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Y D U T S A A D N A G N I N A E M E H T F O S H P R O M O L L I F F U S H S I L G N E E H T F O { X- } Y C S I S E H T E T A U D A R G R E D N U N A s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m l l i f l u F l a i t r a P s a d e t n e s e r P f o e e r g e D e h t r o f a r t s a S a n a j r a S s r e t t e L h s i l g n E n i y B I N A R A H A M A T I P S U P : r e b m u N t n e d u t S 4 1 2 4 6 0 1 3 0 E M M A R G O R P Y D U T S S R E T T E L H S I L G N E S R E T T E L H S I L G N E F O T N E M T R A P E D S R E T T E L F O Y T L U C A F Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S A T R A K A Y G O Y 0 2 12 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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Page 1: PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJIrepository.usd.ac.id/26576/2/064214031_Full[1].pdf20 12 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJIPLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI i A

YDUTS A A DNA GNINAEM EHT FO SHPROMOLL IFFUS HSILGNE EHT FO { X - }YC

SISEHT ETAUDARGREDNU NA

stnemeriuqeR eht fo tnemllifluF laitraP sa detneserP fo eergeD eht rof artsaS anajraS

sretteL hsilgnE ni

yB

INARAHAM ATIPSUP :rebmuN tnedutS 412460 130

EMMARGORP YDUTS SRETTEL HSILGNE SRETTEL HSILGNE FO TNEMTRAPED

SRETTEL FO YTLUCAF YTISREVINU AMRAHD ATANAS

ATRAKAYGOY 02 12

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJIPLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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i

YDUTS A A DNA GNINAEM EHT FO SHPROMOLL IFFUS HSILGNE EHT FO { X - }YC

SISEHT ETAUDARGREDNU NA

stnemeriuqeR eht fo tnemllifluF laitraP sa detneserP fo eergeD eht rof artsaS anajraS

sretteL hsilgnE ni

yB

INARAHAM ATIPSUP :rebmuN tnedutS 412460 130

EMMARGORP YDUTS SRETTEL HSILGNE SRETTEL HSILGNE FO TNEMTRAPED

SRETTEL FO YTLUCAF YTISREVINU AMRAHD ATANAS

ATRAKAYGOY 02 12

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ii

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJIPLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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iii

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJIPLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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vi

roF“ ym ,ymmom devoleb

,yddad emosdnah yM

b tnaig yM ,rehtor

,ylimaf gib yM

,sdneirf ylevol yM

”dneirfyob yzarc ym dnA

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJIPLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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v

STNEMEGDELWONKCA

knahT .siseht ym hsinif ot em gnisselb syawla rof doG wonk I hguohT

tseb eht si siht tub ,gnitirw tcefrep a ton si siseht siht taht gnitirw .od nac I taht

am era erehT .gnitirw siseht ym ni elor gib a evah ohw elpoep yn dluow I

.A.M ,dP.M ,pilA .B .rF .rD ot edutitarg ym sserpxe ot ekil rosivda ym sa , sih rof

.siseht siht gnitirw ni em ediug ot ecneitap oc ym knaht osla I - ,rosivda annA

eh lla rof ,.muH.M ,.dP.S ,itairtiF dna ,snoitseggus ,emit r nac I os snoitcerroc

.gnitirw ym evorpmi hsilgnE ni sffats dna srerutcel ym lla rof hcum os uoy knahT

naS ,tnemtrapeD sretteL gnirb ohw ytisrevinU amrahD ata ni pets tsal siht ot em

sknaht laicepS .ytisrevinu siht ni gniyduts og ot adniL eiC lufesu em gnivig rof

.siseht ym gnivorpmi ni noitseggus dna ecivda

ot uoy knaht gib yrev a yas ot ekil dluow osla I em dnuora ydobyreve I .

ylimaf elohw ym knaht dna em evol ohw ig ym hsinif ot troppus tseggib eht em ev

.yduts anilraK kabM knaht I aitsineD of r .snoitseggus emosewa reh lla ym knaht I

knaht I .emit dna noitaripsni ,em ot nevig sah ehs lla rof ,ailamA aksiS ,dneirf tseb

eeW ,numuM ,sdneirf ym - ot pots reven ohw saerdnA dna ,lasiaF ,gnugA ,eeW

.”!siseht ruoy hsinif“ yas as ot tnaw I dnA ‘ y mirede rükkeşet koç ’ temheM ot

mileS ulğomısaK sih rof , troppus em ekam taht .siseht siht hsinif ot tirips fo lluf

inarahaM atipsuP

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iv

EP NAATAYNREP RABMEL NAUJUTESR

IMLI AYRAK ISAKILBUP NAGNITNEPEK KUTNU HA SIMEDAKA

ayas ,ini hawab id nagnat adnatreb gnaY :amrahD atanaS satisrevinU awsisaham

amaN : inarahaM atipsuP

awsisahaM romoN : 412460 130

naakatsupreP adapek nakirebmem ayas ,nauhategnep umli nagnabmegnep imeD

:ludujreb gnay ayas haimli ayrak amrahD atanaS satisrevinU

YDUTS A A DNA GNINAEM EHT FO OMOLL SHPR EHT FO

{ XIFFUS HSILGNE - YC }

nakirebmem ayas naikimed nagneD .)ada alib( nakulrepid gnay takgnarep atreseb

,napmiynem kutnu kah amrahD atanaS satisrevinU naakatsupreP adapek

nalakgnap kutneb malad aynalolegnem ,nial aidem kutneb malad nakhilagnem

atad uata tenretnI id aynnakisakilbupmem nad ,satabret araces nakisubirtsidnem ,

ayas irad niji atnimem ulrep apnat simedaka nagnitnepek kutnu nial aidem

ayas aman nakmutnacnem patet amales ayas adapek itlayor nakirebmem nupuam

.silunep iagabes

aynrep naikimeD .aynranebes nagned taub ayas gnay ini naat

atrakaygoY id taubiD

:laggnat adaP IRAURBEF 92 2102

,nakataynem gnaY

inarahaM atipsuP

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iiv

STNETNOC FO ELBAT

EGAP ELTIT ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... i

EGAP LAVORPPA ................................ ................................ ............................. ii EGAP ECNATPECCA ................................ ................................ ....................... iii

EGAP NOITACIDED ................................ ................................ ........................ iv STNEMEGDELWONKCA ................................ ................................ ................. v

ESREP RABMEL NAUJUT ISAKILBUP ................................ ............................. iv STNETNOC FO ELBAT ................................ ................................ ................... iiv

T FO TSIL SELBA ................................ ................................ .............................. xi TCARTSBA ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ x

KARTSBA ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... xi

NOITCUDORTNI I RETPAHC ................................ ................................ ........ 1 ydutS eht fo dnuorgkcaB .A ................................ ................................ ....... 1

noitalumroF melborP .B ................................ ................................ ............. 3 ydutS eht fo sevitcejbO .C ................................ ................................ ......... 4

E smreT fo noitinifeD . ................................ ................................ ............... 4

EIVER LACITEROEHT II RETPAHC W ................................ .......................... 7 seidutS detaleR fo weiveR .A ................................ ................................ ..... 7 seiroehT detaleR fo weiveR .B ................................ ................................ ... 9 semehproM fo seiroehT .1 ................................ ................................ .. 9

{ xiffuS eht fo weiveR .2 - }yc ................................ ............................ 31 { xiffuS eht fo weiveR .3 - {/}ycna - }ycne ................................ ........... 41

shpromollA fo seiroehT .4 ................................ ................................ 81 ssecorP cimenohpohproM eht fo seiroehT .5 ................................ ..... 91

T .C krowemarF laciteroeh ................................ ................................ ....... 22

YGOLODOHTEM III RETPAHC ................................ ................................ ... 25 .A ataD ydutS eht fo ................................ ................................ ................ 25

ydutS eht fo hcaorppA .B ................................ ................................ ......... 26 ydutS eht fo dohteM .C ................................ ................................ ............ 27

.1 noitcelloC ataD ................................ ................................ ............. 27 .2 sisylanA ataD ................................ ................................ ................ 28

SISYLANA VI RETPAHC ................................ ................................ .............. 03

.A ehT { xiffuS eht ot dehcattA sesaB - }yc ................................ ............... 13 .1 sesaB evitcejdA ................................ ................................ ............. 13

sesaB nuoN .2 ................................ ................................ ................... 63 sesaB breV .3 ................................ ................................ .................... 24

{ xiffuS eht fo sgninaeM ehT .B - }yc ................................ ........................ 34 sesaB evitcejdA .1 ................................ ................................ ............. 44

sesaB nuoN .2 ................................ ................................ ................... 49 sesaB breV .3 ................................ ................................ .................... 55

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iiiv

ehT .C cimenohpohproM { xiffuS eht fo sessecorP - }yc ........................... 65 oitaxiffuS eht ni sessecorP cimenohpohproM .1 sesaB fo n

htiw gnidnE - eta ................................ ................................ ........... 58 sesaB fo noitaxiffuS eht ni sessecorP cimenohpohproM .2

htiw gnidnE - tna ................................ ................................ ........... 62 sesaB fo noitaxiffuS eht ni sessecorP cimenohpohproM .3

htiw gnidnE - tne ................................ ................................ ........... 65 sesaB rehtO fo noitaxiffuS eht ni sessecorP cimenohpohproM .4 ...... 67

RETPAHC V NOISULCNOC ................................ ................................ ......... 75

YHPARGOILBIB ................................ ................................ ............................. 77

IDNEPPA X ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 79

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xi

SELBAT FO TSIL

.1 elbaT { xiffuS eht ot dehcattA sesaB - }yc ................................ ...................... 13 .2 elbaT { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab evitcejda etanitaL - }yc ................................ . 23 .3 elbaT { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab evitcejda naeporuE odnI - }yc ....................... 53

T .4 elba { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab evitcejda hsinapS - }yc ................................ . 63 .5 elbaT { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab nuon nitaL - }yc ................................ ............ 83 .6 elbaT { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab nuon naeporuE odnI - }yc ............................. 04 .7 elbaT { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab nuon keerG - }yc ................................ .......... 14 .8 elbaT silgnE elddiM { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab nuon citleC ,hcnerF ,h - }yc .... 14 .9 elbaT { xiffus ot dehcatta sesab brev nitaL - }yc ................................ ............. 24 .01 elbaT { + sesaB evitcejdA fo 1 gninaeM lareneG - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ...... 44 .11 elbaT { + esaB evitcejdA fo 2 gninaeM lareneG - {/}yc - {/}ycna - ycne } ........ 54 .21 elbaT { + sesaB evitcejdA fo gninaeM lanoitiddA - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ..... 64 .31 elbaT { + sesaB evitcejdA fo sgninaeM rehtO - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ........... 74 .41 elbaT { + sesaB nuoN fo 1 gninaeM lareneG - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ............ 94 .51 elbaT N fo 2 gninaeM lareneG { + sesaB nuo - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ............ 05 .61 elbaT { + sesaB nuoN fo gninaeM lanoitiddA - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ........... 25 .71 elbaT { + sesaB nuoN fo sgninaeM rehtO - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ................. 35 .81 elbaT { + sesaB breV fo 1 gninaeM lareneG - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ............. 55 .91 elbaT { + sesaB breV fo gninaeM lanoitiddA - {/}yc - {/}ycna - }ycne ............ 55 .02 elbaT sessecorP cimenohpohproM { xiffuS eht ot dehcattA sesaB fo - }yc ... 75

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x

TCARTSBA

INARAHAM ATIPSUP 02( 12 .) A ydutS shpromollA dna gninaeM eht fo fo{ xiffuS hsilgnE eht - yc }. :atrakaygoY fo ytlucaF ,sretteL hsilgnE fo tnemtrapeD

.ytisrevinU amrahD atanaS ,sretteL

hcihw ,sdrow wen fo noitidda ecneirepxe syawla segaugnal gnivil llA ot esab a ot xiffa na gnidda fo ssecorp a ,noitaxiffA .etacinummoc ot esu elpoep

ht fo eno si ,drow wen a mrof ni sdrow wen etaerc ot sessecorp evitcudorp tsom e ni sexiffus nommoc eht fo eno senimaxe yduts sihT .egaugnal hsilgnE eht

{ ,hsilgnE - taht sdrow ni esab eht yfitnedi ot era yduts siht fo sevitcejbo ehT .}yc{ xiffus eht eviecer - gninaem eht revocsid ot ,}yc { xiffus eht fo - hsilgnE ni }yc

