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ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING The Back and Material Handling Issues

PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

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Page 1: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

The Back and Material Handling Issues

Page 2: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar

The Spinal Column

Page 3: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

The Basic Structure

Page 4: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Short Term or acute effects:• Sharp Surfaces• Dropped Material• Struck-by Moving Materials• Mechanical Stress• Slips and Falls• “Simpler” Cause and effect relationship

Epidemiology of Back Injuries

Page 5: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Chronic or Long Term Effects• Back Ache or Pain• Disc Degeneration• Cause and effect not

as simple, more difficult to analyze

Epidemiology

Page 6: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

• Out more than 6 months only 50% chance of returning

• One year only 25%

• Management and Practitioner Training

One study showed that claims dropped from 200K to 20K per year by providing modified work and conservative treat

Return to Work

Page 7: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Material Handling

• Lifting/Lowering• Pushing/Pulling• Carrying• Weights and Forces• Frequency of Activities• Load Center of Gravity

Page 8: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Material Handling

QuickTime™ and aSorenson Video 3 decompressorare needed to see this picture.

Page 9: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Job Risk Factors

• Weight of the Object• Location (position of load

w.r.t. worker)• Frequency of Lifts• Stability of the Load• Hand Coupling• Workplace Geometry

Twisting/Stooping• Environmental Factors

Page 10: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Personal Risk Factors

• Gender• Age• Anthropometry• Lift technique• Attitude• Strength• Training

Page 11: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

• Avoid extreme range of motion when lifting

• Redesign work station/work area to allow freedom of movement

• Provide handles on material handling equipment

• Provide lift-assist devices and tables

• Unit Load Concept

Examples of Manual Handling Controls

Page 12: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Job Design• Can reduce one-third of

compensable LBP

• Minimize reach and lift distances• Keep off floor• Work station design

• Frequency• Relax time standard• Rotation• Work-Rest allowances

Page 13: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Job Design

• Minimize Weight• Mechanical aids• Carton capacity• Balance contents

• Convert• Carry to push/pull• Push over pull• Use large wheels

Page 14: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Training• Focus on awareness and

avoidance

• Get object as close to body as possible

• Planning

• Use of handling aids

• Back Schools

• Strength and fitness important

Page 15: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

NIOSH Lifting Equation1991 Version

Page 16: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

• Objective: Reduce occurrence of lifting-related LBP

• 1981 and 1991 equations

• 1981 limited to sagittal plane

• 1991 includes asymmetry and coupling

NIOSH Lifting Equation

Page 17: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Disqualifiers for Use

• One handed lifts• More than 8 hours• Seated or kneeling• Restricted work space• Unstable Objects• Carrying, pushing or

pulling while lifting

• Wheelbarrows or shovels

• High speed motion• Unreasonable

foot/floor coupling• Unfavorable

environment

Page 18: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Definition of Terms

• RWL = Recommended weight limit

• LC = Load constant• HM = Horizontal

multiplier• VM = Vertical

multiplier

• DM = Distance multiplier

• AM = Asymmetric multiplier

• FM = Frequency multiplier

• CM = Coupling multiplier

Page 19: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

1991 Equation

RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM

Page 20: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

1991 Guide

• Compare RWL to Actual Load (L)

• If Greater than or equal to 1 problem

Page 21: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

L

RWL

Lifting Index

Page 22: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

1991 Multipliers• LC = 51 Pounds

• HM = 10/H

• VM = 1-.0075 x / V-30/

• DM = .82 + (1.8/D)

• AM = 1 – (.0032 x A)

• FM go to Table

• CM go to Table

Page 23: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

NIOSH Worksheet

Page 24: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Lifting Example

Page 25: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

NIOSH Workshop

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Page 26: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

Start of Lift End of Lift

NIOSH Workshop

Page 27: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

NIOSH 1991 Lifting Calculator

Notes

Enter values in Yellow area.

For Composite Lifting Index (CLI) to be computed correctly, sort tasks in decreasing order based on LI by pressing button.

CLI = 0.3 Period FreqTask (hours) (#/min)No. RWL LI AL MPL L (avg) L (max) H V H V Orig Dest P F C1 24.3 0.2 29.0 87.0 5.0 18.0 30.0 15.0 40.0 15 0 4.0 0.4 Poor2 12.2 0.4 13.3 39.9 5.0 18.0 30.0 30.0 15.0 15 0 4.0 0.4 Poor3 11.0 0.5 11.4 34.1 5.0 18.0 30.0 30.0 52.0 15 0 4.0 0.4 Poor4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.05 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.06 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.07 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.08 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.09 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Hand Location (inches) AsymmetryHandle

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines -- Job Analysis

Destination (degrees)1991 Guide 1981 Guide (lbs) Origin

Packer

Object Wt.Sort

Page 28: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

WISHACalculator for Analyzing Lifting Operations

Page 29: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/ergo/calculator/ergo_workshopIE.htm

Page 30: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

WISHA Workshop

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Page 31: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

WISHAIf the job is a hazard

• Reduce weight of load

• Increase weight of load so that it requires mechanical assist

• Reduce the capacity of the container

• Etc.

Page 32: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

References

• Applications guide for the revised NIOSH lifting equation – On CD

• Elements of Ergonomic Programs – On CD

• Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors – On CD

• Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting

NIOSH 81-122

Page 33: PowerPoint Presentation - MATERIALS HANDLING

ERGONOMICS :: TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM :: THE BACK & MATERIAL HANDLING

What does the worker need to know from this presentation?