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( A technical paper) DEPARTMENT OF : “ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING” COLLEGE: ST.ANN’S ENGINEERING COLLEGE PRESENTED BY: S.MAHESHBABU S.PAVANKUMAR 09NC1A1034 09NC1A1036

Power Leap

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Text of Power Leap

( A technical paper)

DEPARTMENT OF : ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING COLLEGE: ST.ANNS ENGINEERING COLLEGE PRESENTED BY:

S.MAHESHBABU 09NC1A1034 Cell no:8125800110 [email protected]

S.PAVANKUMAR 09NC1A1036 Cell no:9247245138 [email protected]

ABSTRACT1.INTRODUCTION

produced must be exported to the urban areas by means of cables. These cables are normally copper cables whose cost

becomes high as the distance between the plant and the urban area becomes high. Today each and every work in the world is carried out by electricity. Each continent, nation, state, city, town, village depend on electricity to carry out the daily activities. All the inventions till now work on the concept of electricity. Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electromechanical generators, primarily The power exported to the urban areas experience many losses while traveling. These losses are very high when the power is to be transported to a very large distance. Cost becomes a major issue in this process. Also the Time factor is considered as the Electricity produced much reach the urban areas in time. Considering all these

driven by heat engines fueled by chemical combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. This kind of electricity production is done in places which are very far away from the metropolitan areas and also to generate electricity by means of these methods we require large amounts of labor and machine power. The disadvantages of this type of electricity production method include the following. Huge turbines, dynamos and large amounts of natural resources such as Water and Coal are required to produce electricity. As these electricity producing plants are far away from the metropolitan and the urban areas, the electricity Energy design is a very disadvantages Elizabeth Redmond has come up with a solution where in no copper cables, dynamos, turbines and natural resources like water, coal etc are necessary. Losses in this process are negligible. This process is known as POWER LEAP.

2. WHAT IS POWER LEAP?

important concept for our rapidly evolving

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society. Rather than depending on outside sources to fabricate the energy we need, we will take responsibility and harness what we already expend. The challenge is significant and we must propose a

which this is written. Given this we can imagine how much energy we are emitting while walking to work, running at the gym, or dancing at the club! It doesnt take a genius to appreciate the thought of that energy doing something more for us than dissipating into the ground or environment. Power leap process gives us solution to the problem of wasted human kinetic energy. In this a floor system is designed that will harness the exerted kinetic energy, and use it to generate electricity. By integrating these interfaces that generate electricity from our daily activities in public and semi-public built environments, each individual will have the ability to generate electricity for their community. Joggers through Central Park would directly power the lights that make it safe for them to jog at night. Through use of energy generating tiles, people are constantly involved in the very activities that create the electricity they need. Dutifully offsetting their recreational consumption, theyre contributing to the greater energy good.

breakthrough system, yet when effective, it will have a fundamental impact on how we live every day. Such type of a process is POWER LEAP POWER LEAP is a floor tiling system that converts wasted energy from human foot traffic into electricity. Power leap uses PIEZO ELECTRIC phenomenon and advanced circuitry

design, which converts human foot steps into power. Piezoelectricity is a naturally occurring phenomenon exhibited by

certain materials that will deform when subjected to an electric current. Power leap makes use of this unique material property in the opposite way. When a force is applied to these materials, their atomic structure shifts and an electric gradient is created which generates a voltage across the material. When the piezoelectric material is integrated into a circuit, this voltage will create a DC current. At rest, human body is emits 100 watts of power. That is more than enough energy to power the computer on

3. PRINCIPLEPrinciple used in Power leap process is Piezo electricity. Piezoelectricity

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is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics, including bone) to generate an electric field or electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress. The effect is closely related to a change of polarization density within the material's volume. If the material is not short-circuited, the applied stress induces a voltage across the

and barium titrate commonly exhibit optimal electro-mechanical results.

material. The piezoelectric effect is

reversible in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the production of an electric potential when stress is applied) also exhibit the reverse

piezoelectric effect (the production of stress and/or strain when an electric field is applied). For example, lead zirconate titanate crystals will exhibit a maximum shape change of about 0.1% of the original dimension. In power leap process we use this phenomenon to convert the stress produced from the human steps in to electrical energy. The Piezo electric effect was originally found in natural crystals such as quartz, topaz, and Rochelle salt that when compressed a voltage is displaced onto the surface of the material. Today ceramic compounds such as lead zirconate titrate

4. COMPONENTS:The components that are used in this process include the following. 4.1 PIEZO ELECTRIC CRYSTAL: The crystals that utilize the Piezo electricity phenomenon are: The quartz crystal The Topaz crystal Rochelle salt

Any one of the three crystals is chosen and is used.