{ xiffus eht fo shpromolla eht yfitnedi ot dna ,sdrow - eht dna }yc{ xiffus eht fo noitaxiffa eht ni enogrednu sessecorp cimenohpohprom - .}yc

.yduts siht troppus ot desu era seiroeht lareveS yehT fo seiroeht eht edulcniehprom seiroeht eht ;abmataK dna ,reuaB ,ydarG'O ,nosaelG morf lareneg ni sem

{ xiffus eht fo - { ,}yc - { ,}ycna - rebmun a sa llew sa ,kenamyzS ,galP morf }ycne dna ;abmataK dna ,galP ,drofdaR morf shpromolla fo seiroeht eht ;seiranoitcid fo

ohpohprom fo seiroeht eht .nosnhoJ dna marfloW ,abmataK morf sessecorp cimen dohtem hcraeser yrarbil eht syolpme yduts sihT sesu dna noitanibmoc eht

yduts siht ni dezylana atad ehT .hcaorppa lacigolonohp dna lacigolohprom fodne sdrow hsilgnE fo tsisnoc gni { xiffus eht htiw - A .}yc erew atad 77 fo latot

yduts siht ni detcelloc morf hsilgnE yraropmetnoC fo yranoitciD namgnoL )9002( dna yranoitciD egelloC dlroW weN s’retsbeW erew yduts siht fo spets ehT .)5002(

iro ,sessalc drow no desab atad gninimaxe dna gnizirogetac ,atad gnitcelloc ,snig eht yfitnedi ot smrof citenohp dna smrof gniylrednu eht gnirapmoc dna ,sgninaem

.shpromolla dna sessecorp cimenohpohprom { xiffus eht ,sisylana eht fo tluser a sA - nuon ,lanoitavired a si }yc -

,sesab evitcejda ot sehcatta yltsom hcihw xiffus gnicudorp osla ti hguohtla .sesab brev dna nuon ot sehcatta I ti hguohtla ,sesab etanitaL ot yltsom sehcatta t

semitemos hcatta se non ot - odnI( etanitaL - ,citleC ,hsinapS ,keerG ,naeporuE deniatbo sgninaem nommoc tsom ehT .sesab )hsilgnE dna ,hcnerF eht ni

xiffus noita ro ,knar ,noitisop“ dna ”gnieb fo tcaf ro ,etats ,noitidnoc ,ytilauq“ era elpoep“ ,”fo ssecorp ro tca eht“ sgninaem nommoc ssel rehto sa llew sa ,”eciffo

“ dna ,”X era ohw m .”X fo rennam eht ni tnemevo dna lewov era sessecorp esohTa lewov ;noitresni awhcs ;egnahc tnanosnoc dna lewov ;noiteled tnanosnoc dn

der lewov tfihs sserts ;noitcu stnemges eht htiw dne sesab eht fo ynaM . - tna dna - tne eno tuobA .gnilleps ni tnereffid tub dnuos ni ralimis era hcihw , - meht fo driht

+ toor brev otni dedivid eb nac - tna /- ne t + - yc sa deredisnoc eb osla nac dna{ shpromolla eht gnikat - ycna { ro } - ycne owt elihw ,} - eht gnikat suht ,tonnac sdriht

{ mrof lanigiro - ehT .}yc gniniamer tnemges eht htiw dne sesab - eta sa llew sa rehto suoenallecsim stnemges . lla yehT f lanigiro eht esu { mro - .}yc

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ix

KARTSBA

INARAHAM ATIPSUP .)2102( shpromollA dna gninaeM eht fo ydutS A fo{ xiffuS hsilgnE eht - yc } . fo ytlucaF ,sretteL hsilgnE fo tnemtrapeD :atrakaygoY

.ytisrevinU amrahD atanaS ,sretteL

atak asok nahabmanep imalagnem itsap asahab aumeS gnay urab sesorp haubes ,isaskifA .isakinumokreb kutnu aisunam helo nakanugid gnilap gnay sesorp utas halas nakapurem ,rasad atak ek nahubmi nakhabmanem

atak naklisahgnem fitkudorp - itilenem ini idutS .sirggnI asahab malad urab atak gnay narihka utas halas { utiay ,sirggnI asahab malad mumu gnilap - ini idutS .}yc

atak irad rasad atak isakifitnedignem kutnu naujutreb - amirenem gnay atak{ narihka nahubmi - { narihka ankam nakumenem ,}yc - isakifitnedignem atres ,}yc

fromola - { narihka irad fromola - sesorp nad }yc - orp imalaid gnay kimenofofrom ses{ narihka isaskifa sesorp malad - .}yc

iroeT .ini iduts gnukudnem kutnu nakanugid gnay iroet aparebeb adA - iroet nad ,reuaB ,ydarG'O ,nosaelG helo mumu araces mefrom iroet halada tubesret

{ narihka gnatnet iroet ;abmataK - { ,}yc -a { ,}ycn - kenamyzS nad galP helo }ycne ,nad nad ,galP ,drofdaR helo fromola gnatnet iroet ;sumak halmujes gnukudid

sesorp iroet atres ;abmataK - nad marfloW ,abmataK helo kimenofofrom sesorp.nosnhoJ

d ,akatsup iduts halai ini iduts malad nakanugid gnay edoteM na .igolonof nad igolofrom natakednep isanibmok halai nakanugid gnay natakednep

atak irad iridret sisilanaid gnay ataD - nakanuggnem gnay sirggnI asahab atak{ narihka - sumak irad naklupmukid gnay atad 77 tapadret latoT .}yc namgnoL

yraropmetnoC fo yranoitciD hsilgnE nad )9002( egelloC dlroW weN s’retsbeWyranoitciD hakgnaL .)5002( - ,atad naklupmugnem halai ini iduts malad hakgnal

nad atak alum lasa ,atak sinej nakrasadreb atad itilenem nad nakkopmolegnemf kutneb nad rasad kutneb nakgnidnabmem ulal ,atak ankam kutnu kiteno

sesorp isakifitnedignem - fromola nad kimenofofrom sesorp - .aynfromola { narihka ,nakukalid hadus gnay sisilana lisah nakrasadreB - halada }yc

nad ,ajrek atak naklisahgnem gnay isavired nahubmi aynrasad atak raseb naigabeslaw ,tafis atak nakapurem ini narihkA .ajrek atak nad adneb atak aguj ada nupua

nupualaw ,nitaL asahab irad lasareb gnay rasad atak adap nakhabmatid aynmumuodnI asahab( nial asahab irad rasad atak aparebeb ada - ,loynapS ,inanuY ,aporE

mumu gnilap ankaM .)sirggnI nad ,sicnarP ,tleC nahubmi helo nakhabmatid gnay id ,”rotnak uata ,natabaj ,nakududek“ nad ”atkaf uata ,naadaek ,satilauk“ halai ini

ankam gnipmas - gnay gnaro“ ,”sesorp uata nakadnit“ itrepes aynnial ankam”nakapurem ”iapureynem nakaregrep“ atres , sesorP . - alai tubesret sesorp h

nahaburep ;nanosnok nad lakov nagnarugnep ;awhcs nad lakov nahabmaneprep ;nanosnok nad lakov atak nanakenep nahabu rihkareb gnay rasad atak kaynaB .

nemges nagned – tna nad – tne aynnaaje numan amas aynnapacugnep gnay ,atak irad agitrepes ratikeS .adebreb -k ajrek atak idajnem igabid tapad tubesret ata

+ rasad - tna /- tne + - yc { fromola nakanuggnem paggnaid tapad nad - ycna uata }

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{- ycne .} atak agitrepaud nakgnadeS - anemonef imalagnem kadit aynasis atak{ lasa kutneb nakanuggnem aggnihes ,tubesret - taK .}yc a- aynnial rasad atak

nemges nagned rihkareb – eta atak huruleS .aynnial nemges magareb nupuamnakanuggnem tubesret { lasa kutneb - .}yc

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

As living creatures, humans need to communicate with each other. They

communicate by means of language. Language as the system of communication

has an important role in people‘s daily life. Language is used as the medium of

thought. In addition, it can be used as the media to share what people have in their

mind.

The usage of languages is also learned in a formal field of study.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language or of particular languages.

Linguistics discusses all aspects of language, such as word structures, sentence

structures, word meanings, sentence meanings, speech sounds, intonation, syllable

stresses, and many others. Those aspects are important in linguistics, because they

are closely related to each other and necessary to form good communication skills.

One of the topics that are predominantly learned in all branches of

linguistics is words. The choice of words is important in forming a good sentence.

Although many laypeople might consider a word as the smallest unit of their

language, a word actually has an internal structure which consists of smaller

meaningful units called morphemes. A morpheme is the ―minimal linguistic sign‖,

or ―a grammatical unit in which there is an arbitrary union of a sound and

meaning that cannot be further analyzed‖ (Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman and

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Nina Hyams, 2003: 67). In a more simple way, we can define a morpheme as the

smallest unit of language that has a meaning and a function.

There are two different kinds of morphemes, namely free morphemes and

bound morphemes. A free morpheme is a morpheme that can stand alone, for

instance book, stand, and work. A bound morpheme is a morpheme that cannot

stand alone and has to be combined with one or more free morphemes to form a

word (O‘Grady, Wiliam, Michael Dobrovolsky, and Francis Katamba, 1997: 134).

The bound morpheme is classified into two kinds, namely the inflectional

morpheme and the derivational morpheme. An inflectional morpheme is a

morpheme that will not change the class of the resulting word if combined with a

base, while a derivational morpheme is a morpheme that will change the class of

the resulting word if combined with a base.

When a bound morpheme is attached to the base of a word to create a new

word, that bound morpheme is known as an affix, and the process is known as

affixation. Affixes can be divided into four categories based on their position

related to the base; prefixes, infixes, suffixes, and circumfixes. Prefixes are

attached to the beginning of the base, infixes are attached in the middle of the

base, suffixes are attached to the end of the base, and circumfixes are attached

around the base. Affixation is an important topic which is worth discussing,

because according to Bauer, affixation is the most frequent process to form words

(Bauer, 1988: 19).

In this thesis, the writer discusses one of the English derivational suffixes

that create nouns, namely the suffix {-cy}. The suffix {-cy} was chosen because it

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is one of the popular and productive suffixes in English which can be found in

many common words, such as accuracy, agency, frequency, and vacancy. Even

Indonesian speakers with medium or low English abilitiy might still recognize

some English words containing the suffix {-cy} because they have been adopted

in Indonesian words such as akurasi, agensi, dan frekuensi.

This study aims to attain a deeper understanding of the words containing

the suffix {-cy}. Besides the bases, the meanings and the allomorphs of the suffix

{-cy}, the morphophonemic changes occurring in the affixation process will also

be discussed in this study. This study will also benefit all people who use the

English langauge to communicate, especially learners of English as a foreign

language, because it helps learners to identify every aspect of the nouns that result

from the addition of the suffix {-cy}. Therefore, people who communicate in

English and those who learn English can identify the proper usage of words

containing the suffix {-cy} and apply it in their everyday life.

B. Problem Formulation

There are three main problems in this study of the suffix {-cy}, which can

be formulated as follows.

1. What are the bases that receive the suffix {-cy}?

2. What are the meanings of the suffix {-cy}?

3. What are the allomorphs of the suffix {-cy} and what morphophonemic

processes occur in the affixation?

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C. Objectives of the Study

This thesis has three objectives. The first objective is to identify the base

in words that receive the suffix {-cy}. The second objective is to discover the

meaning of the suffix {-cy} in English words. The final objective is to identify the

allomorphs of the suffix {-cy} and the morphophonemic processes undergone in

the affixation of the suffix {-cy}.

D. Definition of Terms

To avoid misunderstanding, the writer lists the definition of several

morphologically-related terms which are frequently used throughout this study.

1. Morphology

Morphology is one of the fields of linguistics. According to the book titled

Linguistics: An Introduction, morphology is a field that ―examines the internal

structure of words and processes of word formation‖ (Radford, Andrew, Martin

Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen, and Andrew Spencer, 2003: 162).

2. Morpheme

A morpheme is ―the smallest difference in the shape of a word that

correlates with the smallest difference in word or sentence meaning or in

grammatical structure‖ (Katamba, 1993: 24). In other words, a morpheme is the

smallest meaningful recurrent unit of language.

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3. Morphophonemic Process

The term ―morphophonemic process‖ is defined as the rule that ―accounts

for the realization of phonologically conditioned allomorphs of morphemes‖

(Katamba, 1993: 34).

4. Affix and Affixation

An affix is a bound morpheme that is attached to another morpheme or

several other morphemes which consist of a free morpheme. Affixation, which is

one of the most common processes to form words, is ―a process of adding an affix

to a base to form a new word‖ (Bauer, 1988: 19).

