Pollock Ethics 8e Ch01 5.43.43 Pm

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    CHAPTER 1

    Morality, Ethics, and HumanBehavior

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    Why Study Ethics?

    Ethical issues exist in all areas of criminal justice system(from passage of laws to punishment)

    Learning how to determine the right thing to doiscritical

    Criminal justice professionals have varying degrees ofdiscretion, authority, and power

    Criminal justice professionals encounter a multitude of

    situations in which they must make choices that affectpeoples lives

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    discretion The power and authority to

    make a choice between two or moreoptions.

    Legislators:in making laws and determining punishment

    Police:in enforcing laws

    Attorneys and Judges:affecting justice process

    Correctional Professionals:affecting offenders lives

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    What do crim inal justice professionals

    have in common?

    power to make decisions

    duty to enforce the law

    obligation to provide due processandequal protectionfor all

    commitment to public service

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    The MostCorrupt

    Members of

    Congress,

    2011

    Allegations

    19 members of congresswere corrupt

    14 members violated the law

    or engaged in seriousmisconduct

    5 lack regarded for rules

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    Ethical Demands on Public

    Servants(Edwin Delattre) Wisdom

    Good character Balanced perception

    Integrity (habits of justice, temperance,

    courage, compassion, honesty, fortitude, anddisdain for self-pity)

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    SOURCE: Adapted from Josephson Institute of Ethics, Preservingthe Public Trust,available through www.josephsoninstitute.org

    1. Public Service

    Treating the office as a public trust

    2. Objective Judgment

    Free from conflict of interest3. Accountability

    Open decision making

    4. Democratic Leadership

    Letter/spirit of the law

    5. Respectability

    Avoiding appearance of impropriety

    Principles of Public Service Ethics

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    Goals of the study of ethics-Braswell

    Become aware of and open to ethical issues

    Begin developing critical thinking skills

    Become more personally responsible

    Understand coercive element of the justicesystem

    Develop wholesight (the ability to explore with

    ones heart as well as one

    s mind)

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    Defining Terms

    morals The judgment of behavior as right or wrong.

    The term moralis often used as an adjective to describea personsactions.

    ethics The study and analysis of what constitutes good orbad conduct.

    The term ethics is often used as an adjective to refer tobehaviors relating to a profession(Example: Hippocratic

    Oath for physicians).

    * The two words are often used interchangeably.

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    Why Are Certain Behaviors

    Considered Criminal?

    Public safety is usually the reason given

    In other cases, morality is used for

    determining which behaviors should be illegal(Examples: Drugs, gambling, prostitution,

    and same-sex marriage)

    How do legislators use their discretion tobalance the rights of ALL people?

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    Same-Sex

    Marriage

    Example

    Currently eight states allow

    same-sex marriage How do legislators

    determine what the right

    thing to dois?

    What do you think legislators

    should do? Why?

    Does your state permit

    same-sex marriage?

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    Defining Terms

    meta-ethics Technical investigation of the meaning of ethicalterms, as well as how ethical statements can be verified.

    normative ethics Definition of right conduct and moralduties.

    applied ethics Application of ethical principles to specificissues or fields.

    professional ethics Examination of the behavior of certainprofessional groups.

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    Defining Terms

    duties Moral obligations that one must carry out tobe considered ethical.

    supererogatory An act that goes beyond duty andis not required to be considered good or moral.

    imperfect duties General obligation with nospecific acts.

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    SheriffLandon

    T. Smith -

    2009

    Served as sheriff in Noble County,Ohio for 36 years

    Convicted of a felony count of

    unlawful interest in a public contract

    and a misdemeanor count of conflictof interest (for nepotism and using

    prisoners to perform labor at his

    properties)

    How did he fare in the local court ofpublic opinion ?

    What ethical violations did he commit?

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    values Criteria of desirability, worth, or

    importance.

    Honesty

    Health

    Family Financial success

    Beauty

    What else are values?

    Are some more impo rtant than others?

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    Example ofAgency

    Values:

    Core Values

    of the OhioState

    Highway

    Patrol

    Honesty

    Sense of urgency Attention to detail

    Team oriented

    Professionalism Adaptability

    Self-discipline

    Performance driven

    Officer Safety

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    MichaelVick

    2007

    Convicted for conspiracy in aninterstate dog-fighting operation

    70 dogs involved

    Pled guilty and received 21

    months in federal prison

    After his release, signed by

    Philadelphia Eagles

    Was his behavior ethical?

    Discuss different views

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    Inventory ofEthical Issues

    Individual or Other Employees

    backstabbing and lack of support

    gossip

    sexual or racial harassment

    lying to cover up blame

    taking credit for otherswork sexual or racial harassment

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    Organization and Employees

    sexual or racial harassment by supervisors

    discouraging honest criticism or feedback

    arbitrary or unfair decisions

    inadequate compensation

    inadequate training

    unrealistic or inappropriate demands

    putting employees in unnecessary danger

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    CassCounty

    Judge

    Accused of

    SexualHarassment

    - 2012

    Judge is accused of creating an

    uncomfortable work environment for a

    female court employee.

    Allegations unfolded after judge

    expressed negative issues regarding

    the victim's performance. The Supreme Court says it legally

    could not charge the judge, as he is

    an elected official and not an

    employee.

    What ethics did he violate?

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    By the Individual and Organization

    work ethic (days work for a days pay)

    petty theft of supplies or cash

    overtime abusegifts and gratuities

    falsifying reports

    misuse of sick dayspersonal use of supplies or equipment

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    Morality and Behavior

    Even when people know what is r ight ,

    somet imes they choose to do w rongwhy?

    Criminology (learning, role modeling, & biologicalpredisposition)

    Psychology

    Other fields seek to answer this question

    Are people fundamentally good or fundamentallybad?

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    ThinkingPoint

    Omar Thornton of Connecticut

    walked into his employer, Hartford

    Distributors, for a hearingconcerning his possible

    termination. During the meeting,

    Thornton pulled out a pistol and

    shot ten of his coworkers, killingeight, before turning the gun on

    himself.

    What caused Thornton to carry out

    th is ho rr i f ic act?

    Was he born intr ins ically bad?

    Was he a good person that had a

    tragic turn o f ci rcumstances that

    forced him into a cr iminal act?

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    Ethical Issues and Dilemmas

    Decriminalization of softdrugs?

    Sex-offender registries?

    Death penalty?

    Mandatory DNA testing?

    Three-strikeslegislation?

    Racial profiling?

    Same-sex marriage?

    Abortion?

    Use drugs?

    Turn in your brother as asex offender?

    Vote for the death

    penalty as a juror?

    Lie to a friend?

    Turn in your partner forusing excessive force?

    Stop a black driver in anexpensive car?

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    Steps for ClarifyingEthical Dilemmas

    1. Review all the facts.

    2. Identify relevant values and concepts of all