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Polymer Nanocomposites - swaminathansivaram.in Nanocomposite · PDF file POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES : MOLECULAR APPROACHES TO TAILORING SURFACES Dr. S. Sivaram National Chemical Laboratory,

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Text of Polymer Nanocomposites - swaminathansivaram.in Nanocomposite · PDF file POLYMER...

  • POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES :

    MOLECULAR APPROACHES TO TAILORING SURFACES

    Dr. S. Sivaram National Chemical Laboratory,

    Pune-411 008, INDIA

    Tel : 0091 20 2589 3030 Fax : 0091 20 2589 3355

    Email : [email protected] Visit us at : http://www.ncl-india.org

    Oklahoma State University Stillwater

    May 24, 2010

  • COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH)

    Mission

    To provide scientific industrial Research industrial Research

    & Development that maximizes the

    economic, environmental &

    societal benefits for the people

  • COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR)

    ESTD.

    Multi-disciplinary multi-location chain of 37 research laboratories Largest chain of publicly funded laboratories Total staff strength of 18000 ; scientific and technical staff : 13000

    ESTD. 1942

  • THE PURPOSE OF THIS LABORATORY IS TO ADVANCE

    KNOWLEDGE AND TO APPLY CHEMICAL SCIENCE FOR

    THE GOOD OF THE PEOPLE

    J W McBain

  • NCL : A SNAP SHOT

    • Established : 1950 • Location : Pune, India • Total personnel

    • Permanent Staff : 730 Scientific : 206 Technical : 330 Administrative : 194

    • Research Fellows (CSIR, UGC) : 440 • Project Staff (M.Sc’s) : 382 • Post doctoral fellows : 24

    One of the largest publicly funded research institution in India One of the oldest research institutions of independent India

  • NCL AT A GLANCE

    • Over 220 scientific staff with PhD • Interdisciplinary research centre with interests in polymer

    science, organic chemistry, catalysis, materials chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemical sciences and process development

    • Excellent infrastructure for measurement science and chemical informationinformation

    • 400 + graduate students pursuing research towards doctoral degree; about 80 students awarded Ph.D. degree by the University of Pune every year; a strong and young talent pool which renews every few years

    • Publish the second largest number of peer reviewed papers in chemical sciences (~ 450) , file the largest number of patents, both in India and overseas ( > 50) and produce the largest number of Ph.Ds in chemical sciences in India

  • SCIENTIFIC DIVISIONS

    BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES

    CATALYSIS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    PHYSICAL AND MATERIALS CHEMISTRY

    PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    SCIENCE

    MATERIALS CHEMISTRY INCLUDING

    NANO MICROBIAL AND ENZYME SCIENCE

    PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

    SCIENCE

    CATALYSIS, REACTORS AND

    SEPARATION

    PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    NANO MATERIALS

    THEORY AND COMPU-

    TATIONAL SCIENCE

    BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

  • SCIENTIFIC DIVISIONS

    POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    POLYMER CHEMISTRY

    SYNTHETIC METHODOLOGIES

    POLYMER PHYSICS

    COMPLEX FLUIDS AND POLYMER ENGINEERING

    CHEMICAL BIOLOGY

    PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY

    CARBOHYDRATE CHEMISTRY

    PROCESS R&D

  • NCL : RESOURCE CENTRES

    - National Repository of Molecules (2007) - NCL Innovations ( 2006)

    – Digital Information Resource Centre (2003) – Combi Chem Bio Resource Centre (2002) – Centre for Materials Characterization (2002)– Centre for Materials Characterization (2002) – Central NMR Facility (1998) – Catalyst Pilot Plant (1995) – National Collection of Industrial Microorganism

    (1950)

  • RESEARCH PLATFORMS

    • Clean Technology - Solid catalysts - High specificity / atom economy - Green solvents

    • Chemistry in Unusual Media - Supercritical CO2 and water- Supercritical CO2 and water - Aqueous media - Ionic liquids - Reaction in dispersions, suspensions and emulsions - Solid state reactions

    • Industrial (white) Biotechnology - Bio-catalysis and bio-transformations - Bio-based building blocks for performance chemicals - Fermentation processes Contd….

  • RESEARCH PLATFORMS

    • Chemistry Toolboxes - Chiral switches / single enantiomers - Microencapsulation - Synthetic chemistry tool boxes (e.g. Suzuki coupling, catalytic hydrogenation, metathesis, click chemistry etc.)

