about along below during above among beneath except across around beside inside Some prepositions have been formed by combining some one-syllable prepositions: intouponwithout ontowithinthroughout Note: Look in your textbook for additional examples of prepositions.
Prepositional Phrases A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in a sentence. EExample: The dog ran with the man. The dog ran from the man. The dog ran at the man. The dog ran after the man NNote: The relationship between dog and man changes when the preposition changes.
Prepositional Phrase A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition. A prepositional phrase always ends with a noun or a pronoun. That noun or pronoun is identified as the object of the preposition. A prepositional phrase can have more than one object.
Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence. A sentence can have more than one prepositional phrase. EExample: On Monday well meet again. Well meet again on Monday. Well meet on Monday again.
Prepositions without an object can be used as an adverb: EExample: He ran inside. He fell down. He turned the light on. He worked outside. NNote: With an object the prepositions become prepositional phrases.
There can be more than prepositional phrases in a sentence: Example: We always have a test on the first day of the week. In spite of the errors the team won the game. She was standing in the middle of the parking lot.
Pronouns after Prepositions Use the object pronoun form when the pronoun is the object of the preposition. Example: SSubject Pronoun: I saw my mother at the mall. OObject Pronoun: My mother saw me at the mall.
Compound Objects of Prepositions Prepositional phrases can have two objects. If both objects are pronouns, use the object pronoun form. I saw him and her at the dance. If one object is a noun and the other is a pronoun, use the object pronoun form for the pronoun. The movie was interesting to Joe and me.
Summary A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. That noun or pronoun is identified as the object of the preposition. Use the object pronoun form when the pronoun is the object of the preposition. When you have a list of people that includes you, it is nice to put yourself last.
Functions of Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases function in one of two ways: Adverbs Adjectives
Prepositions as Adjectives Sometimes prepositional phrases will function as an adjective. When they do, they almost always answer the question Which One? or What Kind? EExample: Zoo animals have drawn more attention this year. Animals from the zoo have drawn more attention this year.
When they do function as an adjective, they will modify the noun or pronoun to the left of the preposition. Example: New York City has a wealth of museums. The sheepdog from Oregon won the first place ribbon. The loud ringing of my alarm made me upset.
Prepositions as Adjectives There may be more than one prepositional phrase in a sentence. If there are two prepositional phrases in a sentence, the second prepositional phrase can be an adjective and it modifies the object in the first prepositional phrase. On the first shelf of the refrigerator you will find the mustard.
Prepositions as Adjectives There may be more than one prepositional phrase in a sentence. Sometimes both prepositional phrases can modify the same word: TThe new car from Germany with more complex features has become popular in the United States.
Prepositions as Adverbs When the prepositional phrase functions as an adverb, it will answer one of the adverb questions: When? Where? Why? How? To What Extent?
Examples of Prepositions as Adverbs When? IIll see you again on Wednesday. Where? TThe student body will meet in the auditorium. Why? WWere traveling to Germany for cultural purposes. How? TThe team is leaving by bus this morning.
Prepositions as Adverbs To What Extent? Joe missed his flight to New York by a few minutes.
Using Prepositions Correctly To avoid confusion place an adjective prepositional phrase immediately after the word it modifies: I saw a man in the store with a brown hat. I saw a man with a brown hat in the store. He slammed the door in a bad mood. (wrong) In a bad mood he slammed the door.
Using Prepositions Correctly Place an adverb prepositional phrase near the word it modifies or at the beginning of the sentence: I read about local politicians with great interest. (wrong) I read with great interest about local politicians. (correct)
Choosing Correct Prepositions Between and among are prepositions that are frequently misused. Between refers to two people or things. Among refers to more than two. Example: The photograph shows the man between the curb and the street light. The photograph shows the man among four people.
Choosing Correct Prepositions Beside means next to. Besides means in addition to. The two men were standing beside each other. Besides the two men there were also three children.
Summary Prepositional phrases always begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun. That noun or pronoun is always identified as the object of the preposition. Prepositional phrases function either as an adverb or an adjective. They answer questions adverb answer when they function as an adverb. (when? where? how? why? to what extent?)
Summary Prepositional phrases function as adjectives when they answer questions that adjectives answer. Those questions are usually Which One? or What kind? When prepositional phrases function as adjectives, they normally modify or describe the noun or pronoun to the left.