with parallel developments in other surveillance technologies.
  • Slide 5
  • Introduction Both during the 2 nd WW and under post-war Central and Eastern European governments had manually operated filing systems tracked dissident citizens and members of minorities. S Such motions where first codified in the 1950 European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR). Two decades later, with the commercialization of large mainframe computers, the first laws to protect personal data about individuals were drafted, based upon an internationally agreed framework but with a local interpretation.
  • Slide 6
  • Introduction With the expansion of the European Union, the need for harmonization of these laws required a European-wide legal consensus. The 1995 Personal Data Directive and its transposition into national laws offers the legislative underpinning to any discussion about the use of biometrics in modern systems in Europe. However, its approach predated the age of the Internet, and its complexity rendered it opaque to the average person.
  • Slide 7
  • Introduction Biometric technologies are almost unique as a security mechanism in the need for cooperation by the end user to ensure their correct operation. Some user concerns can be addressed directly, for example by studies into any health and safety issues, although it is clear that attitudes may take time to change. Those concerns that are less clearly articulated will require more extended studies.
  • Slide 8
  • Outline Introduction Privacy from the philosophical concept to a human right The European Personal Data Directive The role of privacy-enhancing technologies Looking to the future Social and psychological context of the application of biometric methods Conclusions
  • Slide 9
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right The notion of individual privacy appears to be a modern phenomenon. In less mobile societies with poor roads, few people would venture outside their immediate neighborhood and the arrival of fairs or itinerant travelers was subject to closely circumscribed laws. In these societies, the daily lives of the ordinary people were led without much privacy. I.e., the strong Puritan tradition in the 17 th century in England and the American colonies seemed to encourage a surveillance by ones neighbors.
  • Slide 10
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right Shapiro regards the partitioning of rooms in a household as the first step to a culture of privacy and individuality. Next, in 18 th and 19 th century improvements in road quality and the creation of a canal and railway network (the latter going in hand with the first electronic communications the telegraph). The rapid urbanization of much Western Europe and parts of the USA completed the options for many citizens to move outside of their place of birth and schooling, to assert an individuality apart from their kinship groups. The second half of the 19 th century saw the introduction of the census and codification of laws on recording births, marriages, and deaths.
  • Slide 11
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right 19 th century was the time for the first use of biometric identities for tracking and recording criminals using file systems. Initially this aimed to collect as much information about externally visible features and easily measurable dimensions, Bertillons anthropometry being the most celebrated scheme. This short-lived approach was superseded a few years later by the discovery of the remarkable individuality of fingerprints. By the turn of 19 th century, Scotland Yard had embarked on the use of the hugely successful Galton-Henry classification system and the fingerprint as a key forensic tool had arrived.
  • Slide 12
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right With the questioning of the power of a state to affect all facets of the life of the citizen, one part of the personal privacy debate has started. The other aspect, that of giving individuals a right over the way the information about them is collected and used was a remain less pressing for another half century. In 1950, the participating states to the Council of Europe articulated a response in Article 8 of the ECHR guaranteeing a right of privacy: Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence. The Convention offered individual redress against governments abusing their authority by an ultimate personal appeal to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.
  • Slide 13
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right The increasing prosperity of the 50s and early 60s was accompanied by a belief in the benefits of technological progress and organizational efficiency. In particular, governments in Europe were attracted to the potential of computerization of records, such as social welfare payments. But the climate of thought amongst Europeans changed. Although the events of 68 were characterized as a rebellion by the youth of Europe, other currents of opinion were questioning the wisdom of concentrating power, and the information on which power is built without countervailing checks and balances.
  • Slide 14
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right The worlds first data protection act, passed in the German state of Hessen in 1970 was directed at offering this check on the operations of a regional government, but as more countries recognized the need for such legislation, the scope widened to take in commercial use of personal data as well. Increasingly, the limitations of national laws in a rapidly globalizing world led to calls for an international system for data protection, to protect against states with no laws or inadequate laws from becoming data heavens with no controls on the processing of data.
  • Slide 15
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right Although these agreements were influential in determining the course of subsequent laws such as the first UK Data Protection Act in 1984 by 1990 it was clear to the European Commission that the lack of a common framework, under which personal information could be gathered, processed, stored, transmitted and disposed of securely, was likely to impede the commercial development of both existing and novel services.
  • Slide 16
  • Privacy- from philosophical concept to a human right Over the course of the following 5 years, the Commission agreed the principles for an EU-wide directive of 1995. This required governments in each of the countries to transpose the directive into national law by 1998 (http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/ )http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/ In spite of this recent agreement, there have already been calls to make changes in the light of experience in applying the framework directive.
  • Slide 17
  • Outline Introduction Privacy from the philosophical concept to a human right The European Personal Data Directive The role of privacy-enhancing technologies Looking to the future Social and psychological context of the application of biometric methods Conclusions
  • Slide 18
  • The European Personal Data Directive This directive establishes 8 Principles of personal data protection which determine the legality of the processing of such data. Personal data must be: 1.Processed fairly and lawfully 2.Collected for specified and lawful purpose and not processed further in ways that are incompatible with these (the finality principle). 3.Adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purposes for which they are collected or processed. 4.Accurate (and where necessary kept up to date).
  • Slide 19
  • The European Personal Data Directive 5.Not kept longer than is necessary for the stated purposes (that is in a form that permits identification of the data subjects). 6.Processed in accordance with data subjects rights. 7.Secure (against accidental or unlawful destruction, accidental loss, alteration, unauthorized disclosure or access, using measures that have regard to the state of the ar

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