Portfolio Engleski jezik

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    Introduction into English tenses

    Basic English tenses are at present, past or the future, and all other tenses

    are formed by a combination of these three.

    Auxiliary verb and the main verb: an auxiliary verb always comes before

    the main verb.

    All English tenses:

     The present English tenses are:

    Simple present tense

    resent continuous tense

    resent perfect tense

    resent perfect continuous tense.

    ast tenses of English language are:

    ast simple tense

    ast continuous tense

    ast perfect tense

    ast perfect continuous tense

    !

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    "uture English tenses are:

    Simple future tense

    "uture continuous tense

    "uture perfect tense

    "uture perfect continuous tense

    #oing to future

    The defnition and use o the simple present tense:

    Simple present tense is the tense of the English language, and expresses

    action.

    Simple present tense is formed by the auxiliary verb $to do$. The auxiliary

    verb in the present tense may have two basic forms and behind the

    auxiliary verb always comes the main verb in the in%nitive. The forms of

    the auxiliary verb can be:

    &. 'o!. 'oes

    Shats "s" and "es" in the simple present tense.

     (ou wonder where come su)xes $s$ and $es$, which are connected to the

    main verb in the third person singular* The simple present tense can have

    an auxiliary verb $do$ or $does$. Shafts $s$ and $es$ disappear in a

    sentence when we use the auxiliary verb $does$.

    He plays football. + He does play football.

    -

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    n the third person singular, all the main verbs that in the in%nitive ending

    with letters s, x, /, sh and ch receive a uni0ue su)x $es$.

    He watches TV every day. (to watch)

    Also in the third person singular verbs ma1or in certain circumstances

    change $y$ in $i$. This occurs when the main verb in the in%nitive ends

    with the %nal letter $y$, and in front of this last letter is a consonant.

     Jane cries every day. (to cry).

    Confrmation orm o simple present tense:

    I do walk every day. + I walk every day.

    You do walk every day. + You walk every day.

    She does walk every day. + She walks every day.

    Negative orm o simple present tense:

     To express negative form of simple present tense, we only need to add

    additional verb continuation of $not$.

    I do not walk every day. O I don't walk every day.

    Questions in the simple present tense:

    n0uiry form of the simple present tense is formed so that only reverse the

    place pronouns and auxiliary verbs. At that moment, an auxiliary verb

    comes %rst.

    !o you walk every day" Yes# you do. $o# you don%t .

    !oes he walk every day" Yes# he does. $o# he doesn%t.

    Contriutions in the simple present tense:

    n the English simple present tense is often used adverbs always, often,

    usually, sometimes, never, and every, %rst..than, seldom.

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    The defnition and use o the present continuous tense:

    resent continuous tense is the tense of the English language, and

    expresses an action that ta3es the time while tal3ing about it. resent

    continuous tense is also used to express the action that goes on forever,

    for habits, and to express future actions that we have already planned.

     There are also actions that change slowly.

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    He is writing.

    The Sun is rising constantly.

     &na is working late every n'ht.

    I am taking y e*a ne*t onth.

    The ormation o the present continuous tense:

    "ormation of the present continuous tense is based on auxiliary verb $to

    be$ that changes itself by pronouns. At the same time the main verb gets

    speci%c su)x $ing$. t has an important role in sentences of English, so do

    not forget about it.

    Confrmation orm o present continuous tense:

     There is only one important note. Some verbs of English receive or modify

    a speci%c letter while adding continuing 5ing5. "or example, we can ta3e

    the word $plan$. t gets twice the letter n, and create a form of $planning$.

    6erbs that end with the words $ie$ change the that with $y$ 7die8dying9.

     There are also english verbs that end in the letter 5e5. n that case we

    ignore the last letter 7ba3e8ba3ing9. These are the dierences that you5ll

    rarely meet, but still, try to learn and express them properly.

    I am walking now.

    He is watching the telev's'on at th's t'e.

    She is swimming now.

    It is breaking down.

    Negative orm o present continuous tense:

    ;egative form of the present continuous tense is formed by adding the

    ending $not$ that comes after the auxiliary verb.

    I a not  walk'n now.

    You are not  read'n now.

    He 's not  watch'n the telev's'on at th's t'e.

    It 's not  break'n down.

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    Interrogative orm o present continuous tense:

    emember the forms in 0uestion form in the simple present tense* n the

    same way we ma3e up a 0uestionable form of the present continuous

    tense. All you have to do is switch the auxiliary verb to the beginning of 

    the sentences. Then follows the rest of the sentence.