5. Suffix

A suffix is an affix ―which follows the root with which they are most

closely associated‖ (Gleason, 1961: 59). Some examples of suffixes in English are

/-iz/ in suffixes, /-iŋ/ in going, and /iš/ in boyish.

6. Base

A base is any unit to which any kind of affixes can be added. The affixes

attached to a base may be either inflectional affixes, which are used for syntactic

or grammatical reasons, or derivational affixes, which alter the meaning or the

word class of the base (Katamba, 1993: 45). In other words, all roots and stems

are also bases.

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7. Stem

A stem is the part of a word that receives any inflectional affixes, namely

the affixes whose presence is required by the syntax, such as the singular and

plural markers in nouns, tenses in verb, and so on (Katamba, 1993: 45). The

examples of stems are cat in the word cats, and worker in the word workers.

8. Root

A root or a ―bare root‖ is the ―irreducible core of the word‖ (Katamba,

1993: 45). The examples of roots are cat in the word cats and work in the word

workers.

9. Nomina Actionis (NA)

As in Szymanek‘s book, he said that ―there exist in many languages more

or less productive derivational affixes used precisely for turning lexical verbs into

abstract nouns. The noun those derived, often called as a category Nomina

Actionis (NA)‖ (Szymanek, 1989:120). In a simple way we can say that NA is a

noun word that derived from a verb.

10. Nomina Essendi (NE)

According to Szymanek‘s explanation in his book ―Another commonly

recognized transpositional category of word-formation are so called Nomina

Essendi i.e. abstract deadjectival nouns‖ (Szymanek, 1989:124). So NE is a noun

word that derived from an adjective.

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL REVIEW

This chapter consists of two types of reviews, namely review of related

studies and review of related theories. The last part of this chapter is the

theoretical framework, which is used to show how the theories work to answer the

problem formulations.

A. Review of Related Studies

This part consists of a review of two previous studies from the field of

morphology that discuss the topic of English suffixes. Those studies are A

Synchronic Study on the Form of English suffix -ion by Bibit Nur Handono and A

Morphological Analysis of the Suffix –ic by Vivin Andhika Yuwono.

In the first study, Handono analyzed the English noun suffix {-ion}. He

formulated two problems; the first problem is about the allomorphs of suffix

{-ion} and their distribution based on the stems, while the second problem is

about the morphophonemic processes that occur in the attachment of suffix {-ion}

to the stems. As the result of the study, Handono found that the suffix {-ion} has

nine allomorphs, namely {-ion}, {-tion}, {-ition}, {-ation}, {-iation}, {-cation},

{-action}, {-sion}, and {-ution}. From those allomorphs, {-ation} is the most

productive one. The morphophonemic processes that occur in the suffix {-ion} are

stress shift, vowel change, consonant change, schwa epenthesis, deletion, and

insertion.

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In the second study, Yuwono analyzed another English suffix, namely the

suffix {-ic}. She formulated two problems in her study; the first problem is about

the process of the affixation of the suffix {–ic}, and the second problem is about

the morphophonemic processes that occur after the affixation of the suffix {–ic}.

As a result of the study, she found that the suffix {-ic} functions to form new

words with a change in grammatical category, namely creating adjectives from

nouns, but without any major change in meaning semantically. The suffix {-ic}

has some allomorphs, namely {-tic}, {-itic}, and {-atic}, which are found in the

stems that are borrowed directly from Greek and Latin, such as the words end in

the segments –sis, -ma, -x, -ite, -it is, and –m. However, Yuwono did not find any

definite answer on whether the variants {-tic}, {-itic}, and {-atic} are the

allomorphs of the suffix {–ic} because they are not in complementary distribution,

and it is difficult to determine the stem after the suffixation. The morphophonemic

processes that occur in the suffix {-tic} are stress shift, consonant and vowel

changes.

In the two related studies above, both researchers discuss an English

suffix. The first related study is about the noun suffix {-ion}, while the second

study is about the adjectival suffix {-ic}. The first study is related to this study

because both studies discuss a noun suffix, but this study discusses the suffix

{-cy}, which is different from the one discussed in the first study. The second

study also has the same object as this study, namely about the suffix. Furthermore,

the second study used many similar theories which are now used to analyze the

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object of this study. However, this study discusses a noun suffix, while the second

related study discusses an adjectival suffix.

B. Review of Related Theories

1. Theories of Morphemes

In the book titled An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics, Gleason

described a morpheme as the smallest meaningful unit in the structure of the

language. The morpheme as the smallest meaningful unit means that a morpheme

is a unit which cannot be divided without destroying or drastically altering the

meaning (Gleason, 1961: 53). There are two important traits to keep in mind about

morphemes; a morpheme is a recurrent phoneme or sequence of phonemes, and a

morpheme is not identical to a syllable or a word.

Firstly, a morpheme is generally a short, recurrent sequence of phonemes,

and it may even consist of only a single phoneme (Gleason, 1961: 52-53). For

example, the morpheme -s consists of only one phoneme, but it is still meaningful.

The morpheme -s has a big role in the word that it is combined with. When we

combine the morpheme -s with the word mango, it will result in the new word

mangoes. The new word produced this process is not *mangos, but mangoes, and

the morpheme -s serves an important function to change the word from a singular

noun into plural noun. On the other hand, not all recurrent sequences are

morphemes (1961: 53).

Secondly, although some short morphemes resemble a syllable, a

morpheme ―is not identical with a syllable‖ (Gleason, 1961: 53). A syllable is a

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unit of sound and does not have any meaning, but a morpheme is a unit of

meaning and thus should be meaningful. For example, the word unpredictable has

five syllables; un, pre, dic, ta, and ble, but if we talk about the morpheme, it only

has three morphemes; un-, predict, and -able. The morpheme un- happens to

resemble the syllable un-, but the other morphemes are not identical to the

syllables.

Similarly, although some morphemes resemble a word, a morpheme is not

necessarily a word. A word is a sound or group of sounds that expresses a

meaning and forms an independent unit of a language, while a morpheme is the

smallest grammatical unit in a word (Finch, 2000: 104). In English, a word may

consist of several morphemes or just one morpheme. For example, the word polite

consists of only one morpheme. When combined with the noun suffix {-ness}, the

result is politeness, which is still one word but now consists of two morphemes,

namely polite and -ness. When further combined with the prefix {im-}, the result

is impoliteness, which is still one word but now consists of three morphemes,

namely im-, polite, and -ness.

Based on the independence to form a word, there are two types of

morpheme; free morpheme and bound morpheme. A free morpheme is a

morpheme that ―can be a word by itself‖, while a bound morpheme is a

morpheme that ―must be attached to another element‖ (O‘Grady et al, 1997: 134).

Some examples of free morphemes are house and happy, while examples of

bound morphemes are the plural {-s} and the negative prefix {in-}.

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An affix is a bound morpheme that is attached to another morpheme or

several other morphemes which consist of a free morpheme. Affixes are essential

in the English language, because affixation is the most frequent process to form

words in this language (Bauer, 1988: 19) and consequently many English words

are formed through affixation. Based on the position, affixes are classified into

four kinds, namely the prefix, the infix, the suffix, and the circumfix. A prefix is

an affix that is placed before the stem. For example, in the word undo, the prefix

is {un-} and the stem is do, so undo {un-} + do. An infix is an affix that is

placed inside or in the middle of a stem. In the Indonesian word kinerja, the infix

{-in-} is inserted in the middle of the stem kerja. A suffix is an affix that is placed

after the stem. For example, the word economic comes from the stem economy

plus the suffix {–ic}, so economic economy + {–ic}. A circumfix is an affix

that is placed around, namely before and after, a stem. For example, the word

kelaparan comes from the stem lapar plus the circumfix {ke—an}, so kelaparan

{ke-} + lapar + {-an}. In English, only prefixes and suffixes are common.

Based on the function, the bound morphemes can be divided into two

functional categories; derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes

(Katamba, 1993: 47). Derivational morphemes are morphemes that form ―a

word with a meaning and/or category distinct from that of its base‖ if attached to a

base (O‘Grady et al, 1997: 144). When a derivational morpheme is attached to a

base, it can change the meaning or the class of the new resulting word. Some

example of the derivational morphemes are the noun suffix {-cy}, the adjectival

suffix {-ic}, and the adverbial suffix {-ly}. When a base word is combined with

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this kind of suffixes, it will change the class of the new word. When the word

private, which is an adjective, is combined with the derivational suffix {-cy}, it

becomes privacy, which is a noun, as shown in the process of private + {-cy}

privacy. An adjectival suffix {-ic} will change the word economy, which is a

noun, into economic, which is an adjective, in the process of economy + {-ic}

economic.

Meanwhile, inflectional morphemes are morphemes that are used for

syntactic or grammatical reasons (Katamba, 1993: 45). It never changes the

meaning or the word class of the base. Some examples of the inflectional

morphemes are the plural suffix {-s}, the present tense suffix {-s}, and the past

tense suffix {-ed}. As discussed before, these suffixes will not change the word

class. When the word book, which is a noun, is combined with the inflectional

suffix {-s}, it results in the new word books, which is still a noun. The same thing

happens in the processes of walk + {-s} walks and walk + {-ed} walked.

When the word walk, which is a verb, is combined with the inflectional suffix {-s}

to mark the third-person singular present tense or the inflectional suffix {-ed} to

mark the past tense, the resulting words are walks and walked respectively, which

are still verbs.

Inflectional morphemes cannot be separated from stems. A stem is the part

of a word that receives any inflectional affixes, namely the affixes whose presence

is required by the syntax, such as the singular and plural markers in nouns, tenses

in verb, and so on (Katamba, 1993: 45). For instance, in the process cat + {-s}

cats, the stem is cat, to which the inflectional suffix {-s} is attached. Similarly, in

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the process work + {-er} + {-s} workers, the stem is worker, to which the

inflectional suffix {-s} is attached, instead of work.

On the other hand, a root is the ―irreducible core of the word‖ (Katamba,

1993: 45), or in other words, the core of the word before it is combined with any

affixes. For instance, in the processes cat + {-s} cats and work + {-er} + {-s}

workers, the roots are cat and work respectively. An unadorned root like boy

can be a base since it can have attached to it inflectional affixes like {–s} to form

the plural boys or derivational affixes like {–ish} to turn the noun boy into the

adjective boyish. A base is any unit to which any kind of affixes can be added,

regardless of whether the affixes are inflectional or derivational (Katamba, 1993:

45). In other words, all roots and stems are also bases.

2. Review of the Suffix {-cy}

According to Webster’s New World College Dictionary, the suffix {-cy}

has two meanings. The first is ―quality, condition, state, or fact of being,‖ as seen

in the words accuracy and infancy. The second meaning is ―position, rank, or

office of,‖ as seen in the words baronetcy and chaplaincy (Webster, 2005: 359).

Similarly, according to Plag in the book Word Formation in English, derivatives

that receive the suffix {-cy} can denote ―states, properties, qualities, or facts,‖ or

metaphorically can refer to an ―office or institution,‖ for example in the word

presidency (Plag, 2002: 110-111).

Additionally, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary states that the suffix

{-cy} is attached to nouns and adjectives to form nouns (Oxford, 1995: 290). To

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be precise, as described further in Word Formation in English, the suffix {-cy}

attaches productively to nouns and adjectives that end in -ant/-ent sound, for

example presidency and efficiency respectively, as well as adjectives that end in

-ate sound, for instance adequacy and intimacy (Plag, 2002: 110).

Szymanek said that the form of the Nomina Essendi (NE) suffix involved

in such derivations is not quite transparent synchronically. According to

Marchand in Szymanek‘s book (1968: 232), ―in strictly descriptive terms, /si/ is

added to words in / nt/ whose final [t] is dropped in derivation‖. The process of

dropping the t into s is called spirantization. The examples of the morphological

type Xate Xacy are; accurate accuracy, adequate adequacy, delicate

delicacy, immediate immediacy, private privacy, etc (Szymanek, 1989: 166-

167)

3. Review of the Suffix {-ancy}/{-ency}

The Webster’s New World College Dictionary lists the suffixes {-ence}

and {-ency} together as one entry, and the suffixes {-ance} and {-ancy} together

as another entry. Unlike Webster’s, the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

lists the suffix {-ancy} and {-ency} together as one entry, thus considering them

as variants or allomorphs of the same suffix. Meanwhile, both Szymanek in

Introduction to Morphological Analysis and Plag in Word Formation in English

lists the suffix {-ancy}, {-ency}, {-ance}, and {-ence} together as variants of the

same suffix. Although the analysis of this study will only focus on the suffixes

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{-ancy}/{-ency} as the variants that are related to the suffix {-cy}, which is the

main topic of this study, the review in this part discusses all four variants as

necessary.

