Practitioner Toolkit: Working With Adult English Language Learners

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<ul><li><p>Practitioner Toolkit:Working With Adult English</p><p>Language Learners</p><p>Resources and Tools for InstructorsWorking With Adults and Families Learning English</p></li><li><p>This document was designed and written by The National Center for Family Literacy </p><p>and The National Center for ESL Literacy Education at the </p><p>Center for Applied Linguistics </p><p>The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred. </p><p>Practitioner Toolkit: Working With Adult English Language </p><p>Learners </p></li><li><p> 2008 by the National Center for Family Literacy and the Center for Applied Linguistics Printed in the United States of America This document was developed by the National Center for Family Literacy in collaboration with the Center for Applied Linguistics with funding from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, to DTI Associates. The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the government should be inferred. Recommended reference citation in APA style: National Center for Family Literacy and Center for Applied Linguistics. (2008). </p><p>Practitioner toolkit: Working with adult English language learners. Louisville, KY, and Washington, DC: Authors. </p></li><li><p>iii </p><p>Practitioner Toolkit: Working With Adult English Language Learners </p><p> Table of Contents </p><p> Acknowledgments ivv Introduction viiix Frequently Asked Questions xxv </p><p>Part I Background Information Adult Non-Native English Speakers in the United States I 16 Program Types and Challenges I 712 </p><p>Part II Activity Packets Orientation for New English Language Learners II 14 Needs Assessment and Learner Self-Evaluation II 528 Lesson Planning II 2940 Activities to Promote Interaction and Communication II 4156 Activities to Promote Reading Development II 5776 </p><p>Part III Parent Education in Family Literacy Programs Parent Education Overview III 14 Parent Education Instructional Strategies III 58 Parent Education Activities III 916 Sample Parent Education Lessons III 1722 Literacy Activities in the Home III 2326 </p><p>Part IV Topics in Adult ESL Education and Family Literacy English Language and Literacy Learning: Research to Practice IV 124 Assessing Adult English Language Learners IV 2530 English Language Assessment Instruments for Adults Learning English IV 3152 Spanish Language Assessment Instruments for Adult Spanish Speakers </p><p>Learning English IV 5358 Adult English Language Learners and Learning Disabilities IV 5964 Addressing the Needs of Specific Groups of Learners IV 6570 Helping Adult English Language Learners Transition into Other </p><p>Educational Programs IV 7178 Preparing for Permanent Residency and Citizenship IV 7986 </p><p>Part V Resources Parent Education Resources V 14 Adult ESL Resources V 514 </p></li><li><p>_______________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>iv </p><p>Acknowledgments </p><p>This Toolkit was developed by the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) in Louisville, KY </p><p>in collaboration with the National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE) at the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) </p><p>in Washington, DC </p><p>Under the direction and guidance of Ursula Lord, Contracting Officer Representative (COR), Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE), U.S. Department of Education. </p><p>Writers on this project include Sylvia Cobos Lieshoff, Noemi Aguilar, and Susan McShane, NCFL </p><p>Miriam Burt, Joy Kreeft Peyton, Lynda Terrill, and Carol Van Duzer, NCLE. </p><p>Content development, editorial services, and support were provided by Lynn Spencer and Diane DeMaio of OVAE </p><p>Akeel Zaheer, Brenda Logan, Gail Price, Jennifer McMaster, and Justin Keibler of NCFL. </p><p>We are grateful to the hundreds of respondents to NCFLs surveys and to the following focus group participants. Their input on the strengths and challenges of adult English language learners in their programs provided valuable insight that helped focus the content of this Toolkit. </p><p> Sr. Guadalupe Arciniega Sisters of Loretto Nerinx, KY 40049 Debby Cargill Adult Education Prince William County Schools Lake Ridge, VA Christine Hicks Mt. Rogers Regional Adult Education Program Abingdon, VA Jacqueline Isbell Even Start Family Literacy Program Atlanta, GA </p><p> Miriam Kroeger Arizona Department of Education/Adult Education Phoenix, AZ Susan Lythgoe The Learning Source for Adults and Families Lakewood, CO Mary Helen Martinez Community Action Adult Education Program San Marcos, TX Sharon McClaren Alliance Public Schools Alliance, NE </p><p> Connie Sapin Ohio Literacy Resource Center Kent, OH Leslie Shimazaki ABE/ESL Resource Center San Diego, CA Vicky Tangi East Baton Rouge Parish Adult Education Baton Rouge, LA </p><p>This project was funded through a contract from the U.S. Department of Educations Office of Vocational and Adult Education to </p><p>DTI Associates of