Primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in China

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [University of Western Ontario]On: 14 November 2014, At: 01:43Publisher: Taylor &amp; FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Chinese Journal of Population Resources andEnvironmentPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:</p><p>Primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions inChinaYiqiang Guoa, Jingyun Zhengb, Quansheng Geb &amp; Shunbing Wangca Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation, Ministry of Land and Resources,Beijing 100035, Chinab Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101,Chinac The Administrative Center for Chinas Agenda 21, Beijing 100038, ChinaPublished online: 16 Oct 2013.</p><p>To cite this article: Yiqiang Guo, Jingyun Zheng, Quansheng Ge &amp; Shunbing Wang (2013) Primary energy-relatedcarbon dioxide emissions in China, Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment, 11:4, 283-287, DOI:10.1080/10042857.2013.835536</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at</p><p></p></li><li><p>Primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in China</p><p>Yiqiang Guoa*, Jingyun Zhengb, Quansheng Geb and Shunbing Wangc</p><p>aKey Laboratory of Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100035, China; bInstitute ofGeographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China; cThe Administrative Center for Chinas Agenda 21,</p><p>Beijing 100038, China</p><p>(Received 12 September 2011; accepted 24 May 2012)</p><p>Climate change is one of the focuses to mitigate greenhouse effect and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. First, the papersummarizes on the carbon dioxide emission factors and methods suitable to the situation in China. Second, it analyzes theprimary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions during the period between 1995 and 2005 from different fossil fuels anddifferent zones. The trend of primary energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from 1995 to 2005 is first decreasing andlater increasing. Seven regions Liaoning, Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu and most of the provinces(cities or regions) were found to have similar trends regarding total carbon dioxide emissions in China. The annual carbondioxide emissions and the growth ratio of these seven regions are much higher compared to those of the other 24 provinces(cities or regions). Finally, this paper puts forward some suggestions to reduce carbon dioxide.</p><p>Keywords: primary energy; carbon dioxide; emissions</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>Climate change is not only the most complicated globalenvironmental problem but also presents a huge chal-lenge to mankind. Carbon dioxide emission caused byenergy consumption plays a very important role in green-house gas produced by human activities. The interna-tional communities have reached a consensus tomitigate the greenhouse effect and reduce the carbondioxide emission. Therefore, the carbon dioxide emissioncaused by energy consumption has gradually turned intoa research focus in the field of climate change. Theresearch shows that the carbon dioxide emission causedby global energy consumption has been increasing at aspeed of 1.5% each year, from about 550 million tons ofcarbon in 1990 to about 700 million tons in 2005 (IPCC2007).</p><p>In this paper, by researching on carbon dioxideemissions caused by primary energy consumption in30 provinces (regions or cities) in China, we can under-stand more about carbon dioxide emission laws and theunderlying causes of emission differences in differentareas. This research can provide stable science andtechnology support for diplomatic negotiations of inter-national climate and environment. It can also providethe reference to suggest energy-saving and emission-reduction measures for Chinas carbon dioxideemissions.</p><p>2. Data and methodology</p><p>2.1. Data</p><p>Limited by the data, the research area includes 30 pro-vinces (regions or cities) in Chinese mainland, except forTibet, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. The primaryenergy referred to in this paper includes coal, oil, andnatural gas. The data of each province (region or city)concerned in the research was from China EnergyStatistical Yearbook (19972006) and China StatisticalYearbook (2006). According to the partition methods ofthe administrative regions in China and the actual situationof the production and consumption of primary energy, thispaper will divide the whole country into seven regions:North China, Northeast China, East China, Central China,South China, Southwest China, and Northwest China.</p><p>2.2. Methodology</p><p>It is very important to correctly understand the greenhousegas emission caused by human activities, objectively assessthe influence of global climate change caused by humanactivities, and make the comparatively reliable greenhousegas inventory. Since the 1990s, The East-West Center inAmerica has conducted a series of experiments on green-house gas and emission factors in Indian, Thailand, China,and other developing countries. The research shows that</p><p>*Corresponding author. Email:</p><p>Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment, 2013Vol. 11, No. 4, 283287,</p><p> 2013 Shandong Normal University</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f W</p><p>este</p><p>rn O</p><p>ntar</p><p>io] </p><p>at 0</p><p>1:43</p><p> 14 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p><p></p></li><li><p>IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventoriesis a dynamic reference material which does not completelytake different situations in different countries into account.The recommending value cannot reflect specific circum-stances of carbon dioxide emission in developing countriesaccording to the facts. The early research about Chinascalculation of greenhouse gas emission produced differentemission results because of the lack of proper data andexact knowledge about emission factors. Hence, one ofthe focuses of the global change and energy in researchfield is to choose the proper energy data and relativelycorrect carbon dioxide emissions factors according to thesituation in China (Qu 2003).</p><p>There are twomethods of estimating carbon dioxide emis-sion ofChinas energy activities, according to IPCC and green-house gas emissions inventory methods made by ChinasNational Climate Change Research Group. One method is totake the detailed classification of fuel as the basis and the otherone is to take the detailed classification of technology as thebasis. In fact, the calculation method of carbon dioxide emis-sion is the same as that of pollutant emission, including threemethods: real measure method, material balance calculationmethod, and experience calculation method.