According to Webster’s New World College Dictionary, the suffix {-ancy}

means ―the act or process of; the quality or state of being‖ (Webster, 2005: 51),

while {-ency} means ―act, fact, quality, state, result, or degree‖ (Webster, 2005:

468). As we can see, both suffixes actually have similar definition or meaning.

Both {-ancy} and {-ency} derived from the Latin suffixes -antia and -entia

(Webster, 2005: 51).

This suffix can be attached to nouns, adjectives, and verbs to form nouns,

although {-ancy}/{-ency} formations tend to be ―de-adjectival,‖ unlike {-ance}/

{-ence} formations, which tend to be ―deverbal‖ (Marchand in Plag, 2002: 110).

Szymanek further discusses that the {-ancy}/{-ency} suffixes are often attached to

corresponding Latinate adjectives that end with -ant or -ent. The resulting

derivations with the {-ancy}/{-ency} suffixes are called the Nomina Essendy

(NE) forms of those -ant/-ent adjectives (1989: 163). However, not all adjectives

that end with -ant or -ent have corresponding nominalizations with the suffix

{-ancy}/{-ency}. Some -ant/-ent adjectives have corresponding nominalizations

with {-ance}/{-ence} instead, for example in elegant elegance (not

*ellegancy), absent absence (not *abcency) (Szymanek, 1989: 164).

The suffix {-ancy}/{-ency} is described as ―closely related‖ to the suffix

{-cy}, as they both ―attach productively‖ to the -ant/-ent adjectives (Plag, 2002:

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110). As a result, there are many derivatives that can be analyzed as having two

suffixes, namely {-ant}/{-ent}+{-cy}, or only one suffix, namely {-ancy}/

{-ency}. For example, the word dependency can be analyzed either as depend +

{-ent} + {-cy} or depend + {-ency}. This argument is supported by Szymanek‘s

first explanation about affixation process with the suffix {-ancy}/{-ency}.

Szymanek argues that the form of the suffix {-ancy}/{-ency} is difficult to

determine synchronically, but there are at least two interpretations; the first

interpretation is that the basic shape of the suffix is phonologically /si/, which is

added to the adjective only after its final /-t/ has been dropped, and the second

interpretation is that the aforementioned phonological shape /si/ is represented

underlyingly as a glide /y/, changed into [i] and then [ɪ] in the course of

phonological derivation, so that it may trigger the process of spirantization (ts)

stem finally. Before the suffixal glide is deleted, it causes spirantization of the

base‘s final consonant: ts (Szymanek, 1989: 163-164).

Plag proposes a way to determine whether all the results of {-ancy}/

{-ency} suffixation always contain two suffixes like in the example of depend +

{-ent} + {-cy} above, namely that ―we would find -ance/-ence/-ancy/-ency

nominals only if there are corresponding -ant/-ent adjectives‖ (Plag, 2002: 110).

As the result, the words riddance and furtherance do not have the corresponding

adjectives *riddant and *furtherant, so Plag concludes that there is ―an

independent suffix -ance, in addition to a suffix combination -ant -ce‖ (Plag,

2002: 110). However, Plag‘s finding only applies to the {-ance}/{-ence} nouns,

while all the {-ancy}/{-ency} nouns do have the corresponding -ant/-ent

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adjectives. Therefore, the suffix {-ancy}/{-ency} remains closely related to the

suffix {-cy}.

In Introduction to Morphological Analysis, Szymanek also discusses two

problems concerning the {-ancy}/{-ency} suffix.

Yet, the nature of derivational relations characterizing many other

Xence/Xance nouns is rather more obscure, precisely in those cases where

the putative adjectival base is relatable to an independently existing verb.

Then the abstract nominalization can often be interpreted as both a NA and

a NE (Szymanek, 1989: 164-165).

Some examples of the abstract nominalizations above are:

persist persistent persistence

resist resistant resistance

The present participle verb form can be persisting and being persistent in the first

example, and it can be resisting and being resistant in the second example.

The variants of the former kind [Xce] are, as a rule, more commonly used

in present-day English, whereas those in -cy are rarer and more likely to

have secondary, idiosyncratic meanings; cf. brilliancy ‗quality or state of

being brilliant‘ but also ‗an instance of brilliance‘. Having outlined the

formal inconsistencies observable in the derivation of NE from adjectives

in –ant/-ent, we now proceed to illustrate the regular derivations where the

abstract noun has the form Xancy/Xency only and does not contain a verbal

stem (Szymanek, 1989: 165).

The other examples are (1) Xence, Xency: complacent complacence

complacency, consistent consistence consistency; (2) Xance, Xancy:

abundant abundance abundancy, flamboyant flamboyance

flamboyancy. And the examples of the abstract noun that has the form

Xancy/Xency only and does not contain a verbal stem are (1) Xant, Xancy: militant

militancy, redundant redundancy; (2) Xent, Xency: adjacent adjacency,

decent decency.

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4. Theory of Allomorphs

In the book titled Linguistics: An Introduction, morphs are ―the shapes of

morphemes as they are actually pronounced in a word‖ (Radford et al, 2003: 175).

In many cases, a morpheme can have more two morphs or more, which are known

as allomorphs of that morpheme (Radford et al, 2003: 175). Allomorphs are

defined as ―variants of a morpheme which occurs in a certain definable

environment‖ (Gleason, 1961: 61) or ―the variant forms of a morpheme‖

(O‘Grady et al, 2005: 114). In other words, allomorphs are different forms of the

same morpheme. This phenomenon is called allomorphy.

Of course, the allomorphs of a morpheme are not used randomly or

interchangeably at each language user‘s will. Distribution refers to the concept

that governs which allomorph must be used in a given linguistic context (Plag,

2002: 35). Complementary distribution occurs when one allomorph is

exclusively found in one environment and the other allomorph is exclusively

found in a different environment, despite having the same meaning or serving the

same grammatical function (Plag, 2002: 37).

A variant of a morpheme is called an allomorph. They can be

orthographically different and or phonemically different. Katamba said, ―if

different morphs represent the same morpheme, they are grouped together and

they are called allomorph of that morpheme‖ (Katamba, 1993: 26). Allomorphs

are said to be in a complementary distribution if they represent the same meaning

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or serve the same grammatical function, and they are never found in an identical

context.

In relation to the concept of complementary distribution, it is important to

know in what condition we should use one allomorph, and in what condition we

should use the other. There are four types of allomorph conditioning;

phonological conditioning, grammatical conditioning, lexical conditioning, and

suppletion (Katamba, 1993: 28).

Phonological conditioning means the choice of allomorph for a particular

context depends on the phonological properties or in other words the sound

structure. For example, the definite article the has three allomorphs; [ðɘ], [ði], and

['ði]. The first allomorph is used when it is followed by a consonant sound, the

second allomorph is used when it is followed by a vowel sound, and the last is

used if it is not followed by any word. Grammatical conditioning means the

choice of allomorph for a particular context depends on the existence of a

particular grammar element. For example, the verb take has three allomorphs;

take, took, and taken. In a past tense sentence, grammatical rule dictates the choice

of the verb took (Katamba, 1993: 30). Lexical conditioning means the choice of

allomorph for a particular context depends only on the presence of a certain word.

For example, the allomorph -en to indicate plural form can occur in the words

oxen and children, but cannot occur in the words *foxen or *beden (Katamba,

1993: 31). Suppletion means the choice of allomorph for a particular context is

phonetically unrelated. The examples are the comparative allomorphs good,

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better, and best; and the present, past, and past participle allomorphs sing, sang,

and sung.

5. Theory of the Morphophonemic Process

Morphophonemic process is defined as the rule that ―accounts for the

realization of phonologically conditioned allomorphs of morphemes‖ (Katamba,

1993: 34). In other words, the morphophonemic process is a process where the

morphological changes influence phonological condition. Therefore, both

morphology and phonology can determine the distribution of allomorph in a

particular context.

There are many kinds of morphophonemic processes; the common ones

are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion, deletion, metathesis, stress shift, vowel

change, and consonant change.

Assimilation is the process in which a sound takes on the characteristics

of a neighboring sound (Wolfram and Johnson, 1982: 88). In other words,

assimilation is a way to make pronouncing words easier by making two different

sound segments more similar. The process of assimilation has two components;

the first is a sound that changes (the assimilating sound), and the second is the

sound that causes the change (the conditioning sound). For example, the prefix

{in-} takes the allomorph {il-} in the word illogical and {im-} in the word

impolite. In the process of {in-} + logical illogical, the sound segment /n/ is the

assimilating sound and /l/ is the conditioning sound. Thus, the sound segment /n/

changes into /l/ to mimick its neighbouring sound. In the process of {in-} + polite

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impolite, the sound segment /n/ is the assimilating sound and /p/ is the

conditioning sound. Here, the sound segment /n/ changes into /m/ to be more

similar to /p/, which is a labial consonant. There are two types of assimilation; the

first is the regressive assimilation and the second is progressive assimilation. In

regressive assimilation, the assimilating sound becomes more like the following

sound, like the examples of illogical and impolite above. On the contrary, in

progressive assimilation, the assimilating sound becomes more like the preceding

sound.

Dissimilation is ―the process in which segments change to become less

like a neighboring segment‖ (Wolfram and Johnson, 1982: 88). In this process,

one of two similar or identical sounds in a word becomes less like the other. For

example, in the process of pole + {-al} polar and nodule + {-al} nodular,

the sound segment /l/ in the suffix {-al} changes into /r/, which sounds less like

the neighboring sound segment /l/. However, with the other bases that do not end

with the sound segment /l/, such as cause + {-al} causal and inflection + {-al}

inflectional, there is no dissimilation.

Insertion, which is also known as epenthesis, is the process of inserting a

segment or feature in a word (Wolfram and Johnson, 1982: 89). For example, in

spoken English, the words sherbet and realtor are sometimes pronounced as

sherbert and realator respectively. The word sherbet undergoes insertion of the

segment /r/, while the word realtor undergoes insertion of the segment /a/, which

is pronounced like the sound [ə]. The latter case is known as schwa epenthesis.

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Deletion is the process of deleting a segment or a feature from a word. For

example, in spoken or informal English, the words I will [ay wil] undergo the

process of deletion and become I’ll [ayl]. Here, the sound segment /w/ undergoes

deletion. There are three types of deletion; aphesis, syncope, and apocope.

Aphesis is ―the loss of an unstressed initial vowel or a syllable‖, syncope is ―the

loss of a medial vowel or syllable‖, and apocope is ―the loss of a final vowel or

syllable‖ (Wolfram and Johnson, 1982: 97).

Stress shift is the process of changing the stress in a syllable into another

syllable. For example, in the processes 'Hungary + {-an} Hu'ngarian and

'Egypt + {-an} E'gyptian, there is a stress shift from the first syllable in

'Hungary and 'Egypt to the second syllable in Hu'ngarian and E'gyptian.

As suggested by the names, vowel change is the process of changing a

vowel sound into another vowel sound, and and consonant change is the process

of changing a consonant sound into another consonant sound. For example, the

words man and woman undergo vowel changes in their plural forms, men and

woman. In the former word, the vowel sound /æ/ changes into /e/, while in the

latter word, the vowel sounds /u/ and /ə/ both change into /i/. Meanwhile, a

consonant change occurs from the word house as a noun to house as a verb. The

final consonant sound changes from /s/ in the noun to /z/ in the verb.

C. Theoretical Framework

In this analysis, there are three questions in the problem formulation that

will become the main discussion. The first question is about the bases that receive

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the suffix {-cy}. The second question is about the meanings of the suffix {-cy}.

The last question is about the morphophonemic processes that occur in the

suffixation of the suffix {-cy} and the allomorphs of the suffix {-cy}. To answer

all the questions in the problem formulation, the theories mentioned in the review

of related theories will be used as the background.

The theories about morphemes, which include relevant concepts such as

free and bound morphemes, derivational and inflectional morphemes, suffixes,

and base, as well as the reviews of the suffixes {-cy}, {-ancy}/{-ency} and

{-acy}, combined with the data from dictionary references, will be used to answer

the first problem formulation about the bases in words that receive the suffix

{-cy}. These theories are useful because by understanding the definitions and the

examples of morphemes, especially the affixes, the writer can distinguish the

words which have undergone affixation with the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs,

and which words have not undergone affixation despite containing the segment

-cy. Furthermore, the knowledge about base in affixation as well as the suffixes

{-cy}, {-ancy}/{-ency} and {-acy} help the writer to identify the base of words

containing the suffix {-cy}, the class of the words, as well as the origin of the

word and the suffixes.

