PPT Imagined Communities

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    Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism-Benedict Anderson

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    I. Introduction

    II. Cultural Roots

    III. The Origins of National Consciousness

    IV. Creole Pioneers

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    V. Old Languages, New Models

    VI. Official Nationalism and Imperialism

    VII. The Last Wave

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    VIII. Patriotism and Racism

    IX. The Angel of History

    X. Census, Map, Museum

    XI. Memory and Forgetting

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    To offer some tentative suggestions for a

    more satisfactory interpretation of the'anomaly' of nationalism.

    Topic:Nationality, nation-ness, and nationalism

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    Concepts and Definition

    Nation: It is an imagined political

    community that is imagined as both

    inherently limited and sovereign. It is imaginedbecause members will never

    know most of their fellow-members, yet in

    the minds of each lives the image of theircommunion.


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    Concepts and Definition

    It is limitedbecause it has finite, though elastic

    boundaries beyond which lies other nations.

    It is sovereign because it came to maturity at astage of human history when freedom was a

    rare and precious ideal.

    It is imagined as a communitybecause it isconceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship.


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    Cultural Roots

    Changes in the following created the

    conditions under which nationalism may have




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    The Religious Community

    Decline of belief that there is a sacred text

    that irrevocably embodies truth.

    Changes in the religious community gaverise to the belief that nationalism was a

    secular solution to the question of

    continuity that has been answeredpreviously, by religious faith.

    Cultural Roots

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    The Religious Community

    Cause of the fall:

    Effect of the explorations of the non-

    European world

    Gradual demotion of the sacred language.

    Old sacred languages were fragmented,

    vernaculars gained popularity.

    Cultural Roots

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    The Dynastic Realm

    The principle of Legitimacy of sacral

    monarchy began its slow decline.

    Decline of the belief that society wasnaturally organized around and under high

    centers-monarchs who ruled under some

    form of cosmological dispensation or divineprovidence.

    Cultural Roots

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    Apprehensions Of Time The idea of a sociological organism moving

    calendrically through homogenous, empty

    time is a precise analogue of the idea ofthe nation, which also is conceived as a

    solid community moving steadily through


    Cultural Roots

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    Two forms of imagining in Europe, 18th

    century: The Novel

    The Newspaper

    Provided technical means for representing

    the nation, an imagined community.

    Cultural Roots

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    The Origins of National

    ConsciousnessCultural consciousness took the form of

    nationalism due to the interaction between: a system of production and productive relations


    a technology of communications (print)

    the fatality of human linguistic diversity

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    The expansion of the book market aided by:

    change in the character of Latin

    the impact of the Reformation, which led tothe mass production of religious texts

    the spread of particular vernaculars as

    instruments of administrative centralization

    The Origins of National Consciousness

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    Print languages laid the foundation for nationalconsciousness by:

    creating unified fields of exchange and

    communication giving a new fixity to language

    they created languages-of-power of a kind

    different from the older administrativevernaculars

    The Origins of National Consciousness

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    Creole Pioneers Creole States: communities that were formed

    and led by people who shared a common

    language and common descent with those

    against whom they fought.

    Creole (Criollo)- person of (at least

    theoretically) pure European descent butborn anywhere outside Europe.

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    Factors Of Latin American Nationalism

    the tightening of control on creolecommunities

    Liberalism and the Enlightenment

    Creole Pioneers

    The first nations to conceive nation-ness were not in Western Europe

    but in Latin America in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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    the improvement of trans-Atlanticcommunication

    the willingness of the ''comfortable classes'' tomake sacrifices in the name of freedom

    creole functionaries pilgrimage

    provincial creole printmen and the rise of thenewspaper

    Creole Pioneers

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    Old Languages, New Models Onset of the age of nationalism in Europe.

    Two striking features:

    National print-languages were of centralideological and political importance.

    the nation became something capable of

    being consciously aspired to from early ondue to the ''models'' set forth by the

    Creole pioneers.

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    Vernacular print capitalism is important to

    class formation, particularly the rise of thebourgeoisie.

    The nobility then were potential consumers

    of the philological revolution.

    As soon as the events of the Americas

    reached the European nobility through

    print, the imagined realities of nation-states

    became models for Europe.

    Old Languages, New Models

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    Official Nationalism and

    Imperialism From about the middle of the 19th C there

    developed ''official nationalism'' in Europe. The oligarchys prime models were the self

    naturalizing dynasties of Europe.

    Official nationalism concealed a discrepancy

    between nation and dynastic realm.

    Official Nationalism and Imperialism

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    The Last Wave The last wave of nationalism was the

    transformation of the colonial-state to the

    national state facilitated by:

    increase in physical mobility

    increasing bureaucratization

    the spread of modern-style education

    The Last Wave

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    Official nationalism brought the idea of

    ''national histories'' into the consciousnessof the colonized.

    The Last Wave arose in a period of world

    history in which the nation was becoming

    an international norm and in which it

    became possible to ''model'' nationness in

    a more complex way than before.

    The Last Wave

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    Patriotism and Racism

    imagined modeled adapted transformed

    Patriotism and Racism

    Nation came to be:

    Peoples attachment for the invention of their

    imagination, why they are ready to die fortheir inventions?

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    Nation-ness is ''natural'' in the sense that it

    contains something that is not chosen(much like gender, skin color, and


    Nationalism thinks in terms of historicaldestinies, while racism dreams of eternal

    contaminations whose origins lie outside of


    Nation was conceived by language, not in

    blood.Patriotism and Racism

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    The Angel of History Nationalism has undergone a process of

    modulation and adaptation, according to

    different eras, political regimes, economies,

    and social structures.

    To limit or prevent wars, nationalism is the

    pathology of modern developmental history,

    do our slow best to learn the real, and

    imagine experience of the past.

    The Angel of History

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    Census, Map, Museum These three institutions of power profoundly

    shaped the way in which the colonial state

    imagined its dominion:




    Census, Map, Museum

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    Created ''identities'' imagined by the

    classifying mind of the colonial state

    The fiction of the census is that everyone isin it, and that everyone has one, and only

    one, extremely clear place.

    Census, Map, Museum