    Why am I stay'n at hoe"

     Are you read'n now"

    Is he stand'n"

    !ers that e don#t e$press in a permanent orm:

     There are verbs of English language that we can5t express with the su)x

    $ing$ in the present continuous tense. These verbs don5t express an action,

    but a state. These are verbs li3e 5be5 and 5exist5, verbs that express the

    desires and emotions 7to hope, to want, to li3e, to love, to hate, to fear,

    etc.9, and verbs which express the experience of the senses 7to see, to

    hear, to taste, etc.9. This group includes verbs and states of mind, and

    thin3ing 7to 3now, to understand, to imagine, to doubt etc.9. will give you

    one example.

    =+;#: She is wanting a car now.

    >+E>T: She wants a car now.

    Some adverbs of the English language have fre0uent use in this tense. The

    most common are $now$ and $at the moment$.

      AST [email protected] TE;SE

    The defnition and use o the past simple tense:

    ast simple tense is important tense in English. The past simple tense is

    used for actions that started and ended in the past.

    The ormation o past simple tense:

    =e5ll notice that the English tense past simple tense is formed by the

    auxiliary verb $to do$, but in its previous form $did$. n a)rmativesentences, auxiliary verb $did$ expresses itself by extension $ed$ by

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    adding the main verb. The only exception are irregular verbs that every

    student of English has to memori/e.

    I did work  every day. O I worked  every day.

    %oule occurrences o the ver "to do":

    Surely, you 3now the sentences in which the verb $to do$ appears twice.

     This often confuses students of English, but there is no reason to worry.

     The %rst verb in the sentence is always an auxiliary verb, and it5s followed

    by the main verb.

    I did do y hoework yesterday.

     The same sentence may be imposed or writed so that the main verb $tobe$ could be hidden. English spea3ers pronounce the full version $did so$

    when they want to emphasi/e. This doesn5t mean that there is no main

    verb in a sentence 8 it is always there, but in this case,it5s only hidden.

    I did  y hoework today.

    Confrmation orm o the past simple tense:

     This is really simple. >on%rmation form of the past simple tense contains

    %rst the entity, the main verb in its previous form, and the rest of the

    sentence. f the sentence contains the correct main verb, we add the su)x

    $ed$ to it. Exceptions are verbs in the in%nitive, ending with the letter $e$.

    n that case we add the letter $d$ at the end.

    You played  soccer last week.

    She loved h'.

    +e bought  a house 'n ,--.

    Negative orm o the past simple tense:

    =e5ll notice that the negative form of the past simple tense loo3s very

    similar to the con%rmation sentence. There is only one dierence. n front

    of the main verb we need to add $did not$. This can be expressed with a

    shortened form of $didn5t$.

    You didn't   play  soccer last week.

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    She didn't learn ath today.

    +e did not  buy a house 'n ,--.

    Interrogative orm o past simple tense:

    !'d you play soccer last week" Yes# you d'd.

    !'d she learn ath today" $o# she d'd not.

    !'d they buy a house 'n ,--" $o# they d'dn%t.

    n0uiry form of the past simple tense is formed by the small changes.

    Auxiliary verb $did$ comes %rst in the sentence. Than comes the sub1ect,

    and then the main verb. +n 0uestions in the past simple tense we canrespond very brieCy, as it5s shown in the examples.

    D

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    &. ast continuous tense can show completed the past action whose

    duration we want to emphasi/e.

    I was play'n soccer today at p.

    !. ast continuous tense serves to illustrate the past action, which was

    disrupted by another action in the past. n order to express this, we use

    the word $when$. The second action which was interrupted the %rst action

    is always expressed in the past tense.

    I was read'n when y w'fe cae hoe.

    -. ast continuous tense is the English tense which can display twoactivities that occur at the same time. =e do this by using the word

    $while$.

    I was cook'n wh'le Jack was wr't'n the letter.

    The ormation o the past continuous tense:

    English past continuos tense is formed by the auxiliary verb $to be$ in its

    previous form $was$ or $were$ G the main verb with the 5ing5 su)x. t is

    also crucial use of the word $when$ and $while$ that have already

    mentioned.

    Confrmation orm o the past continuous tense:

    She was sleeping when the earth/uake struck.

    I was having trouble w'th y car when y fr'end appeared.

    You were eating wh'le he was play'n football.

    Negative orm o the past continuous tense:

     (ou only need to add $not$ behind the auxiliary verb. 6iew examplesH

    I wasn't paying attent'on wh'le I was driving. You obv'ously were not 

    listening when I was giving the lesson.

     Interrogative orm o past continuous tense:

    +hat were you do'n when you crashed the car"+as he study'n when you cae hoe"

    &&

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    +ere you pay'n attent'on wh'le you were dr'v'n"

    As in all other tenses, interrogative form begins with the auxiliary verb,

    followed by the sub1ect, and the main verb, and then the rest of the

    sentence.