Arlington, Virginia. </p><p>December 10, 2004 </p><p>Updated for print publication in March 2008 </p></li><li><p>v </p><p>The National Center for Family Literacy </p><p>The National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) was established in 1989 with a grant from the William R. Kenan, Jr. Charitable Trust. Founded by current president Sharon Darling, NCFL began with a simple but ambitious mission: to help parents and children achieve their greatest potential together through quality literacy programs. Today, NCFL is recognized worldwide as the leader in family literacy development. NCFL works with educators and community builders through an array of services to design and sustain programs that meet the most urgent educational needs of disadvantaged families. (www.famlit.org) </p><p>Center for Applied Linguistics The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, non-profit organization involved in the study of language and the application of linguistics research to educational, cultural, and social concerns. A major focus of CALs work is to encourage and improve language and literacy education in the United States. CAL carries out quantitative and qualitative research on language issues and evaluations of language programs; provides technical assistance to schools and school districts and professional development for teachers; and collects, analyzes, and disseminates information about language and culture. CAL houses the Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA) Network, the only national center in the United States that focuses on adult ESL language and literacy issues. The mission of the CAELA Network is to help states that have recently begun serving adult English language learners build their capacity to improve the skills of teachers and administrators in adult English as a second language (ESL) programs. This, in turn, will help promote the success of the learners. The CAELA Network also makes research findings and research-based resources available to practitioners working with adult English language learners across the nation (www.cal.org/caela). The CAELA Network replaces the National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE), which was operated by CAL from 1989 to 2004 and provided technical assistance to professionals working with adult English language learners. This toolkit was developed by NCLE staff. </p></li><li><p>_______________________________________________________________________________ </p></li><li><p>_________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION </p><p>Introduction vii </p><p>Introduction America is a nation of immigrants. In the 1990s, the U.S. immigrant population grew rapidly, and in many states, the foreign-born population more than doubled between 1990 and 2000 (Capps, Fix, &amp; Passel, 2002). Consequently, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of adult learners enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Data from the U.S. Department of Education, Division of Adult Education and Literacy (DAEL) indicate that 1.1 million ESL students were enrolled in federally funded programs in 2002, and almost 1.2 million in 2003. Of these 1.2 million adult learners, almost 50 percent were of Hispanic or Asian origin. Other learners were Africans, Eastern Europeans, and Pacific Islanders (U.S. Department of Education, 2004). </p><p>States with the largest ESL enrollments include Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Texas, and Washington (U.S. Department of Education, 2004). These states have developed infrastructures and systems to serve English language learners (ELL). However, programs in states with smaller English language learner populations such as Alabama, Delaware, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, and North Dakota may not be as well equipped to serve the population. This is particularly true for many faith- and community-based providers in rural areas, as well as for smaller publicly funded projects. Many of the local providers in these new growth states lack experienced staff trained to work with adult English language learners, and their resources and infrastructure are limited. </p><p>The Practitioner Toolkit: Working with Adult English Language Learners is designed to give support to adult education and family literacy instructors who are new to serving adult English language learners and their families in rural, urban, and faith- and community-based programs. The Toolkit is designed to have a positive impact on the teaching and learning in these programs. </p><p>The results of two surveys helped shape the content of the Toolkit. The first survey, conducted in January 2003, was designed to determine challenges faced by educators and community leaders serving a sudden influx of Hispanic families. In order to expand the information to include a spectrum of those who work with English language learners, an electronic survey was conducted in December 2003 (National Center for Family Literacy, 2004). </p><p>In addition to the two surveys, a focus group was convened in January 2004, in