Text of Post-Structuralism & Postmodern Texts (3) 1. Post-Structuralism Defined & Marxism vs....
Post-Structuralism & Postmodern Texts (3) 1. Post-Structuralism Defined & Marxism vs. Post-Structuralism 2. Fiction and Reality: Examples 1: context into text, 2: life//story-telling, 3: parody 4. Other kinds of fiction 3. Deconstruction 4. Subject and Power
Post-Structuralism Defined (review) post-structuralism as an anti- foundationalist mode of thinking prevalent in the second half of the 20 th c. Foundations: 1. Reality Representation 2. Man Subject 3. Truth; History; God,..., any kind of Totalization and Center. Diff rance and Discourse
Poststructuralism: Major Concerns Realist Representation e.g. metafiction and Deconstruction Transcendent Knowledge and Subject Textualization of Self and Society e.g. Foucault Truth is provisional; regime of truth. Subjects are fragmentary (positions). Society is a network of discourses.
Discourse and Power: Major concepts 1. From Language to Discourse Nothing outside of Discourse? 2. Power and Knowledge (Truth) 3. Subject and Subject Position 4. Influences on Literary Criticism
From Language to Discourse Saussure Barthes Derrida Foucault Language Or Langue/ Parole Semiotics- wider fields of languages Textual Play, Open text, Meaning undecidable and fluid History + Social practices + texts = discourse Meaning and Signification Scientific (text, but not subject) Signification traces Knowledge & power; Subject position
Discourse: Definition and Example P. 26 Statements Rules about the sayable and thinkable Subjects Romanticism Discourse The Poet with unique imagination; close to nature, etc. Emotion over Reason; Nature over Science. The Poet The peasants
Discourse: Definition and Example P. 26 27 Authority of knowledge, and exclusion of other statements Practices within institutions Historicized discursive formation Romanticism Discourse The forming of Romantic poetry as the canon. Literary reviews, letters, prefaces Contributing historical factors: industrial rev.; french rev.; emergence, dominance and then decline of Romantic poetry.
Literary Discourse: implications No fixed boundaries between literature and other social practices; The author is not the creator of his work. He serves as a label to put on a group of works related to him. (e.g. Wordsworth discourse) Defining some subject positions (of the author, the reader, etc.)
From Language to Discourse Structuralism: Focuses on language and fixed structure Foucault Language (statements) as well as social practices Marxism: Materialist view of history and society -- scientific Foucault: p. 48 --not limited to class; --every knowledge is contigent.
Discourse and Truth Which of the following is an objective and unchangeable fact? Madness is a mental illness. Masturbation causes sexual impotence. sodomy = gay = homosexual = queer = What is the regime of truth which make these statements valid?
Power and Knowledge power both repressive, controlling and productive -- not just top-down; it circulates, working in multiple direction like capillary movement. e.g. the operation of power in a hospital exertion of power through spatial arrangement, the doctor s examination, the posters, pamphlets, the different examination room, registration system, pharmacy, insurance co., etc.
Subject and Subject Position: p. 55 56 Two ideas of subject: 1. Conscious & autonomous subject; 2. Subject to someone else s control. Foucault 1. Constituted by a discourse to represent it (hysteric woman); 2. Subject positions.
Subject and Subject Position: Victorian Women--Hysteria
Subject and Subject Position: Victorian Women Pre-Raphaelite Women Elizabeth Siddal http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/crit.97/PRwomen/final.htm
Subject and Subject Position: Victorian Women Pre-Raphaelite Women Fanny Cornforth http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/crit.97/PRwomen/final.htm