      ESE;T E"E>T TE;SE

    &!

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    The defnition and use o the present perect tense:

    resent perfect tense is the English tense with which we can express the

    present and the past tense. =e could say that the present perfect tense, in

    fact, expresses the interrelationship between the present and the past.

    resent perfect tense usually expresses an action commenced in the past

    and ended at the present. t usually refers to the completion of operations

    at the time or day when it5s mentioned.

    She has been here for 0ve days.

    &. resent perfect tense expresses action started in the past that

    continues in the present.

    Th's house has been 'n e*'stence for seven years.

    !. resent perfect tense expresses an action that occurred in the past, but

    for which we can not determine when exactly the act had occurred in the

    past.

    He has oved 'nto a new house.

    -. resent perfect tense expresses an action started in the past, and

    whose conse0uences are felt even now in the present.

    She has broken a 12.

    2. resent perfect tense expresses the recent past action which is shown in

    annex $ 1ust$ or $ 1ust now$. $ Iust$ is located between the auxiliary and the

    main verb.

    I have just fnished  y hoework.

    &ormation o the present perect tense:

     The formation of the present perfect tense is formed by the auxiliary verb

    $to have$ contained in the present tense. Behind him comes the main verb

    in its previous form with the su)x $ed$ or $d$.

    n case you have an irregular main verb, use irregular verbs in the third

    column wich is past participle form.

    &-

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    "&or" and "Since" in the present perect tense:

    $"or$ and $Since$ are often used in the present perfect tense. =ith $for$ we

    express some period of time, and with $since$ we express a point in time.

     John has been sad for days

    I have been here s'nce ,3 o%clock.

    Confrmation orm o present perect tense:

    I have had a bad luck w'th your car.

    She has slept for hours.

    Negative orm o present perect tense:

    ;egative form of the present perfect tense is expressed by the word $not$.

     The word $not$ is always placed between the auxiliary and the main verb.

    I have not had a bad luck w'th your car.

    She has not slept  for days.

    Interrogative orm o present perect tense:

    Have I had a bad luck w'th your car"

    Has she slept for hours"

    nterrogative form of the present perfect tense is formed so that in the %rst

    place we put the auxiliary verb $to have$ in its present form G sub1ect G

    main verb in its past participle form.

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    [email protected] "TE TE;SE

    The defnition and use o the simple uture tense:

    Simple future tense we use to express future action in certain situations.

    Simple future tense we use:

    &. =hen before spo3en sentences we haven5t planned an action:

    Hold on. I w'll et the book. 

    !. n order to express prediction:

    It w'll ra'n ne*t week.

    -. egularly for some verbs such as $be$, $thin3$, $wounder$ etc:

    He w'll th'nk about 't.

    You w'll be at hoe all n'ht.

    The ormation o the simple uture tense:

    Simple future tense is formed by the auxiliary verb $to be$ in its future

    form. The future shape is expressed as $will$. Behind the auxiliary verbcomes the main verb in the in%nitive.

    Confrmation orm o the simple uture tense:

    &

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    I th'nk I w'll buy a house ne*t year.

    4aybe we%ll watch a ov'e ton'ht.

    Negative orm o the simple uture tense:

    ;egative form in the simple future tense is formed so that after theauxiliary verb we will add the word $not$:

    I bel'eve that Jack will not come to work toorrow.

    Questions in the simple uture tense:

    +'ll I buy that car"

    nterrogative form of the simple future tense is formed so that on the %rstplace in the sentence comes auxiliary verbs $will$. Je is accompanied by

    the sub1ect, and then comes the main verb, and the rest of the sentence.

      '(IN' T( &)T)*E

    &

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    The ormation o going to uture:

    +. Confrmation orm: The sub1ect G auxiliary verb be 7am, are, is9 G going to G in%nitive verb.

    I a o'n to leave you.He 's o'n to 'ss the bus.+e are o'n to w'n th's ae.

    ,. Negative orm:

     The sub1ect G auxiliary verb be 7am, are, is9 in the negative form G not Gin%nitive verb.

    I a not o'n to buy th's car.You are not (aren%t) o'n to conv'nce e.She 's not ('sn%t) o'n to eat that.

    -. Inuir/ orm:n relation to the chec3 form going to future, 0uestionable shape is formedby replacing the sub1ect and the auxiliary verb.

    Auxiliary verb be 7am, are, is9 G sub1ect G going to G in%nitive verb.

     & I o'n to et the co5ee or not" &re we o'n to have that co5ee toether.

    =e can see that 5going to future5 is very simple, and that it5s easy to spotin sentences of the English. t is interesting that this form also exists in"rench and Spanish.

    &

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