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Presented By: Avinash Mishra Diksha Sikarwar Ravikant Rashmi Saurav Suman Somalika Banerjee Vishal Kumar

CONTENTS Objectives Company Profile Spinning Knitting Dyeing Printing Quality control Conclusion

OBJECTIVESTo study in the functioning of the following departments of Textile industry:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fibre storage section Yarn manufacturing and Winding section Knitted Fabric manufacturing section The Dyeing and Printing section Testing and Quality control section

COMPANYThe companies visited: SCM Textiles Spinners (Thekkalur ,Tirupur). Aathava knitting( SCM garments Pvt Ltd) unit (Thekkalur , Tirupur). SCM Textile Processing Mills (Erode).

COMPANY PROFILE Started in the textile town of Tirupur, in 1962. Founder Shri. Kulandaival madaliar. SCM Textile Spinners is a unit of TCS( The Chennai Silks). SCM Textile Spinners was started in 2003 in Tirupur.

BRANDS Fanujaa ( Jewellary ) Dhoolikas ( Jewellary ) Madras yarn SCM textile Spinners ( exports to U.S.A , Italy , Germany , Hong kong Singapore , Iran , Srilanka , Egypt , Taiwan , Mauritius .) Vivaga Saree ( Silk ) Bublee Kidswear KKV Dhoti

RAW MATERIALSImported Cotton Varieties o PIMA (USA) o GIZA 86, 88 (Egypt) o SUDAGIB (Egypt) Indian Cotton Varieties o SH (Gujarat) o ORGANIC COTTON (Maharashtra) o MECH (Madhya Pradesh) o DCH-32 (Maharashtra) o MCU-5 (Gujarat)

GODOWN STORAGE CAPACITY Variety SH 1859 bales from Gujrat . Variety MECH 400 bales from M.P. Variety DCH32 286 balesfrom Maharashtra. Variety Organic 1759 bales from Maharashtra. Variety MCU-5 4074bales from Gujrat . TOTAL STOCK ( no. of bales ) 8378

SPINNING Blow room Carding Combing Drawing Ring spinning frame Winding

BLOW ROOM To open the compressed bale of cotton. To extract impurities and other foreign matters from cotton by opening and beating. INPUT - Bale weight Above 250 kg Relative humidity maintained in blow room (preparatory) 55-60% . OUPUT - uniformly mixed, clean cotton in the form of chute feed or compressed layer of cotton called lap.

A blow room line carries out the following processes : Opening -opening hard pressed bales of cotton Cleaning - Extract impurities with the least amount of lint loss . Mixing - different varieties of cotton are generally mixed thoroughly to get a proper blend . Lap forming - The loose cotton passed through the blow room machinery is converted into regular sheets called laps .

MACHINE USED - Bale plucking: Lakshmi UNIMIX LMV Production upto 1500 kg/hr Working width is 2300mm Traverse speed upto 3-12 meters/min Bale lay down upto 350 bales No. operators = 2 people

CARDING To open the flocks into individual fibres Cleaning or elimination of impurities Elimination of dust Elimination of short fibres Fibre blending Fibre orientation or alignment Sliver formation Input - Cotton in the form of lap Output - Carded sliver

Feed System There are two of kinds -Lap feed system in which fibers are formed into a lap or compact sheet -Chute feed system in which flocks are transported pneumatically

Principle -Short fibers creating hairiness are to be removed -Cotton introduced in flocks is obtained as slivers -Faults like naps and hook ends can be rectified later -Rollers fixed at certain distances eliminate short fibres

TOTAL 55 Machines, arranged in 5 lines Machine Name- LMW-Lakshmi LC 300A

COMBING To produce an improvement in yarn quality, the comber must perform the following operations: - elimination of short fibers -elimination of remaining impurities -elimination of naps The basic operation of the comber is to improve the mean length or staple length by removing the short fibres. Input -Ribbon Lap Output -Combed sliver

Machine LMW Model no. -LK250ILK54 The sequence of operation is- Feeding of the lap by feed roller - The fed lap is gripped by the nipper - The gripped lap is combed by circular comb -The detaching roller grips the combed lap and moves forward -Top comb comes into action to further clean the lap. The short fibers are removed. -Nipper opens and receives a new bit of lap. -Brushes that clean the circular comb.