The reviews of the suffixes {-cy}, {-ancy}/{-ency} and {-acy} will still be

used to answer the second problem formulation about the meanings of the suffix

{-cy}, combined with the data from dictionary references. These theories are

useful because the knowledge about the suffixes‘ usage and origins can support

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the suffixes‘ etymological information, the suffixes‘ meanings and the words‘

meanings from the dictionary.

Finally, the theories about allomorphs and morphophonemic processes

will be used to answer the last problem formulation about the allomorphs of the

suffix {-cy} and the morphophonemic processes which occur in the affixation of

the suffix {-cy}. These theories are useful because they help us examine each of

the processes undergone by the words as they receive the suffix {-cy}, and thus

help us identify the allomorphs of the suffix {-cy}.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains descriptions of the methodology used in conducting

this study. This chapter consists of three parts; the first part explains about the

data used in this study as well as the source of data, the second part explains about

the approach used to analyze the data, and the last part details the process and the

steps taken by the writer to conduct this study.

A. Data of the Study

The data for this study are comprised of English words that end with the

suffix {-cy} or the allomorphs of the suffix {-cy}. The data for any academic

study must be taken from valid sources; in this study, the data are taken from two

reliable English dictionaries, namely the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary

English and the Webster’s New World College Dictionary. The fifth edition of the

Longman Dictionary, which was published by Pearson Education Limited in

2009, and the fourth edition of the Webster’s Dictionary, which was published by

Wiley Publishing in 2005, were used for this study. This study uses the latest

edition of both dictionaries, thus ensuring that all the data taken from the

dictionaries are up to date. The dictionaries provide definitions, etymologies, as

well as the phonetic transcriptions of the words, which are to help the writer

analyze the data.

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B. Approach of the Study

In writing A Study of the Meaning and Allomorphs of the English Suffix

{-cy}, two approaches are employed in this study; the first is the morphological

approach itself and the second is the phonological approach.

Morphological approach is the primary approach used in this study.

Morphology is a branch of linguistics which studies the internal structure of words

and processes of word formation. Most of the theories used in this study come

from the field of morphology, for example the theories about morphemes, prefixes

and suffixes, affixation process, and allomorphs. This approach is thus suitable for

this study since this study analyzes one of the English suffixes, namely the suffix

{-cy}.

However, discussing the process of suffixation inevitably involves some

aspects of phonology. Therefore, phonological approach is also used in this study.

Phonology is a part of linguistics that studies about the sounds patterns of human

language. The phonological approach is suitable for this study because it helps to

reveal the changes in sound patterns and stress patterns after the process of

suffixation. Both morphological and phonological approaches are equally useful

when analyzing the morphophonemic process, the combination of morphological

process and phonological process in which changes in spelling and changes in

sound will be seen very clearly.

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C. Method of the Study

Library research was applied as the method of this study, which means that

all the data used in this study were obtained from written materials, such as

dictionaries and books about relevant theories. This method was chosen as the

suitable method for this study because the object of this study is words containing

the suffix {-cy}, which cannot be separated from written materials and

standardized in the form of dictionaries. Explanation on the method of this study

is grouped into two processes, namely the data collection and data analysis

process.

1. Data Collection

The data for this study were collected from two dictionary sources, namely

the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English and the Webster’s New World

College Dictionary. The data were collected by scanning the Longman Dictionary

of Contemporary English and listing all dictionary entries that end with the suffix

{-cy} or its allomorphs, namely {-ancy} and {-ency}, as well as the bases of those

words. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English was also used to collect the

phonetic transcriptions and word classes of each entry, while Webster’s New

World College Dictionary was used to collect the definitions and etymology of

each entry. At the end of the process, the writer collected 76 words that end with

the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs, {-ancy} and {-ency}.

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2. Data Analysis

Several steps were taken by the writer to analyze the data and answer the

problems formulated in the first chapter. Firstly, the data were collected through

the process described above. In this step, the data were obtained from Longman

Dictionary of Contemporary English and Webster’s New World College

Dictionary in the form of words that end with the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs,

{-ancy} and {-ency}.

Secondly, the data were sorted and examined in order to identify the bases

and the meanings of the words. The bases were further analyzed and categorized

based on word classes and etymological origins. The meanings of the words were

also analyzed and categorized based on word classes.

In some cases, some words have more than one word class or more than

one etymological origin. If a word is listed as having more than one word class,

the more common word class is chosen, while considering the meaning after

suffixation. For example, the base of the word captaincy, which means ―the job of

being a captain‖, is captain. The word captain itself has two word classes; a noun,

which means ―someone who leads a team or other group of people‖, and a verb,

which means ―to lead a group or team of people and be their captain‖. Not only

the word captain is more common as a noun rather than the verb and listed first in

the dictionary entry, but it also makes more sense when the meaning is combined;

captaincy means ―the job of being someone who leads a team or other group of

people‖ instead of *―the job of being to lead a group or team of people and be

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their captain‖. Therefore, the base of captaincy is captain as a noun. Meanwhile,

if a word has more than one etymology, the oldest one is used.

Thirdly, the underlying forms, which consist of the bases combined with

the suffix {-cy}, and the phonetic forms of the resulting words were transcribed

and compared in order to identify the morphophonemic processes undergone in

the suffixation. All changes of forms in each morphophonemic process were also

transcribed. All phonetic transcriptions were made using the International

Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols, based on the Longman Dictionary of

Contemporary English pronunciation guide. Finally, all the findings were

presented in tables and elaborated in narrative paragraphs.

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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

This chapter contains the analysis of the problems formulated in the first

chapter. After the data collection was carried out, one hundred and two words

ending with the segment -cy were collected. Out of those words, only seventy six

words qualify to be analyzed because they have the suffix {-cy}, including its

possible allomorphs {-ancy}/{-ency}, as the derivational ending. Meanwhile, the

other twenty nine words cannot be analyzed in this study because in some cases

the segment -cy is an inseparable part of the word and thus not a bound morpheme

at all, such as the word fancy, and in other cases the segment -cy is part of another,

unrelated suffix, such as the Greek suffix {-cracy} in democracy and technocracy.

As an exception, some words with the prefix {in-} are not analyzed here

because the analysis will be redundant. The prefix {in-} means not, so the prefix

{in-} simply changes the meaning of the word from positive into negative, while

the other features remain the same as the base before receiving the prefix {in-}. If

words with the prefix {in-} are analyzed, the analysis will be mostly the same as

the base without the prefix {in-}.

The first part of this chapter discusses the bases that receive the suffix

{-cy}. The second part discusses the meanings of the suffix {-cy} and the

resulting words, and the last part discusses the allomorphs and the

morphophonemic processes that occur in the affixation of the suffix {-cy}.

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A. The Bases Attached to the Suffix {-cy}

Seventy seven words which are comprised of a base and the suffix {-cy}

or its variants are analyzed in this part. With regards to the etymological origins,

most of the bases were derived from Latin according to the Webster’s New World

College Dictionary, for example accurate (2005: 10), advocate (2005: 20), and

private (2005: 1142). Only few of the bases were derived from the Indo-European

languages, Spanish, Greek, Celtic, French, and English itself. The examples of

these bases will be discussed in detail below. With regards to the word classes, the

bases can be classified into three word classes; adjectives, nouns, and verbs, as

shown in the following table.

Base

Word Classes

Base Etymology Subtotal

Latin I-Eur Sp Greek Celtic Fr Eng

Adjective 45 3 1 0 0 0 0 49

Noun 18 2 0 1 1 1 1 24

Verb 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

Total 66 5 1 1 1 1 1 76

Table 1. Bases Attached to the Suffix {-cy}

1. Adjective Bases

The adjective bases that are attached to the suffix {-cy} have some

characteristics. Etymologically, these bases are derived from Latin, Spanish, and

Indo-European languages. Most of these adjectives end with the segments -ate,

-ant, and -ent, but there are some exceptions; some adjectives end with -c, -me, -pt

and -t. In this study, forty-nine adjective bases were found in the data collection.

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The Latinate adjective bases dominate the findings in this part. There are a

total of forty-five words with Latinate adjective bases, including two bases from

Old Latin and three bases from Late Latin, in the data collection.

Bases Words Origin

accurate accuracy Latin

adequate adequacy Latin

ascendant ascendancy Latin

bankrupt bankruptcy Latin

belligerent belligerency Latin

coherent coherency Latin

competent competency Latin

complacent complacency Latin

confederate confederacy L. Latin

consistent consistency Latin

constant constancy Latin

constituent constituency Latin

contingent contingency Latin

deficient deficiency Latin

delicate delicacy O. Latin

delinquent delinquency Latin

dependent dependency Latin

discrepant discrepancy Latin

efficient efficiency Latin

excellent excellency Latin

expectant expectancy Latin

expedient expediency Latin

false fallacy Latin

frequent frequency Latin

hesitant hesitancy Latin

immediate immediacy L. Latin

incumbent incumbency Latin

infant infancy Latin

insurgent insurgency Latin

intimate intimacy Latin

intricate intricacy Latin

legitimate legitimacy Latin

literate literacy Latin

lunatic lunacy Latin

malignant malignancy L. Latin

numerate numeracy Latin

pregnant pregnancy O. Latin

private privacy Latin

proficient proficiency Latin

redundant redundancy Latin

secret secrecy Latin

sufficient sufficiency Latin

supreme supremacy Latin

transparent transparency Latin

vacant vacancy Latin

Table 2. Latinate adjective bases attached to suffix {-cy}

From the bases listed in Table 2 above, there are thirty Latinate adjective

bases that end with the segment -ant/-ent, namely ascendant, belligerent,

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coherent, competent, complacent, consistent, constant, constituent, contingent,

deficient, delinquent, dependent, discrepant, efficient, excellent, expectant,

expedient, frequent, hesitant, incumbent, infant, insurgent, proficient, redundant,

sufficient, transparent, and vacant, as well as pregnant from Old Latin and

malignant from Late Latin.

Referring to Szymanek‘s theory, these Latinate adjective bases are turned

into Nomina Essendi. Nomina Essendi is a noun that is created from an adjective

by means of suffixation, as elaborated in the quotation below.

The traditional categorical designation ―Nomina Essendi‖ (NE) denotes a

class of abstract deadjectival nominalizations meaning, roughly,

‗quality/state of being A‘. As has already been noted, the function of the

process in question is transpositional. This means that an adjective is

turned into a noun precisely for the purpose of changing its word-class

membership, which is conditioned by the syntax. Unless the product of

such a syntactic shift undergoes semantic lexicalization, no specific

meaning modification is involved in its derivation (Szymanek, 1989: 154-

155).

The Latinate bases that end with -ant/-ent have corresponding Nomina Essendi

forms in -ancy/-ency. For example, the adjective ascendant receives the suffix

{-cy} to form the noun ascendancy; belligerent belligerency; coherent

coherency; competent competency; pregnant pregnancy; redundant

redundancy; vacant vacancy, and so on.

The suffix {-cy} can also be found attached to Latinate adjective bases that

end with the segment -ate. From the bases listed in Table 2 above, there are nine

Latinate adjective bases that end with -ate; namely accurate, adequate, intimate,

intricate, legitimate, literate, numerate, as well as delicate from Old Latin and

confederate from Late Latin. After the affixation, the segment -ate is replaced by

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the suffix {-acy}. This is supported by Szymanek in his statement, ―In any event,

the formal limitation on Xacy derivations is quite evident: the base adjective must

be of the form Xate‖ (Szymanek, 1989: 166), as exemplified in

accurate accuracy

adequate adequacy

delicate delicacy

immediate immediacy

intimate intimacy

intricate intricacy

legitimate legitimacy

literate literacy

numerate numeracy

There are only few Latinate adjective bases that do not end with -ant/-ent

and -ate. From the bases listed in Table 2 above, there is only one base that ends

with -t (secret), one base that ends with -k (lunatic), one base that ends with -pt

(bankrupt), and one base that ends with -m (supreme).

Since the segments -ate and -t both have the voiceless stop /t/ as final

sound, the base secret undergoes a nearly identical affixation process as the nine

bases that end with -ate. While the segment -ate is replaced with the suffix {-acy},

for example in delicate delicacy, the segment -t is replaced with the suffix

{-cy}, as seen in secret secrecy. It is interesting to note that another segment

undergoes a partly similar process; -atic is replaced with the suffix {-acy}, thus

producing lunatic lunacy. Unlike other bases, bankrupt and supreme do not

lose their final sound before receiving the suffix {-acy} and {-cy} respectively,

thus producing bankrupt bankruptcy rather than *bankrupcy or *bankrupacy

and supreme supremacy rather than *supremency or *suprecy. The base

supreme is also unique because it is the only Latinate adjective base that ends with

a voiced stop.