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Quartz crystal: Quartz crystals have piezoelectric properties; potential they upon develop the an electric of LEAD ZIRCONATE CERAMIC PLATE TITRATE

application

mechanical stress. An early use of this property of quartz crystals was in

phonograph pickups. One of the most common piezoelectric uses of quartz today is as a crystal oscillator. The quartz clock is a familiar device using the mineral. The resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillator is changed by mechanically loading it, and this principle is used for very accurate measurements of very small mass changes in the quartz crystal Lead zirconate titanate or titrate also called PZT, is a ceramic perovskite material that shows a marked piezoelectric effect. PZT-based compounds are

composed of the chemical elements lead and zirconium and the chemical compound titanate which are combined under

extremely high temperatures. Being piezoelectric, it develops a voltage difference across two of its faces when compressed, or physically changes

microbalance and in thin-film thickness monitors.

4.2 PIEZO ELECTRIC CERAMIC COMPOUNDS: Power leap uses piezoelectric plates for the generation of electricity. The zirconate plates used are lead

shape when an external electric field is applied. It is also ferroelectric, which means it has a spontaneous electric polarization (electric dipole) which can be reversed in the presence of an electric field. The material features an

titrate

ceramic

compounds.

These plates produce electricity when they are applied some stress or mechanical force as an input. These plates are

sandwiched between the concrete tile and the glass layer.

extremely large dielectric constant at the morph tropic phase boundary (MPB) near x = 0.52. These properties make PZT-

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based

compounds

one

of

the

most

Portland

cement)

as

well

as

other

prominent and useful electro ceramics. Commercially, it is usually not used in its pure form, rather it is doped with either acceptor do pants, which create oxygen (anion) vacancies, or donor do pants, which create metal vacancies and facilitate domain wall motion in the material. In general, acceptor doping creates hard PZT while donor doping creates soft PZT. Hard and soft PZT's generally differ in their piezoelectric constants are constants. Piezoelectric to the

cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures. Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a stone-like material. Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe, architectural structures, foundations,

proportional

polarization or to the electrical field generated per unit of mechanical stress, or alternatively is the mechanical strain produced by per unit of electric field applied. In general, soft PZT has higher piezoelectric constant, but larger losses in the material due to internal friction. In hard PZT, domain wall motion is pinned by the impurities thereby lowering the losses in the material, but at the expense of a reduced piezoelectric constant.

motorways/roads,

bridges/overpasses,

parking structures, brick/block walls and footings for gates, fences and poles. Tiles used in powerleap are made up of concrete. These tiles have an undulationg surface and the piezoelectric plates are kept on the concretes undulating surface. PIEZO ELECETRIC PLATES ON CONCRETE UNDULATING SURFACE

4.3 CONCENTRATE AND ITS UNDULATING SURFACE Concrete is a construction

material composed of cement (commonly

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alkaline cells), though they develop the same open-circuit voltage. Because of the chemical

reactions within the cells, the capacity of a battery depends on the discharge

conditions such as the magnitude of the current (which may vary with time), the allowable terminal voltage of the battery,

5. POWER STORAGE:The power storage devices used in power leap are the batteries. An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into

temperature

and

other

factors.

The

available capacity of a battery depends upon the rate at which it is discharged. If a battery is discharged at a relatively high rate, the available capacity will be lower than expected. The battery capacity that battery manufacturers print on a battery is usually the product of 20 hours multiplied by the maximum constant current that a new battery can supply for 20 hours at 68 F (20 C), down to a predetermined terminal voltage per cell. A battery rated at 100 Ah will deliver 5 A over a 20 hour period at room temperature. However, if it is instead discharged at 50 A, it will have a lower

electrical energy. Batteries are used to store electrical energy in the form of chemical energy. Batteries may be used once and discarded, or recharged for years as in standby power applications.

