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Oceanographic Literature Review is a monthly selection of references from recent literature in oceanography and related disciplines. Most cita- tions are accompanied by a short annotation or abstract, and, when obtainable, by the first author's address. Subject and author indices are published for the first three quarters of the year, and a cumulative index is published annually. Journal abbreviations are constructed by the rules of the World List of Scientific Periodicals (1963, Butterworths, London).
References are primarily gathered from the approximately 3,500 journals and other serial publications received by the library of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massa- chusetts, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Approximately 5,000 citations are included annually.
The publication's emphasis is on basic rather than applied science, thereby providing a good overview for the interdisciplinary oceanographer and student. Papers of regional or general interest are more likely to be cited than local or highly specialized papers--exceptions being studies of local areas that are little known, and specialized studies in fields that receive wide attention, e.g., pollution. Papers or reviews in other scientific fields are occasionally cited if they are thought to be useful. References are also noted in policy, law and economics.
To avoid repetition, references previously cited are not repeated when translations are published. However, a translation is sometimes cited in lieu of an original paper when access to the original is not feasible.
A subject outline groups the citations under six general categories which divide oceanography into its major disciplines. As there are no constraints on the disciplines that might be employed to study a given region, the classification of an individual reference can occasionally seem
arbitrary. However, the citations are not fully cross-referenced because the bibliography is limited enough to allow a thorough perusal. The reader is urged to browse the entire bibliography for sub-headings of even distant interest. The section C. Chemical Oceanography, in particu- lar, will be useful to workers in all fields, as are certain categories in F. General, where inter- disciplinary references can appear.
In general, references are classified as specifically as possible by discipline. For example, while there is a sub-heading for bibliographies in section F. General, a bibliography would not appear there unless it were interdisciplinary; instead, it would appear under the sub-heading most closely related to its subject matter. An interdisciplinary area study may be put in F. General, but, alternatively, it may be placed by an identifiable major emphasis, or where it is thought to reach the largest number of interested readers. For example, it is thought that marine ecologists might be expected to skim A. Physical Oceanography, and an interdisciplinary study on upwelling might come to their attention in A, but would not necessarily come to the attention of physical oceanographers if placed in E. Biological Oceanography. Occasionally, papers from a particular symposium are spread throughout the bibliography to assure the symposium's exposure to various specialists. The scope and emphasis of the six main categories are outlined below.
A. Physical Oceanography covers the hydrog- raphy and circulation of the oceans, physical properties of seawater and ice, underwater acoustics, waves and tides, and general geophysical fluid dynamics. Aspects of these problems covered elsewhere include: chemical studies in C; bathy- metry, paleoceanography, and sediment acoustics in D; air-sea interactions in B; and engineering in F.
B. Marine Meteorology covers oceanic meteoro- logical phenomena (e.g., storms and precipitation), the physics and chemistry of the marine atmo- sphere, circulation, weather and climatology, and air-sea interactions. Papers in global weather and climatology are cited if the role of the oceans is the primary subject of study. Aspects of these prob- lems covered elsewhere include: wave studies, hydrography and general fluid dynamics in A; and paleoclimatology and geophysics in D.
C. Chemical Oceanography covers the compo- sition and chemistry of the oceans, pollution, desalination, corrosion, and broad geochemical and biogeochemical studies. Aspects of these problems covered elsewhere include: hydrography in A; sediment and rock geochemistry, geo- chronology and paleoceanography in D; biochem- istry in E; pollution and waste disposal in E and F; and engineering in F.
D. Submarine Geology and Geophysics covers bathymetry, marine geological and geophysical processes, and global tectonics. References to continental geology are sometimes included if the role of ocean-floor processes and events is emphasized, but studies of continental marine formations are rarely cited except occasionally in micropaleontology. References to more general terrestrial phenomena (mantle and core, earth tides, etc.) are included if they are thought to be useful to the marine geologist. Studies in historical geology, including geochronology, paleontology, paleoceanography, etc., are usually cited here. Aspects of these problems covered elsewhere include: general geophysical fluid dynamics in A; geochemistry and biogeochemistry in C; climatol- ogy and the atmospheric transport of dust and ash in B; biology and ecology in E; and engineering and resource management in F.
E. Biological Oceanography emphasizes marine biological processes and ecology, biological effects of pollution, biological resources and invertebrate
mariculture. References to the taxonomy and distribution of some marine organisms are in- cluded; however, fields where more specialized abstracts exist (e.g., fisheries, malacology, and phycology) are not referenced unless the study includes hydrographic data, concerns a remote or little known region, reports an unusual find, or is of especially broad interest or applicability. Refer- ences to marine mammals, birds, fish and reptiles are included but not emphasized. Papers on the detailed anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of marine organisms are excluded unless the studies purposely relate such findings to oceanography. Aspects of these problems covered elsewhere include: interdisciplinary regional studies in A and F; geochemistry and biogeochemistry in C; pollution and waste disposal in C and F; paleon- tology, paleoecology and sedimentology in D; and resource management and medicine in F.
F. General covers interdisciplinary approaches and methods (e.g., remote sensing and data pro- cessing), broader papers and reviews thought to be of use to all oceanographers, reference books and other material of a general nature, and popular literature useful in education. Reports and news items on human activities as they pertain to the sea, including diving and medicine, public health, international politics and law, resource manage- ment, and economics are also included. References to scientific meetings, institutional services, biographies, the history and contemporary devel- opment of oceanography or other sciences, and the problems of scientific communication are usually placed here. Papers in ocean engineering, waste disposal, applied oceanography; and ships, navigation and cartography (none of which receive heavy emphasis), are included here, as are miscellaneous papers not classifiable under one of the other main headings.
Correspondence and suggestions should be ad- dressed to F. C. Shephard, Editor, Oceanographic Literature Review, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543, U.S.A.