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Non-Latinate adjective bases which are attached to the suffix {-cy} are

quite few in number. Only three words with Indo European adjective bases were

found in the data collection.

Bases Words Origin of Base

clement clemency Indo European

decent decency Indo European

potent potency Indo European

Table 3. Indo European adjective bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Webster’s New World College Dictionary lists the three bases above as

originating from Indo-European bases, although the Indo-European bases are

hypothetical because ―there is no written record of Indo-European‖ (Webster,

2005: xvii). Clement came from Latin word clemens, which was probably derived

from Indo European base klei- (Webster, 2005: 273). Decent came from Middle

French decent, which was derived from Latin decens, which was derived from

Indo European base dek- (Webster, 2005: 374). Potent came from Latin potens,

which was derived from another Latin word potis, which was derived from Indo

European base potis (Webster, 2005: 1126). All Indo European adjective bases

end with the segment -ent. Despite their Indo European origins, the principle of

Nomina Essendi still applies to them. For example, the adjective clement receives

the suffix {-cy} to form the noun clemency; potent potency, current

currency, and decent decency.

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Finally, only one word with Spanish adjective base was found in the data

collection. This base can be seen in the table below.

Bases Words Origin of Base

buoyant buoyancy Spanish

Table 4. Spanish adjective bases attached to suffix {-cy}

As presented in Table 4 above, the only Spanish adjective base ends with

the segment -ant, namely buoyant. Similar to the Indo European bases above, the

principle of Nomina Essendi still applies to the Spanish base. The adjective

buoyant receives the suffix {-cy} to form the noun buoyancy.

2. Noun Bases

Compared to the adjective bases, the noun bases that are attached to the

suffix {-cy} have slightly more varying etymological origins. The bases are

derived from Latin, Greek, Indo-European, Middle English, and Celtic. Just like

the adjective bases, most of the noun bases also end with -ate and -ant/-ent, but

there are some noun bases which end with -ain, -ct, -t, -l, and -p. In this study,

twenty-four noun bases were found in the data collection.

Determining noun bases and verb bases may present a problem which is

not found when finding adjective bases, because many words have identical forms

as a noun and as a verb. In this study, the word class of bases is determined by

looking for the most common word class and comparing the definition. For

example, captain, as the base of the word captaincy, has two word classes as both

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a noun and a verb. As a noun, captain means ‘someone who leads a team or other

group of people’, while as a verb it means ‘to lead a group or team of people and

be their captain’. Captaincy itself means ‘the job of being a captain’. To choose

which class of word that match into the word captaincy, the writer looks at the

most common word class that the suffix {-cy} usually takes and the meaning after

the bases are attached to the suffix {-cy}. From the data, the writer can see that the

suffix {-cy} is usually attached to the adjective, the noun, and the verb. The most

common base of the suffix {-cy} is the adjective, the second is the noun, and the

last is the verb. So here the writer decides to take the word captain as a noun as

the base of the word captaincy because the noun is more common than the verb.

The meaning of the word captaincy will be strange if the writer takes the word

captain as a verb as the base of the word captaincy, *the job of being to lead a

group of people and be their captain. The meaning of the word captaincy should

be, ‘the job of being someone who leads a team or other group of people’.

According to Quirk et al (1985: 45), nouns are categorized into four

classifications; they are concrete noun, abstract noun, countable noun, and

uncountable noun. By looking at the data of the noun bases that the writer found

in the dictionary, most of the noun bases of the suffix {-cy} can be classified as

concrete countable nouns while some bases can be classified as abstract noun.

As with the adjective bases, the Latinate noun bases also dominate the

findings. There are a total of eighteen words with Latinate adjective bases,

including one from Mid Latin and one from Late Latin, in the data collection.

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Bases Words Origin of Base Classification

accountant accountancy Latin concrete countable

advocate advocacy Latin concrete countable

agent agency Latin concrete countable

candidate candidacy Latin concrete countable

captain captaincy Latin concrete countable

chaplain chaplaincy Mid Latin concrete countable

consultant consultancy Latin concrete countable

curate curacy Latin concrete countable

current currency Latin concrete countable

effect efficacy Latin abstract uncountable

magistrate magistracy Latin concrete countable

occupant occupancy Latin concrete countable

president presidency Latin concrete countable

primate primacy Latin concrete countable

prophet prophecy Late Latin concrete countable

regent regency Latin concrete countable

resident residency Latin concrete countable

vagrant vagrancy Latin concrete countable

Table 5. Latin noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

From the bases listed in Table 5, there are eight Latinate noun bases that

end with the segment -ant/-ent, namely consultant, occupant, vagrant, accountant,

agent, president, regent, and resident. All these Latinate noun bases can be

classified as concrete nouns, to be specific concrete nouns related to occupations.

The affixation of these noun bases completely resemble the affixation of the

adjective bases that also end with -ant/-ent in form, for example in the way agent

agency resembles coherent coherency. However, despite the seeming

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similarity, these noun bases do not undergo Nomina Essendi, because Nomina

Essendi is defined as ―deadjectival nominalizations‖ (Szymanek, 1989: 154). If

the resulting nouns are not created from adjective bases, then the process cannot

be considered as Nomina Essendi.

Just like the adjective bases, besides -ant/-ent, there are also five Latinate

noun bases that end with the segment -ate, namely advocate, candidate, curate,

magistrate, and primate. These noun bases are also concrete nouns which are

related to occupations. Again, although not directly discussed in Szymanek‘s

theory, which focuses on affixation from adjective bases, the affixation of these

noun bases actually resembles the affixation of similar adjective bases in form.

After the affixation, the segment -ate is replaced by the suffix {-acy}, for example

in advocate advocacy, candidate candidacy, curate curacy, magistrate

magistracy, and primate primacy.

There are only few Latinate noun bases that do not end with -ant/-ent or -

ate; there are two bases that end with -ain, namely captain and chaplain, two

bases that end with -et, namely prophet and tenet, and one base that ends with -kt,

namely effect. Those words are comprised of both abstract and concrete nouns,

both countable and uncountable. The bases captain, chaplain, and prophet are still

related to a person‘s occupation or position, but tenet and effect refer to a more

abstract concept. The suffix {-cy} is directly attached to the two bases that end

with -ain, as shown in captain captaincy and chaplain chaplaincy, but each

of the other bases receive the suffix {-cy} differently. For example, the base tenet

does not become *tenetcy or *tenency, but becomes tendency. Similarly, the base

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effect does not become *effectcy, but becomes effifacy instead. These unique

patterns are not repeated with other bases.

Non-Latinate noun bases which are attached to the suffix {-cy} are also

few in number. Only two words with Indo European noun bases were found in

the data collection, as shown in the following table.

Bases Words Origin of Base Classification

pirate piracy Indo European concrete countable

tenant tenancy Indo European concrete countable

Table 6. Indo European noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Just like the bases in Table 3, the two bases above are listed as originating

from Indo-European bases hypothetically. Pirate came from Latin word pirata,

which was derived from Greek peirates and peiran, which was derived from Indo

European base per- (Webster, 2005: 1096). Tenant came from Middle English

tenaunt, which was derived from Old French tenant and tenir, which was derived

from Latin tenere, which was derived from Indo European base ten- (Webster,

2005: 1474). As shown in the table above, one of the noun bases ends with the

segment-ate, namely pirate, while the other base ends with the segment -ant,

namely tenant. Both can be classified as concrete countable nouns, which are

related to a person‘s occupation or status. Just like their Latinate counterparts,

these bases are not regarded as Nomina Essendi, but they do resemble the

adjective bases in the affixation; for example, accurate accuracy resembles

pirate piracy in form.

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While none of the adjective bases and verb bases was derived from Greek,

one word with Greek noun bases were found in the data collection, as shown in

the following table.

Bases Words Origin of Base Classification

idiot idiocy Greek concrete countable

Table 7. Greek noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Unlike the other bases, the Greek noun bases do not end with common

segments such as -ant/-ent or -ate. This of the base ends with -t (idiot).

Subsequently, the way they receive the suffix {-cy} is also different from one

another. The only base that resembles the other bases in the affixation is idiot,

which loses the final /t/ sound and receives the suffix {-cy}, thus producing idiot

idiocy, which mirrors for instance secret secrecy. These bases can be

classified as concrete countable nouns.

Only one word with Middle English noun base, one word with French

noun base, and one word with Celt noun base were found in the data collection.

Because there is only one data for each origin, the data are presented together in

next page.

Base Word Origin of Base Classification

baronet baronetcy Middle English concrete countable

diplomat diplomacy French concrete countable

truant truancy Celtic concrete countable

Table 8. Middle English, French, Celtic noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

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As shown in the table above, one of the Celt noun base ends with the

segment -ant, namely truant, while the other bases end with the segment

-t, namely diplomat and baronet. All the bases can be classified as concrete

countable nouns, which are related to a person‘s position or status. Although it

does not count as Nomina Essendi, the Celtic noun base truant resembles the

adjective bases and other noun bases that end with -ant in terms of affixation

form, as seen in truant truancy compared to elegant elegancy. The French

noun base diplomat loses the segment -t, while the base baronet directly receives

the suffix {-cy}.

3. Verb Bases

The verb bases in this study are not really productive. In fact, the writer

only found three verb bases which are attached to the suffix {-cy} in this study.

Etymologically, these bases are solely derived from Latin. The findings are

presented in the next page.

Base Word Origin of Base

conserve conservancy Latin

conspire conspiracy Latin

tend tendency Latin

Table 9. Latin verb bases attached to suffix {-cy}

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None of the verb bases end with -ant/-ent or -ate, which are common final

segments in bases that receive the suffix {-cy}. Instead, the verb bases end with

the -r, -rve, and -nd respectively. The verb base conspire receives the suffix

{-acy} directly, thus producing conspire conspiracy. Similarly, the verb bases

conserve and tend receive the suffix {-ancy} or {-ency} directly, thus producing

conserve conservancy and tend tendency.

B. The Meanings of the Suffix {-cy}

As discussed in the Review of Related Theories above, morpheme is ―the

smallest meaningful unit in the structure of a language‖ (Gleason, 1961: 53).

When attached to a base, a derivational morpheme can change the meaning and

the class of the new resulting word (O‘Grady et al, 1997: 144). As one of the

derivational morphemes, the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs also change the

meaning and the word class of the bases they are attached to.

The analysis in the previous part has shown that the bases consist of three

word classes; namely adjective, noun, and verb. As nominal or noun-forming

suffix (Marchand in Plag, 2002: 110), the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs change

the word class into noun when attached to these bases. Therefore, noun bases in

particular do not undergo any change of class.

In this part, the writer will examine the change of meanings which occur

when those bases receive the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs {-ancy}/{-ency}. This

is done by examining the relation between the meaning of the bases before

receiving the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs, to the meaning of the resulting words

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after receiving the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs. Thus, this analysis will provide

information about the meanings of the suffix {-cy} itself.

1. Adjective Bases

According to Webster’s New World College Dictionary, supported by Plag

in Word Formation in English, the general meanings of the suffix {-cy} and its

allomorphs are ―quality, condition, state, or fact of being‖ and ―position, rank, or

office of‖ (Webster, 2005: 359). When attached to adjective bases, the first

meaning is the most dominant meaning with forty-two examples of words. Three

examples of those words are presented in the following table, while the rest of the

words are described in the paragraphs below.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

accurate

accuracy

bankrupt

bankruptcy

contingent

contingency

correct and true in every detail the

quality or state of being accurate

unable to pay your debt the state of

being bankrupt

may or may not happen in the future

the quality or condition of being

contingent

Quality, condition, state, or fact of

being X

Table 10. General Meaning 1 of Adjective Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

As demonstrated in the previous part‘s analysis, adjective bases are the

most productive bases to form new words through the affixation of the suffix

{-cy}. The majority of those newly-formed words gain this first meaning of

―quality, condition, state, or fact of being X,‖ in which X is the adjective base. For

example, accurate means ―correct and true in every detail‖, so accuracy means

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―the quality or state of being accurate‖ or in other words ―the quality or state of

being correct and true in every detail‖.

