Precision Agriculture In The Beef Cattle Industry. Thomas Hyde SOIL 4213. U. S. Beef Production . U.S. beef production 2002: 27.09 billion pounds 2003: 26.24 billion pounds 2004: 24.55 billion pounds 2005: 24.68 billion pounds 2006: 26.15 billion pounds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Precession Agriculture In The Beef Cattle Industry
Precision Agriculture In The Beef Cattle IndustryThomas Hyde SOIL 4213U. S. Beef Production U.S. beef production 2002: 27.09 billion pounds 2003: 26.24 billion pounds 2004: 24.55 billion pounds2005: 24.68 billion pounds2006: 26.15 billion pounds2007: 26.42 billion pounds 2008: 26.56 billion pounds Total U.S. beef consumption: 2002: 27.9 billion pounds 2003: 27.0 billion pounds2004: 27.8 billion pounds2005: 27.8 billion pounds 2006: 28.0 billion pounds2007: 28.1 billion pounds 2008: 27.3 billion pounds
(www.ers.usda.gov/news/BSECoverage.htm)U. S. Beef Exports & ImportsU.S. beef exports(as % of production) 2002: 9.0 % 2003: 9.6 % 2004: 1.9 %2005: 2.8 %2006: 4.4 %2007: 5.4 %2008: 7.1 %U.S. Beef Cattle imports : 2002: 2.503 million head2003: 1.752 million head2004: 1.371 million head2005: 1.816 million head2006: 2.289 million head2007: 2.495 million head 2008: 2.284 million head(www.ers.usda.gov/news/BSECoverage.htm)U. S. Farms Average age of U. S. Farm Operator:(years)1997- 54 2002- 55.32007- 57.1
Why Is This?- Rising Prices - Fewer new farmers(www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/US.htm)
The Solution:Precision Agriculture- Using Technology to increase production, profits, and ease of production. - More must be produced with less.- When number of producers go down, production per producer must go up.
Solutions:Using GPS/locator sensing to track cattle. Virtual fencingBull separation Pasture managementArtificial Insemination (AI) - Superior selection - Sexed semen
GPS/locator sensingCurrently, a collar with a GPS unit, inertial sensor, digital compass, transceiver and processing unit.The GPS is used to track the animals movements 24 hours a day.They can be programmed to take position data at any time interval.
Benefits Very good way to track large number of cattle.Makes tracking animals over a large area much easier. Each unit has an identification number or name.Allows the user to determine if the animal is healthy.
Disadvantages Current sensor is bulkyNot reasonable for use in small operationsData collection and interpretation can be difficult for individuals who have not been introduced to the technology.
Virtual Fencing Same collar as the GPS locator.The virtual fence data is stored in the unitWhen the cow approaches the fence an warning sound is emitted from the collarIf the animal crosses the fence then a tactical stimulus is emitted Bull Separation Same collar as the Virtual fencingThe collar stores the identity of the other bulls with collars in the same areaIt monitors the location and velocity of the bullsThe collar determines if the bull is acting aggressive by the location and velocity data.If it is aggressive, then a mild electric shock is released to the bull.
Pasture ManagementUsing wireless stations throughout the area to monitor.Contains Temperature sensors, radio transceiver, solar rechargeable batteries, and soil moisture sensor or camera.This system is tied in to the virtual fencing systemPrevents over grazing of the pastures
Artificial Insemination (AI)What is AI?- The technique in which semen with living sperms is collected from the male and introduced into female reproductive tract at proper time with the help of instruments(www.world-agriculture.com/animal-husbandry/artificial_insemination_cattle.php)
Superior selection- Only using semen from bulls that have desirable traits that are above the average in performance.
- Sexed semen- Using semen that has been determined to produce either male or female offspring by using technology.
Superior Selection Using only the genetic material from superior bulls for AIAllows the producer to pick from hundreds of bulls instead of just their own.Prevents the breeding of closely related animals. Increases the production rate.
Sexed Semen Semen that is 93% accurate at predicting the sex of the offspringAllows the producer to have more control over his operation-Process-- Female producing sperm (XX) is 3.8% larger than male (XY)- Semen is stained with fluorescent dye- Passed under a laser at 60 mph (4000 per second)- Undetermined or dead sperm is sorted out as waste
Benefits Dairy producers- Produce more heifers Beef Producers - Heifers for expanded production from top cowsHeifers - 1st time calving Market - To produce steersConclusion The beef cattle industry can benefit from precision agricultureWith the average age of farm operators going up they must adaptIt makes beef production easier and more profitable