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PLTB Gas - Technical · PDF filePLTB Gas iv Gas Pipeline Hydraulics..... 47 Steel Pipe - Design & Stress Analysis ... Cathodic Protection Attenuation Calculation ..... 162 Polyethylene

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Text of PLTB Gas - Technical · PDF filePLTB Gas iv Gas Pipeline Hydraulics..... 47 Steel Pipe -...

  • PLTB Gas

  • iii

    Table of Contents

    How to Export or Save Reports in Other Applications? ................................................................. 1

    How to Export Report in Adobe Acrobat? ................................................................................. 1

    How to Export Report to Microsoft Word? ................................................................................ 4

    How to Export Report in Microsoft Outlook Express? .............................................................. 6

    Gas Properties Calculations ............................................................................................................ 9

    Gas Mixture Properties Calculations .......................................................................................... 9

    Pipeline Facilities .......................................................................................................................... 11

    Orifice Meters ........................................................................................................................... 12

    Relief Valves: Reaction Force in an Open Discharge System .................................................. 19

    Pipeline Compressors.................................................................................................................... 23

    Centrifugal Compressor - Adiabatic Head ................................................................................ 23

    Centrifugal Compressor - Required Adiabatic Horsepower ..................................................... 25

    Centrifugal Compressor - Required Polytropic Horsepower .................................................... 27

    Centrifugal Compressor - Fan Laws ......................................................................................... 29

    Reciprocating Compressors - Capacity and Horsepower ......................................................... 30

    Discharge Temperature ............................................................................................................. 33

    Compressor Station Piping - Diameter and Gas Velocity ........................................................ 34

    Local Atmospheric Pressure ..................................................................................................... 35

    Accidental Gas Releases and Pipeline Rupture ............................................................................ 37

    Accidental Gas Release through a Small Hole from Pressurized Gas Pipeline ........................ 37

    Accidental Gas Release Rate from a Full-Bore Pipeline Rupture ............................................ 40

    Natural Gas Pipeline Rupture - Depth, Radius, & Width of Crater .......................................... 43

  • PLTB Gas

    iv

    Gas Pipeline Hydraulics ................................................................................................................ 47

    Steel Pipe - Design & Stress Analysis .......................................................................................... 57

    Restrained Gas Pipeline - Stress Analysis ................................................................................ 59

    Unrestrained Gas Pipeline Stress Analysis - Steel Pipe............................................................ 61

    Flume Design ............................................................................................................................ 67

    Natural Gas Pipeline Rupture - Depth, Radius, & Width of Crater .......................................... 79

    Maximum Impact Load and Penetration Depth ........................................................................ 82

    Pipeline Anchor Force Analysis ............................................................................................... 84

    API - 1117 Movement of In-Service Pipelines ......................................................................... 86

    Pipe Requirements for Horizontally Drilled Installation .......................................................... 90

    Buoyancy Analysis and Concrete Coating Thickness .............................................................. 92

    Buoyancy Analysis and Concrete Weights Spacing ................................................................. 94

    Steel Pipeline Crossings .............................................................................................................. 105

    API 1102 - PC PISCES ........................................................................................................... 105

    Wheel Load Analysis .............................................................................................................. 123

    Track Load Analysis ............................................................................................................... 130

    Design of Uncased Pipeline Crossings ................................................................................... 137

    Pipeline Testing & Miscellaneous .............................................................................................. 139

    API 1104 - Appendix A: Weld Imperfection Assessment ...................................................... 139

    API 1104 - Appendix A: Weld Imperfection Assessment ...................................................... 140

    NiSource Blowdown Calculations .......................................................................................... 142

    Pipeline Corrosion ...................................................................................................................... 147

    Cathodic Protection ..................................................................................................................... 155

  • Table of Contents

    v

    Cathodic Protection Attenuation Calculation ......................................................................... 162

    Polyethylene Pipe Design and Pipeline Crossings...................................................................... 165

    Dead Load on PE Pipe - Prism, Marston and Combined Load .............................................. 165

    Spangler's Modified Iowa Formula for PE Pipe ..................................................................... 167

    Modulus of Soil Reaction (E') - Average Values for Iowa Formula ...................................... 168

    Modulus of Soil Reaction (E') - Values of E' for Pipe Embedment ....................................... 169

    Values of E'n Native Soil Modules of Soil Reaction .............................................................. 170

    Soil Support Factor (Fs) .......................................................................................................... 171

    Pipe Wall Compressive Stress (PE Pipe Crushing) ................................................................ 172

    Distributed Static Surcharge Load Directly over Buried PE Pipe .......................................... 173

    Distributed Static Surcharge Load not over Buried PE Pipe .................................................. 177

    Live Load: Aircraft Load on Buried PE Pipe ......................................................................... 181

    Index ........................................................................................................................................... 185

  • 1

    How to Export or Save Reports in Other

    Applications?

    How to Export Report in Adobe Acrobat?

    Requirements: In order to export report to Adobe Acrobat, version 5.0 or 6.0 of Adobe

    Acrobat must be installed on your computer.

    1. On the report toolbar

    select and click on the Print button.

    2. On the printer selection screen select Adobe PDF (or Adobe Distiller) and click Print button

  • PLTB Gas

    2

    3. After you click Print button you will be prompted to save the file. Select the directory/folder, rename the file and click Save button.

  • How to Export or Save Reports in Other Applications?

    3

    Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

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    4

    How to Export Report to Microsoft Word?

    Requirements: In order to export report to Microsoft Word or any other COM application

    such as Visio, the application must be installed on your computer.

    1. On the report toolbar

    select and click on the Copy button.

    2. Minimize application, open MS Word select Edit and then click Paste

    Note: If report has more then one page, report should be exported page by page, to scroll

    through pages use following

  • How to Export or Save Reports in Other Applications?

    5

    buttons on the report toolbar.

    The imported report may need some additional editing.

    Technical Toolboxes, Inc.

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    6

    How to Export Report in Microsoft Outlook Express?

    Requirements: In order to export report to your email client such as Microsoft Outlook

    Express, the email software must be installed on your computer.

    1. On the report toolbar

    select and click on the Copy button.

    2. Minimize application, open MS Outlook Express (or any other email client) select Edit and then click Paste

  • How to Export or Save Reports in Other Applications?

    7

    Note: If report has more then one page, report should be exported page by page, to scroll

    through pages use following

    buttons on the report toolbar.

    The imported report may need so