    - Crystal engineering and polymorphmism- Crystal engineering and polymorphmism

    • Unusual Reaction Conditions - Photochemistry / photocatalysis - Electrochemistry - Microwave - Sono-chemistry - Plasma

    Contd….

  • RESEARCH PLATFORMS

    • New Processes / Product Strategies

    - Chemical product engineering - Micro-reaction engineering - Novel reactor and mixer designs- Novel reactor and mixer designs - Novel separation processes especially membrane based processes - Computational modeling, simulation and visualization

    - Process intensification / smaller footprint of process plants - Modular and mobile manufacturing - Energy and water use efficiency - Effluent and waste minimization

  • � Nano-science and Nano-technology (2005) �Chemical Biology (2007) �Scientific Computing (2008) � Micro-reactor Engineering(2008)

    CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE

    � Micro-reactor Engineering(2008) �Materials for Solar Energy and Fuel Cells (2010) � Clean Coal Technologies (2010)

  • • Nano-composite is a hybrid material whose distinct

    components are dispersed on a scale of nanometers.

    • New class of fillers : nano-particles, nano-tubes / fibers

    and nano-clays

    • Typically < 5 % of the filler is required to obtain remarkable

    WHAT ARE POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES?

    • Typically < 5 % of the filler is required to obtain remarkable

    improvement in properties.

    • Mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, magnetic, barrier

    and flame retardant properties are improved without

    significant loss in toughness and clarity.

  • MACRO- AND NANO-COMPOSITES

    MACROCOMPOSITES

    • Short or long fibers dispersed in an organic polymer matrix

    • Fibers: Glass, carbon,

    NANOCOMPOSITES

    • Multiphase material comprising of a matrix polymer and a dispersed inorganic phase

    • Inorganics : clay, silica, • Fibers: Glass, carbon, boron

    • Interfacial strength between the matrix and fiber determine properties

    • Inorganics : clay, silica, mica, zeolites, molybdenum oxides/ sulfides

    • Properties determined by the size of the dispersed inorganic phase (typically in nanometer sizes)

    IIT-Madras 020905

  • FROM STRUCTURAL TO FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS

    STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS

    MACROCOMPOSITES • Wetting and hydrophilic Interactions

    BIOCOMPOSITES •Molecular self assembly •Hydrogen bondingInteractions

    • Adhesive forces •Hydrogen bonding •Hydrophobic interactions

    NANOCOMPOSITES •Intercalation and exfoliation •In-situ polymerization and polymerization in constrained spaces •Hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic force

    IIT-Madras 020905

  • Rigid rod fillers, polymer- polymer nanocomposites

    Clays, Mica, Aluminosilicates

    Macroscopically dispersed clays,

    conventional inorganic fillers

    POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES : MOLECULAR HYBRIDS

    1 D 2 D 0D/3D

    POLYMER CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES SIMULTANEOUSLY EXHIBIT PROPERTIES OF BOTH 2D AND 3D HYBRIDS

  • STRUCTURE OF CLAYS

    Montmorillonite Mx(Al4-xMgx)Si8O20(OH)4

    Hectorite Mx(Mg6--xLix)Si8O20(OH)4

    Saponite MxMg6Si8-xAlx) O20(OH)4

    • Layered alumino silicates containing tetrahedral and octahedral sheets

    • Stacked two dimensional oxy-anions are separated by hydrated cations

    • The gallery cations can be replaced by soft organic cations,

    examples, alkylammonium, alkyl phosphonium. This expands the inter-

    gallery distances and also renders the gallery hydrophobic

  • STRUCTURE OF POLYMER CLAY NANO- COMPOSITES

    • X-ray diffraction- most common technique to determine the

    structure of nano-composites – shift in the d 001 peak

    • Intercalated structures lead to well defined X-ray patterns

    • Exfoliated structures show featureless XRD pattern due to

    loss of ordered layered structures

    • TEM offers the direct evidence for de-lamination of clay

    platelets

    • Rheological tools offer new insights into the structure of

    nano-composites; In- situ techniques of structure

    development during processing are also emerging as

    powerful tools

  • TYPES OF NANOCOMPOSITES

    PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES

    • Melt intercalation

    • In situ intercalative polymerization

    • Solution Mixing d 001 peak

  • Reactive Modifiers

    Ring opening Polymerization

    Caprolactam Caprolactone

    Radical Polymerization

    Vinylbenzyl alkylammonium

    cation

    Olefin

    IN SITU POLYMERIZATION AND REACTIVE MODIFIERS FOR CLAY

    O N

    N O 11

    O

    Br Br

    Thermo

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