Washington, DC, to obtain perspectives from practitioners across the country regarding the challenges that they experience in serving adult English language learners and to garner recommendations for the Toolkit. Participants represented adult education and family literacy practitioners from various backgrounds: a) practitioners experienced in serving English language learners and their families and those new to the field; b) practitioners from rural programs and those from urban centers; and c) practitioners from faith-based programs </p></li><li><p>INTRODUCTION _________________________________________________________________ </p><p>viii Introduction </p><p>and those from state-funded programs (National Center for Family Literacy and Center for Applied Linguistics, 2004). Their recommendations are reflected in the Toolkit. </p><p>This user-friendly Toolkit provides a variety of materials to help practitioners meet the language and literacy development needs of the adult learners they serve. It begins with Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) that address general aspects of adult ESL and family literacy instruction. Each FAQ references the section of the Toolkit that provides more complete information. </p><p>The Toolkit is divided into the following sections: Part I Background Information Part II Activity Packets Part III Parent Education in Family Literacy Programs Part IV Issues in Adult ESL Education and Family Literacy Part V Resources </p><p>Part I presents information for program staff about the population of adult English language learners in the United States. This section also describes types of programs that offer adult ESL instruction, the challenges that programs face, and some characteristics of effective programs. </p><p>Part II offers activity packets. These are descriptions of specific activities that can be carried out in programs and classes; and forms, surveys, and questionnaires that can be photocopied and used. They include a checklist for use with learners that are new to a program; samples of learner needs assessments; specific lessons and guidance for planning lessons for use with learners at different proficiency levels; and instructional strategies for promoting interaction, communication, and reading development in classes. </p><p>Part III presents information about parent education in family literacy programs. The goals and structure of parent education are explained, strategies for implementing parent education are given, and activities that parents can carry out with their children at home and in their communities are provided. </p><p>Part IV provides in-depth information about current issues in adult ESL education. The first article describes the research on second language acquisition and learning to read in a second language. Other articles address the assessment of adult English language learners and provide annotated charts of published assessments that are used in the field to assess the English language and Spanish language proficiency of adults learning English. Additional background articles describe research-based strategies for working with adult learners with learning disabilities and other special needs, helping learners make transitions beyond adult ESL classes, and helping learners prepare for permanent residency and citizenship. </p><p>Part V offers resources with additional information about working in adult ESL and family literacy programs. </p></li><li><p>_________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION </p><p>Introduction ix </p><p>It is our hope that this Toolkit will give adult education practitioners the information and tools they need to work effectively with this large and growing population. </p><p>References </p><p>Capps, R., Fix, M. E., &amp; Passel, J. S. (2002, November). The dispersal of immigrants in the 1990s. Immigrant Families and Workers: Facts and Perspectives Series, Brief No. 2. Retrieved May 14, 2004, from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410589_DispersalofImmigrants.pdf </p><p> National Center for Family Literacy. (2004). Practitioner toolkit for adult English literacy learners: </p><p>Needs assessment summary. Unpublished report. National Center for Family Literacy &amp; Center for Applied Linguistics. (2004). Practitioner toolkit </p><p>for adult English literacy learners: Focus group summary. Unpublished report. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Division of Adult </p><p>Education and Literacy. (2004). State-administered adult education program enrollment: 2002-2003. Washington, DC: Author. </p></li><li><p>INTRODUCTION _________________________________________________________________ </p><p>x Frequently Asked Questions </p><p>Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Terminology </p><p>Q. What is ESL? A. ESL is the popular term for English as a Second Language. It is used when referring to </p><p>the teaching of English, in an English-speaking country, to people whose native language is not English....</p></li></ul>

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