</p><p>2.2.1. Real measure method</p><p>The real measure method calculates carbon balance accord-ing to the real measure of certain parameters through fieldburning equipment. Generally speaking, the real measureresults are comparatively correct, but this method is costlyand the workload is very heavy. Sometimes, in order toclarify carbon oxidation rate and emissions coefficient ofdifferent kinds of typical combustion equipment, research-ers must carry out the necessary testing.</p><p>2.2.2. Material balance calculation method</p><p>The material balance calculation method is a scientificmethod to quantitatively analyze the use of material dur-ing its production. It complies with the quality of conser-vation law, i.e. in production, the quality of materials usedin certain systems or equipment should be equal to thequality of materials produced by the system. To calculatecarbon balance, we can use the following formula:</p><p>XGinput </p><p>XGproduct </p><p>XGmissing 1</p><p>where Ginput represent the input of carbon entered in acertain system, Gproduct represent carbon content of thefinished product and Gmissing represent the missing carbonduring the production process. This formula can be usedboth in the entire producing system and when calculatingthe carbon balance of a certain working procedure orcertain burning equipment. No matter whether the carbonentered in a certain system makes chemical reaction or</p><p>not, whether it makes complete chemical reaction or not,the formula always sets up.</p><p>2.2.3. Experience calculation method</p><p>The experience calculation method makes weighted calcu-lation of the carbon dioxide emission factor, which ismade during the productive process of different technolo-gies and scales of the same product. Then, an actualexperience emission factor of unit production is calcu-lated, followed by the calculation of the carbon dioxideemission of a certain product. That is,</p><p>Gico2 Kico2 Mi 2</p><p>where Gico2 represent the emissions of a certain product,Kico2 represent the emission coefficient of the product andMi represent the product quantity. On the basis of theEquations (1) and (2), meanwhile, considering the specificsituation of the energy consumption and fuel burning inChina, the research uses the following formula to gener-ally estimate the carbon dioxide emission of coal, oil, andnatural gas:</p><p>EEco2 X3</p><p>i1EConi EFi Coi 3</p><p>where EEco2 stands for the carbon dioxide emissioncaused by energy consumption. To maintain consistencyin the research, this paper considers carbon as the unit torepresent carbon dioxide emission and considers EConito represent the consumption of all types of energysources. As hydropower cannot produce carbon dioxide,this paper considers only the consumption of coal, oil,and natural gas the three primary energies (i 1; 2; 3).EFi stands for carbon dioxide emission factors of alltypes of energy sources. Coi stands for carbon oxidationrate of all types of energy sources. Details are shown inTable 1.</p><p>Table 1. Carbon dioxide emission factors and carbon oxidationrate of all types of energy sources.</p><p>Coal Oil Natural gas</p><p>Carbon dioxide emission factor(ton of carbon per ton of coalequivalent, tC/tce)</p><p>0.7476 0.5825 0.4435</p><p>Carbon oxidation rate 0.90 0.98 0.99</p><p>Source: Carbon dioxide emission factors take the data of Chinas sustain-able development and the analysis of energy and carbon emission scenar-ios. Carbon oxidation rate takes the data of Chinas National ClimateChange Research Group (2000).</p><p>284 Y. Guo et al.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f W</p><p>este</p><p>rn O</p><p>ntar</p><p>io] </p><p>at 0</p><p>1:43</p><p> 14 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>3. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission caused byprimary energy</p><p>3.1. Carbon dioxide emission in China and its changeof regional pattern</p><p>Carbon dioxide emission caused by primary energy inChina appeared to be increasing, from 786.78 milliontons of carbon (MtC) in 1995 to 1341.74 MtC in 2005,and the average annual growth rate was 4.97%. Accordingto the variation trend of carbon dioxide emission, theprocess can be divided into two stages, the decreasingperiod from 1996 to 2000 and the increasing period from2001 to 2005. During the decreasing period, carbon diox-ide emission decreased by 75.02 MtC, with carbon emis-sion decreasing from 0.70 tC per capita to 0.61 tC percapita. This change was closely related to Chinas energycontrolling policy and the measures in controlling thedevelopment of coal-powered electric plants of the middleand mini types. The years 2001 through 2005, carbondioxide emission increased to 1341.74 MtC in 2005,with per capita carbon emission increasing from 0.62 tCper capita to 1.03 tC per capita. This change is attributedto the significant economic growth in China (Figure 1).</p><p>According to the amount of carbon dioxide emissioncaused by primary energy consumption, this paper divides30 provinces (regions or cities) of the whole country intofour emission grades. The first grade is mild emission, withcarbon dioxide emission less than 20 MtC. The secondgrade is middle emission, with carbon dioxide emissionbetween 20.01 and 40 MtC. The third grade is severeemission, with carbon dioxide emission between 40.01and 60 million tons. The fourth grade is very severe emis-sion, with carbon dioxide emission higher than 60 milliontons. In the past 11 years, the regional pattern of carbondioxide emission in China has changed to a great extent. In1995, most provinces (regions or cities) belonged to themiddle-emission grade or even lower, except for Shanxi</p><p>Province which belonged to the grade of very severe emis-sion. Comparing with the data of 1995, the regional patternof carbon dioxide emission in the whole country in 2000did not change a lot. Most of the provinces still belonged tothe grade of middle emission or even lower, but HebeiProvince stepped into the very severe emission grade. Till2005, Hainan, Qinghai, and Ningxia provinces were still inthe mild emission grade, whereas most of the other pro-vinces (regions or cities) belonged to the severe emissiongrade and even higher. Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, and nineother provinces (regions or cities) belonged to the grade ofvery severe emission.</p><p>3.2. Characters of carbon dioxide emission caused bydifferent energy sources</p><p>In the past 11 years, carbon dioxide emissions caused bycoal consumption in China experienced the process ofdecreasing and increasing, with 696.73 MtC in 1995increasing to 1272.22 MtC in 2005(0.83 times). As themajor source of carbon dioxide emission, coal emissionaccounts for 7985% of the entire emission in China.Before 2000, the proportion was about 82%; at the sametime, it appeared to be decreasing. It is closely related tothe countrys macro-control policies.</p><p>Between 1995 and 2005, carbon dioxide emissioncaused by oil consumption increased in China. The c...</p></li></ul>