DRAWING Through doubling, the slivers are made even Doubling results in homogenization (blending) Through draft, fibres get parallelized Hooks created in the card are straightened Through the suction, intensive dust removal is achieved Input - Combed or carded sliver Output - Drafted sliver

Machinery LMW LRSB85I/DO/6 Positively driven creel calendar rollers By changing the calendar rollers (thickness), the count can be changed. Length of sliver 4500-6000 m/can Machine speed 200-400 m/min

Autoleveller is an additional device which is meant for correcting the linear density variations in the delivered sliver by changing either the main draft or break draft of the drafting system, according to the feed variation

SPEED FRAME Reduces the thickness of the sliver into roving, imparts twists and winds it around a bobbin. The main function of speed frame is to make roving from the draft sliver that has strength to withstand the tension variations at ring frame. Input - Sliver Output - Roving

MACHINE - Lakshmi LFS 1660V Speed frame In this machine, the top rail is fixed and the bottom rail is moved up and down for builder action. Aprons are present in the third drafting roller. Separate photocell is used to correct the tension on the roving. Tension controller varies the speed of the inverter motor. Doff weight 2.5 kg

RINGFRAME SPINNING It reduces the thickness of the roving to the desired yarn count by means of drafting rollers. It influences mainly evenness and strength. It imparts twists into the yarn thus strengthening it and preventing short fibres from protruding. Input - Rove Output - Bobbin

Mechanism Traveller and spindle together help to wind the yarn on the bobbin. The shape formation of the package (cop) takes place with the help of cam There is always a triangular bundle of fibers without twist at the exit of the rollers; this is called as spinning triangle. The length of the spinning triangle depends upon the spinning geometry and upon the twist level in the yarn

Machine name- Lakshmi LR 6/5 No of machine- 53 (22+22+9) No of spindles- 1200

WINDING Objective - To remove yarn faults - To make bigger package (60 gram bobbins to 2 kg cones) by splicing -Lubrication of yarn Input -Cop Output -Cone

Machine: 2Ic USTER quantum with SIRO 338 with USTER quantum with SIRO Model: MURATEC -SCHLAFHORST

YARN-STORAGE AND PACKAGING Process: Conditioning is done for humidifying cotton in order to increase its strength The cones obtained are exposed in a container for around 1 hour at 58-65 deg. Celsius. The huge container has a capacity of about 500 cones at a time. Cones are tested for any stains or shade variation under ultra violet rays.

The packing is done here in three different ways. They are: Packing in Carton Boxes(For regional and local markets) Packing in Bags(For regional and local markets) Packing in Pallet packing(for export)

KNITTING Tirupur is best known for knitting industries Known as the knitting capital of india Aathava Knitting under SCM Garment Ltd is one of the biggest manufacturer of knitted fabrics in the state Employs 100 people Capacity of 10 tonnes of knitted fabric per shift per day

There are basically four categories of knitted fabrics produced in SCM:1. Single Jersey 2. Rib 3. Rib interlock

Knitting Machines

Total number of machines: 71 Machine manufacturers: Terrot (Germany) Meyer and Cie (Germany) PaiLung (Taiwan) Year China (China)

These machines have varying diameters from 18 inches to 38 inches. All machines are equipped with auto stop motions for needle and yarn breakage. Latch needles from Groz Beckert are used for knitting on circular machines

Quality control in Knitting Fabric inspection is carried out for identifying various defects in knitting. These are performed on inspection tables made locally.A total of 5 machines are used for this purpose three 75 wide, one 105 and one 100 wide. Organic cotton fabrics are inspected on a separate machine. 4 point system of fabric inspection is followed for quality control.

DYEING SCM Textile Processing Mills in Erode Process flow Lot opening -Fabric is reversed as during knitting the front side goes behind on take-off roller Grey fabric inspection -Here inspection of fabric takes place for defects and crossed checked for further defects Scouring

Bleaching Checking pH (process before pH =5.5-6) Dyeing (pH = 7-9) Shade checking Soaping (95 degree Celsius for 15-30 minutes) pH stabilization + finishing Grey Storage: Storage on racks with capacity for 80 tonnes of fabric. Five open reprocessing sheds to store fabrics in between the processes.

Machine Details Machine make: THIES Number of operator: 1operator and 1 assistant per machine Total number of machines: 7 Capacity: 1080 kg/batch

Polyester Dyeing: Temperature: 130 degrees Pressure: 2kg/cm2 pH: 4 - 5 Dye: disperse dye Time: 2 hours Cotton Dyeing: Temperature: 60-80 degrees Pressure: atmospheric pressure pH: 10.8 11.4 Dye: Reactive dyes Time: 45-75 min

JIGGER DYEING First the fabric is wound around one of the rollers; during dyeing the fabric is passed through the dye bath and rewind on to the second roller. When all the fabric is passed through the dye bath the direction of movement is reversed, this would be repeated until the dyeing is completed. During dyeing tension is imparted in length of the fabric. Suitable for delicate fabrics & light wt. Fabric. Low liquors ratios (1:2 to 1:6) the consumption of chemicals and energy is low.