Predictive Marine Mammal Modeling for Queen Charlotte ... ... Predictive Marine Mammal Modeling for

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Predictive Marine Mammal Modeling for Queen Charlotte ... ... Predictive Marine Mammal Modeling for

  • Predictive Marine Mammal Modeling for Queen Charlotte Basin, British Columbia

    Technical Report

    Benjamin Best Patrick Halpin Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Marine Lab

  • Page 3 of 120

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword...................................................................................................................................................................2 List of Figures...........................................................................................................................................................5 List of Tables ..........................................................................................................................................................10

    Introduction to the Project .......................................................................................................................................11 Survey Design.........................................................................................................................................................12 Species Observed and Conservation Status ............................................................................................................14 Abundance Estimation............................................................................................................................................19

    TIER A. ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE .......................................................................... 21

    Product 1. Using Conventional Distance Sampling ................................................................................................21 Methods ..................................................................................................................................................................21 Results ....................................................................................................................................................................22 Discussion...............................................................................................................................................................32

    Product 2. Using Density Surface Models and Identifying Hotspots ....................................................................36 Methods ..................................................................................................................................................................36 Results ....................................................................................................................................................................40 Abundance Estimates..............................................................................................................................................42 Discussion...............................................................................................................................................................46

    TIER B. COMPOSITE RISK MAP AND VESSEL ROUTING ....................................... 47

    Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................47

    Methods ......................................................................................................................................................................48 Product 3. Composite Risk Map .............................................................................................................................48 Product 4. Vessel Routing.......................................................................................................................................49

    Results.........................................................................................................................................................................50

    Discussion ...................................................................................................................................................................55

    REFERENCES.............................................................................................................. 56

    APPENDIX 1. BRITISH COLUMBIA NAUTICAL CHARTS ......................................... 61

    APPENDIX 2. MAPS OF OBSERVATIONS ................................................................. 68

    Harbour porpoise ......................................................................................................................................................68

    Dall’s porpoise ...........................................................................................................................................................69

    Pacific white-sided dolphin .......................................................................................................................................70

    Humpback whale .......................................................................................................................................................71

    Fin whale ....................................................................................................................................................................72

  • Page 4 of 120

    Killer whale ................................................................................................................................................................73

    Minke whale ...............................................................................................................................................................74

    Harbour seal, haul-out ..............................................................................................................................................75

    Harbour seal, in-water ..............................................................................................................................................76

    Stellar sea lion, haul-out............................................................................................................................................77

    Steller sea lion, in-water............................................................................................................................................78

    Elephant seal ..............................................................................................................................................................79

    APPENDIX 3. MAPS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COVARIATES ...................................... 80

    Depth...........................................................................................................................................................................80

    Slope............................................................................................................................................................................81

    Distance to Coast .......................................................................................................................................................82

    Dynamic Variables: SST, Chl...................................................................................................................................83

    APPENDIX 4. DENSITY SURFACE MODEL OUTPUTS ............................................. 84

    Harbour Porpoise ......................................................................................................................................................84

    Dall’s porpoise ...........................................................................................................................................................87

    Pacific white-sided dolphin .......................................................................................................................................90

    Humpback whale .......................................................................................................................................................93

    Fin whale ....................................................................................................................................................................97

    Killer whale ..............................................................................................................................................................100

    Minke whale .............................................................................................................................................................103

    Harbour seal, haul-out ............................................................................................................................................106

    Harbour seal, in-water ............................................................................................................................................109

    Stellar sea lion, haul-out..........................................................................................................................................112

    Steller sea lion, in-water..........................................................................................................................................115

    Elephant seal ............................................................................................................................................................118