Other examples of words with this meaning are:

Adequate adequacy

belligerent belligerency

clement clemency

coherent coherency

competent competency

complacent complacency

consistent consistency

constant constancy

decent decency

deficient deficiency

delicate delicacy

dependent dependency

discrepant discrepancy

efficient efficiency

excellent excellency

expectant expectancy

expedient expediency

false fallacy

frequent frequency

hesitant hesitancy

immediate immediacy

incumbent incumbency

infant infancy

insurgent insurgency

intimate intimacy

intricate intricacy

legitimate legitimacy

literate literacy

lunatic lunacy

malignant malignancy

potent potency

pregnant pregnancy

private privacy

proficient proficiency

redundant redundancy

sufficient sufficiency

supreme supremacy

transparent transparency

vacant vacancy.

The second meaning of ―position, rank, or office‖ can also be found in

adjective bases that receive the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs. There is only one

example of word with this meaning, as shown in the table in the next page.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

ascendant

ascendancy

dominant, superior a position

of being ascendant

Position of being X

Table 11. General Meaning 2 of Adjective Base + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

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In Table 11, the adjective base ascendant receives the suffix {-cy} and

gains a new meaning with the semantic effect ―Position of being X‖, in which X is

the adjective base. Therefore, while the word ascendant means ―dominant,

superior‖, the resulting new word ascendancy means ―a position of being

ascendant‖ or in other words ―a position of being dominant or superior‖.

Besides the general meaning shared by the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs

above, the Webster’s New World College Dictionary also lists some additional

meaning of the allomorph {-ancy}/{-ency}, namely ―the act or process of‖ (2005:

51). The writer discovers that this meaning can be found not only in adjective base

that receives the allomorphs {-ancy}/{-ency}, but also in adjective base secret that

receives the suffix {-cy} itself. There are two words that have this meaning, as

shown in the following table.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

secret

secrecy

known about by only a few

people and kept hidden from

others the process of keeping

something secret

Process of keeping

something X

delinquent

delinquency

illegal in doing something the

act of being delinquent

Act of being X

Table 12. Additional Meaning of Adjective Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

In the first example, the addition of the suffix {-cy} to the adjective base

secret brings the meaning of ―process of keeping something X,‖ in which X refers

to the adjective base. Therefore, the resulting word secrecy means ―the process of

keeping something secret‖ or in other words ―the process of keeping something

known by only a few people and hidden from others‖. This additional meaning

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differs from the previous meanings listed in the dictionary, because whilst still

related to the first general meaning of ―the condition of being X‖, in this case

there is an emphasis on the process rather than the condition. In the second

example, the addition of the suffix {-cy} to the adjective base delinquent brings

the meaning of ―act of being X,‖ in which X refers to the adjective base. This

additional meaning differs from the previous meanings listed in the dictionary,

because the emphasis lies on the actual act rather than the condition or the state.

It is common for words that have been used for centuries to gain additional

shades of meaning, which are still related to the general meaning but does not

exactly match the suffix‘s meanings as listed in the dictionaries. The same thing

happens with some of the words here. In some cases, the words that receive the

suffix {-cy} have other, more specific meaning which are nevertheless still related

to the general meanings of the suffix {-cy}. In adjective bases that receive the

suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs, the writer finds two alternative meanings, namely

―the ability to be X‖ and ―the people or group of people who are X‖ as shown in

the next page.

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Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

buoyant

buoyancy

numerate

numeracy

having or showing buoyancy

ability or tendency to float or rise in

liquid or air

able to do calculations and

understand simple mathematics

the ability to do calculations and

understand simple mathematics

Ability to be X

confederate

confederacy

constituent

constituency

united in a confederacy people,

groups, nations, or states united for

some common purpose

necessary in forming or making up

a whole component; that can or

does appoint or vote for a

representative people served by

a particular elected official; a group

of clients or supporters

People or group of

people who are X

Table 13. Other Meanings of Adjective Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

As demonstrated in Table 13, the first meaning is still closely related to the

first general meaning, namely ―quality, condition, state, or fact of being X‖.

However, the word buoyant buoyancy means ―the ability or tendency to float

or rise‖ without necessarily being in the condition, state, or fact of floating or

rising at this moment. Similarly, the word numeracy means ―the ability to do

calculations and understand simple mathematics‖, without necessarily being

always in the state of calculating and understanding mathematics. Thus, in this

case, the ability rather than the state becomes the focus of the addition of suffix

{-cy}.

Meanwhile, the second meaning is closely related to the second general

meaning, namely ―position, rank, or office of X‖. However, the words

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confederacy and constituency refer directly to the group of people themselves, not

only the position, rank, or office. Thus, in this case, the people rather than the

position becomes the focus of the addition of suffix {-cy}.

2. Noun Bases

As mentioned above, the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs have two general

meanings. Both meanings are also present when the suffix is attached to noun

bases, but unlike with adjective bases, the second meaning is more dominant than

the first meaning when attached to noun bases. There are five words that take on

the first meaning ―quality, condition, state, or fact of being‖ upon receiving the

the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs; three of them are shown as examples in the

following table.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

candidate

candidacy

idiot

idiocy

tenant

tenancy

someone who is being

considered for a job or is

competing in an election the

fact or state of being a candidate

a stupid person or someone who

has done something stupid the

state of being an idiot

someone who lives in a house,

room etc and pays rent to the

person who owns it the

condition of being a tenant

State or condition of being

a/an X

Table 14. General Meaning 1 of Noun Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

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This meaning has the semantic effect of ―the state or condition of being

a/an X‖, in which X refers to the nouns that describe a person‘s status or role. The

status or role can be formal, as in candidacy and tenancy, or informal, as in idiocy

and truancy. Another example of the word with the meaning ―the state of being

a/an X‖ is vagrant vagrancy, which means ―the state of being a vagrant‖ and

truant truancy, which means ―the state of being a truant‖.

The second meaning of ―position, rank, or office‖ can also be found in

noun bases that receive the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs. There are thirteen

words with that meaning; some of them are shown in the following table.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

baronet baronetcy

member of the British Nobility

lower than a baron the rank of a baronet

Rank of a/an X

accountant

accountancy

agent

agency

chaplain

chaplaincy

someone whose job is to keep and

check financial accounts, calculate

taxes etc the work of being an

accountant any person, firm, etc empowered to

act for another the business of

an agent priest or other religious minister

responsible for the religious needs

for the army, hospital etc the job

of being a chaplain

Work, job, or business of

a/an X

captain

captaincy

Pope

papacy

president

presidency

someone who leads a team or other

group of people the position of

being a captain the leader of the Roman Catholic

Church the position and

authority of the Pope the highest executive officer of a

company, society, university, etc

the office or function of president

Position, office, function,

term, authority, rank of a/an

X

Table 15. General Meaning 2 of Noun Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

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Although the examples in Table 15 above essentially have one meaning,

this meaning can be considered as having three semantic effects: ―rank of a/an X‖,

―work, job, or business of a/an X‖, and ―position, office, function, term, authority,

rank of a/an X‖, in which X refers to the nouns that describe a person‘s

occupation. Unlike the first meaning discussed in Table 14, the occupations

described here are formal and often involve high or important positions, such as

baronet baronetcy, pope papacy, and president presidency.

The notion of ―rank of a/an X‖ is gained by the noun base baronet when it

is attached to the suffix {-cy} to form the word baronetcy, because baronet is an

aristocratic rank which is passed by blood instead of a regular occupation. There

is only one word that takes this meaning.

The notion of ―work, job, or business of a/an X‖ is gained by the noun

bases which describe various occupations, from regular people‘s occupations such

as accountant and agent, to religious occupations such as chaplain and curate.

The resulting nouns after suffixation will describe the work, job, or business of

those occupations. Other examples of words with this meaning and this semantic

effect are curate curacy, consultant consultancy, and resident residency.

Curate means ―priest of the lowest rank, whose job is to help the priest in charge

of an area,‖ while curacy means ―the job or position of a curate.‖ Consultant

means ―an expert who is called on for professional or technical advice or

opinions‖, while consultancy means ―the business of providing a consultant‖.

Resident means ―a doctor who is serving during the period of advanced,

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specialized medical training at a hospital‖ while residency means ―the position or

tenure of a resident.‖

It is also important to note that some words have several other definitions

apart from the ones listed above. For instance, both agent and agency have the

same meaning as ―active force‖, while agent also has the meaning of ―means or

instrumentality‖. Words like resident and residence also have some other

definitions. Consequentially, the meanings of the suffix attached to them are also

different from the meaning being discussed here. To keep the analysis focused,

only definitions that correspond with the meanings of the suffix {-cy} are

included in the discussion.

Finally, the notion of ―position, office, function, term, authority, rank of

a/an X‖ is gained by the noun bases which describe occupations, especially in

position of leaders like captain, president, or Pope. Because of the important

nature of those positions, the semantic effect also involves wider scope, namely

the position, office, function, term, authority, rank, not merely the job or work.

Other examples of words with this meaning and this semantic effect are

magistrate magistracy, primate primacy, and regent regency.

Just like the adjective bases, some of the noun bases also take on the

additional meaning of the allomorph {-ancy}/{-ency}, namely ―the act or process

of‖; furthermore, this meaning can be found not only in noun base that receives

the allomorphs {-ancy}/{-ency}, but also in noun bases that receive the suffix {-

cy} itself. There are five words that have this meaning; some of them are shown

in the next page.

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Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

diplomat

diplomacy

pirate

piracy

prophet

prophecy

a representative of a government who

conducts relations with the

governments of other nations the

act of conducting relations between

nations; skill in doing this

someone who sails on the seas to

attack other boats and stealing things

from them; someone who dishonestly

copies and sells another person‘s work

the crime of a pirate

a man who people in the Christian,

Jewish, and Muslim religion believe

has been sent by God to lead them and

teach them their religion the act or

practice of a prophet

Act or practice of

a/an X

Table 16. Additional Meaning of Noun Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

This meaning has the semantic effect of ―act or practice of a/an X‖, in

which X refers to the nouns that describe a person‘s occupation or position. Even

though it seems similar to the meaning discussed in Table 15 above, but the two

meanings have some differences. The first difference is that in this meaning, the

emphasis lies specifically on the act, the practice, or the concrete result of the

practice, rather than the occupation, position, or work in general. Furthermore, in

this meaning the nouns do not always describe ordinary occupation or position,

but also position from specific fields like crime or spirituality. These differences

can be seen clearly, for instance, in the words piracy and prophecy. When people

hear those words, the first thing that comes to their mind is the act or the concrete

practice. Other example of words with this meaning and this semantic effect are

advocate advocacy and occupant occupancy.

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Just like the adjective bases, two noun bases that receive the suffix {-cy}

also have a more specific meaning which is still related to the general meanings of

the suffix {-cy}. These alternative meanings are ―the power to produce X‖ and

―movement in the manner of X‖, which are illustrated in the following table.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

effect

efficacy

anything brought about by a cause or

agent; result the power to produce

an effect

Power to produce X

current

currency

a flow of water or air; a general

tendency or drift a continual passing

from hand to hand as a medium of

exchange; money in circulation

Movement in the

manner of X

Table 17. Other Meanings of Noun Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

Somewhat similar to the alternative meaning of ―the ability to be X‖ which

is found with the adjective base, the meaning ―power to produce X‖ is also closely

related to the first general meaning, namely ―quality, condition, state, or fact of

being X‖. However, the word effect efficacy means ―the power to produce

effect‖ without necessarily being in the condition or state of producing effect right

now. Therefore, the power to produce rather than the condition or state becomes

the focus of the addition of suffix {-cy} to the noun base effect.

Meanwhile, the meaning ―movement in the manner of X‖ is rare and only

found when the suffix {-cy} is attached to the noun base current. The base noun

current refers to the flow of water, air, and even anything that drifts or moves

somewhere. While the resulting noun currency indeed refers to something that

flows or drifts or in other word circulates, but the most common meaning of that

word is specifically limited to money; it is less commonly applied to water, air, or

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other things. Therefore, the meaning that is gained through the addition of the

suffix {-cy} is limited to the semantic effect of movement, in which the

circulation of money resembles the movement described in the noun base current.

3. Verb Bases

The writer finds three words derived from verb bases in this analysis, only

the first general meaning of the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs can be found here,

namely ―quality, condition, state, or fact of being‖.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

tend

tendency

to have an inclination to do

something an inclination to move

or act in a particular direction or way

Condition or state of X-

ing

Table 18. General Meaning 1 of Verb Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

As shown in Table 18, the word to tend means to have an inclination, or in

other words to be inclined, to do something. Tendency means an inclination, or in

other words the condition or state of being inclined, to do something. Thus the

suffix {-cy} brings the meaning of ―condition or state of X-ing‖. Just like the

adjective and noun bases, two of the verb bases also take on the additional

meaning of the allomorph {-ancy}/{-ency}, namely ―the act or process of‖.