Miniature cells are used to power devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches; larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers. The more electrolyte and

apparent capacity. In practical batteries, internal energy losses, and limited rate of diffusion of ions through the electrolyte, cause the efficiency of a battery to vary at different

electrode material there is in the cell, the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus a small cell has less capacity than a larger cell, given the same chemistry (e.g.

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discharge rates. When discharging at low rate, the battery's energy is delivered more efficiently than at higher discharge rates, but if the rate is too low, it will selfdischarge during the long time of

to peak. The current produced here is the DC current. This Dc current applied to the batteries which store the current in the form of chemical energy. When the batteries get charged the required electrical energy is stored and this electrical energy is then used to power up the appliances at

operation, again lowering its efficiency. Even if never taken out of the original package, disposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at a temperature of about 2030C. This is known as the "self discharge" rate and is due to noncurrent-producing "side" chemical

any time. The only disadvantage here is that discharging phenomenon. The

electrical energy stored in battery is discharged immediately when no power is applied at the input. This discharge takes place in the reverse direction. By using a proper combination of rectifier and diodes this type of discharge can be avoided.

reactions, which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts. Discharging performance of all batteries drops at low temperature When a person steps on the tile then the tile gets compressed which generates force on the Piezo electric plate. This force produces a current of around 24 micro amperes and a voltage of 22v peak

6. DC CURRENT TO AC CURRENT CONVERTER: An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC); the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, circuits. Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric 8 switching, and control

utility

high-voltage

direct

current

applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. The electrical inverter is a high-AD power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters was made to work in reverse, and thus was "inverted", to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier. Grid tie inverters can feed energy back into the distribution network because they produce alternating current with the same wave shape and frequency as supplied by the distribution system. They can also switch off automatically in the event of a blackout. Micro-inverters ADVANCED DESIGN BASIC DESIGN

INVERTER DESIGN

convert direct current from individual solar panels into alternating current for the electric grid.

7. POWER LEAP APPLICATIONS:7.1 PUBLIC PLACES

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Public places like 1. Parks 2. Road sides (where human traffic is huge) etc can be powered through power leap. We find many people walking at these places. So, using the power leap tiles would generate more and more electricity as the people will be continuously walking in these places. Parks contain street lights,

1. Bus and Railway stations, 2. Airports and 3. Office buildings can power all the necessary appliances using power leap tiles. Bus, Railway stations and

airports contain huge amount of human traffic. Large amount of people use these places as their means of transport. These places would not run out of human traffic at any time in the day. This human traffic can be used to generate the required electricity necessary for the bus, railway and airports to power up. Corporate buildings, offices

fountains, shops which can be powered when the people jogging or walking in these parks walk or run over these power leap tiles. Road side places have traffic signaling posts and street lights which can be automatically powered using power leap.

make use of power leap tiles to make their appliances powered. If the power is not present in the office then the people belonging to that office can just come and walk on those tiles to generate electricity which eliminates the use of generators.

7.2 ENTERTAINMENT: Entertainment places for people like 1. Pubs , discos and also 2. Auditoriums where live performances like dances take place also can be powered using power leap tiles. 7.3 CORPORATE PLACES: Corporate places like 7.4 RETAIL STORES Retail stores like 1. Shopping malls 2. super markets Shopping malls and super markets make use of power leap tiles to generate power required to run all its appliances like lights, elevators, air conditioners etc.

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9.CONCLUSION: 8. ADVANTAGES:Advantages of Power leap include 1. Production of electricity takes place at the same place where it can be used directly. This eliminates the transportation charges of power which occur in Power leap takes us to the future generation where electricity is produced at the place where we live in. no cable costs, no transportation charges and no use of natural resources like water, charcoal are required to produce electricity through power leap. All the other electricity generation techniques use something as input which may not be readily available in the market. But power leap uses MAN POWER as input which is readily available at any time and at free of cost. This makes power leap different from all the other techniques that are used to produce electricity. So be ready for the next 4. Natural resources like wood, charcoal, water are not used in the production of electricity. 5. Large turbines, dynamos are not used o produce electricity 6. Less man power is used generation electricity producing technique that produces electricity at the place where you live in.

conventional methods. 2. No cables are used to import power from places that are far away. 3. Cost is very very less as power leap doesnt use copper cables, work stations to route electricity to required destinations. So, no transportation charges.

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