Base Noun Change of Meaning Semantic Effect

conserve

conservancy

conspire

conspiracy

to keep from being damaged, lost

or wasted the act of conserving

natural resources

to plan something secret with

someone else to do something

illegal the act of conspiring

The act of X-ing

Table 19. Additional Meaning of Verb Bases + {-cy}/{-ancy}/{-ency}

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As shown in Table 19, the addition of suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs gives

the meaning ―the act of doing something‖ to the resulting words, which are

derived from the verb bases. However, the word conservancy actually has several

definitions in the dictionary, which add more meanings brought by the suffix

{-cy}. In addition to the meaning listed above, conservancy also means ―an

organization dedicated to the protection of natural resources, historical buildings,

etc‖. If this definition is used, then the suffix {-cy} can be considered as bringing

the second general meaning, namely ―position, rank, or office‖. To avoid

confusion or double-entry, the first definition in the dictionary is used in this

analysis, because the first definition is the most common definition of the word.

C. The Morphophonemic Processes and the Allomorphs of the Suffix {-cy}

While the first part of this chapter discusses the bases to which the suffix

{-cy} is attached and the second part discusses the meanings gained when those

bases receive the suffix {-cy}, this last part discusses the morphophonemic

processes undergone when the bases receive the suffix {-cy}. Morphophonemic

process is the process where the morphological changes influence phonological

condition (Katamba, 1993: 34). The morphological change meant in this case is

the attachment of the suffix {-cy} to the bases that have been discussed above.

For each word, the writer will analyze the underlying form when the base

is put together with the suffix without any phonological conditioning, the

morphophonemic process or processes that might occur in-between, until the

phonetic form of the final resulting word. Since the discussion is related to the

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phonological condition, it is inseparable from the phonology of the bases before

they receive the suffix {-cy}. From the seventy seven bases discussed in this

study, 17 bases end with the sound segment -ate, 17 bases end with the sound

segment -ant, 27 bases end with the sound segment -ent, and 16 bases end with

other sound segments, as shown in the following table.

Base

Final

Segment

Base Word Class Sub-

total

Morphophonemic Processes

Insertion Deletion Change Vow.

Red

uct.

Stress

Shift

Zero

Process Adj N V Vow Cons Schwa Vow Cons Vow Cons

No -ate 11 6 - 17

-ant 11 6 - 17

-ent 22 5 - 27

Others:

-rupt 1 1

-erve 1 1

-end 1 1

-ain 2 2

-ot 1 1

-tic 1 1

-ope 1 1

-eme 1 1

-et 1 2 3

-lse 1 1

-at 1 1

-ire 1 1

-ect 1 1

49 25 3 77

Table 20. Morphophonemic Processes of Bases Attached to the Suffix {-cy}

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1. Morphophonemic Processes in the Suffixation of Bases Ending with -ate

There are a total of 17 bases that end with the final segment -ate. Based on

the word classes, of those 17 bases, 11 are adjective bases (accurate, adequate,

confederate, delicate, immediate, intimate, intricate, legitimate, literate,

numerate, and private) and 6 are noun bases (advocate, candidate, curate,

magistrate, pirate, and primate). Based on the word origins, all of them are

Latinate bases except pirate, which is of Indo-European origin.

Although they all end with the final segment -ate, these bases undergo

different morphophonemic processes upon receiving the suffix {-cy}. The

simplest morphophonemic process is consonant deletion, which occurs with the

bases immediate and pirate below.

Underlying form ɪˈmi:diət + si

Consonant deletion ɪˈmi:diə + si

Phonemic form ɪˈmi:diəsi

Underlying form ˈpaɪərət + si

Consonant deletion ˈpaɪərə + si

Phonemic form ˈpaɪərəsi

As shown above, the bases‘ final consonant /t/ is deleted when combined

with /si/, possibly because pronouncing two voiceless consonants /t/ and /s/

together, for instance in /ɪˈmi:diətsi/, would be more difficult and less smooth than

pronouncing just one voiceless consonant, for instance in /ɪˈmi:diəsi/.

Meanwhile, many of the bases have two accepted pronunciations; for

instance, the word adequate can be pronounced both /ˈædɪkwɪt/ and /ædɪkwət/

(Longman, 2009: 20) and confederate can be pronounced both /kənˈfedərɪt/ and

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/kənˈfedərət/ (Longman, 2009: 349). In the case of the second pronunciations,

these bases undergo exactly the same morphophonemic process as immediate

immediacy and pirate piracy above, namely consonant deletion. However, in

the case of the first pronunciations, the morphophonemic processes undergone by

these bases are vowel change and consonant deletion, as shown below.

Underlying form ˈædɪkwɪt + si

Vowel change ˈædɪkwət + si

Consonant deletion ˈædɪkwə + si

Phonemic form ˈædɪkwəsi

Underlying form kənˈfedərɪt + si

Vowel change kənˈfedərət + si

Consonant deletion kənˈfedərə + si

Phonemic form kənˈfedərəsi

Underlying form ˈkjʊərɪt + si

Vowel change ˈkjʊərət + si

Consonant deletion ˈkjʊərə + si

Phonemic form ˈkjʊərəsi

These morphophonemic processes also occur in delicate delicacy,

intimate intimacy, intricate intricacy, legitimate legitimacy, literate

literacy, numerate numeracy, and primate primacy. Before the

morphophonemic process of consonant deletion is discussed above, these bases

also undergo the morphophonemic process of vowel change, in which the sound

/ɪ/ changes into /ə/.

Besides the words above, some other bases also have multiple accepted

pronunciations. The words advocate and magistrate has three accepted

pronunciations; respectively /ˈædvəkɪt/, /ˈædvəkət/, /ˈædvəkeɪt/ (Longman, 2009:

27) and /ˈmædʒɪstreɪt/, /ˈmædʒɪstrɪt/, /ˈmædʒɪstrət/ (Longman, 2009: 1053).

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Meanwhile, candidate is pronounced /kændɪdɪt/ or /kændɪdət/ in British English,

but pronounced /kændɪdeɪt/ in American English pronunciation (Longman, 2009:

234). If we look at the pronunciations with the final sounds /ɪt/ and /ət/, the

morphophonemic processes that occur are the same as the ones discussed above:

/ˈædvəkət/, /ˈmædʒɪstrət/, and /kændɪdət/ only undergo consonant deletion as

discussed in the first example, while /ˈædvəkɪt/, /ˈmædʒɪstrɪt/, and /kændɪdɪt/

undergo vowel change and consonant deletion as discussed in the second

example. On the other hand, in the case of the pronunciations with the final sound

/eɪt/, the morphophonemic processes undergone by these bases are vowel change,

in the form of vowel reduction specifically, and consonant deletion, as shown

below.

Underlying form ˈædvəkeɪt + si

Vowel reduction ˈædvəkət + si

Consonant deletion ˈædvəkə + si

Phonemic form ˈædvəkəsi

Underlying form kændɪdeɪt + si

Vowel reduction kændɪdət + si

Consonant deletion kændɪdə + si

Phonemic form kændɪdəsi

Underlying form ˈmædʒɪstreɪt + si

Vowel reduction ˈmædʒɪstrət + si

Consonant deletion ˈmædʒɪstrə + si

Phonemic form ˈmædʒɪstrəsi

In the previous example, before the consonant deletion, the bases undergo

the morphophonemic process of vowel change, in which the sound /ɪ/ changes

into /ə/. The example above shows nearly similar morphophonemic processes;

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however, instead of vowel change from the sound /ɪ/ into /ə/, this time the

diphthong vowel sound /eɪ/ is reduced into a shorter vowel sound /ə/. This

morphophonemic process can still be considered as vowel change, but more

specifically, it can also be identified as vowel reduction.

Still related to words with multiple accepted pronunciations, a special case

is found in the suffixation private privacy. The word private can be

pronounced both /ˈpraɪvɪt/ and /ˈpraɪvət/, while the resulting word privacy itself

can be pronounced in two ways, /ˈprɪvəsi/ and /ˈpraɪvəsi/ (Longman, 2009: 1379).

It is interesting that even though both pronunciations of the base use the sound

/praɪ/, one of the pronunciations of the resulting word uses the sound /prɪ/.

Therefore, in the case when privacy is pronounced as /ˈprɪvəsi/, the

morphophonemic processes undergone by the base are vowel change, vowel

deletion, and consonant deletion. The process of vowel change does not

necessarily always occur; it only occurs in example (1a), when private is

pronounced as /ˈpraɪvɪt/, but it does not occur in example (1b), when private is

pronounced as /ˈpraɪvət/.

1a) Underlying form ˈpraɪvɪt + si

Vowel change ˈprɪvɪt + si

Vowel change ˈprɪvət + si

Consonant deletion ˈprɪvə + si

Phonemic form ˈprɪvəsi

1b) Underlying form ˈpraɪvət + si

Vowel change ˈprɪvət + si

Consonant deletion ˈprɪvə + si

Phonemic form ˈprɪvəsi

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2. Morphophonemic Processes in the Suffixation of Bases Ending with -ant

There are a total of 17 bases that end with the final segment -ant. Based on

the word classes, of those 17 bases, 10 are adjective bases (ascendant, buoyant,

constant, discrepant, expectant, hesitant, infant, malignant, pregnant, redundant,

and vacant) and 7 are noun bases (accountant, consultant, occupant, tenant,

truant, and vagrant). Based on the word origins, 14 of the bases are derived from

Latinate origin, except buoyant (derived from Spanish), tenant (derived from Indo

European), and truant (derived from Celtic).

In contrast to the several morphological processes undergone by the -ate

bases above, there is only one morphological process that occurs in the suffixation

of these -ant bases, namely consonant deletion, as shown with the bases

accountant, ascendant, and buoyant below.

Underlying form əˈkaʊntənt + si

Consonant deletion əˈkaʊntən + si

Phonemic form əˈkaʊntənsi

Underlying form əˈsendənt + si

Consonant deletion əˈsendən + si

Phonemic form əˈsendənsi

Underlying form ˈbɔɪənt + si

Consonant deletion ˈbɔɪən + si

Phonemic form ˈbɔɪənsi

The same morphophonemic process also occurs in:

constant constancy

consultant consultancy

discrepant discrepancy

expectant expectancy

hesitant hesitancy

infant infancy

malignant malignancy

occupant occupancy

pregnant pregnancy

redundant redundancy

tenant tenancy

truant truancy

vacant vacancy

vagrant vagrancy

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Although the morphophonemic process itself seems simple, the suffixation

of these bases invariably results in words that end with /ənsi/ and thus poses new

questions related to the suffix form {-ancy}; namely whether {-ancy} can be

considered as an allomorph of the suffix {-cy} and when it functions as an

allomorph of the suffix {-cy}. As discussed in the second chapter, Plag in Word

Formation in English described {-ancy}/{-ency} as ―closely related‖ to the suffix

{-cy} (Plag, 2002: 110). For example, the word accountancy can easily be

considered as the result of suffixation process account + {-ant} + {-cy} as well as

account + {-ancy}. However, upon further examination, of the 17 {-ancy} words

above, only 8 words can be broken down to reveal the suffixes {-ant} and {-cy},

while the other 9 words just consist of the suffix {-cy} and roots that happen to

end with the -ant sound.

Those eight words are accountancy, ascendancy, buoyancy, consultancy,

expectancy, malignancy, hesitancy, and occupancy. Referring back to Katamba‘s

theory, the base is any unit to which any kind of affixes can be added while the

root is the irreducible core of the word (Katamba, 1993: 45). The base of the word

accountancy, to which the suffix {-cy} is added, is accountant. However, the

word accountant itself is also the result of affixation process with the suffix

{-ant}. The base of accountant is account, which is also the root because account

cannot be divided into a smaller meaningful unit. The same phenomenon can be

found in the other seven words. The bases of the words above, the adjective as

well as the noun bases, can be further divided to reveal the suffix {-ant} attached

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to the verb roots: account, ascend, buoy, consult, expect, malign, hesitate, and

occupy.

This condition creates two possibilities: the first is verb root + {-ant} +

{-cy}, and the second is adjective/ noun/ verb base + {-ancy}. For instance,

accountancy can be considered as the result of suffixations account + {-ant} +

{-cy} as well as account + {-ancy}; ascendancy as the result of ascend + {-ant} +

{-cy} as well as ascend + {-ancy}. If we consider the second alternative, then

these eight words above use the allomorph {-ancy}. As discussed extensively in

the previous part, from the meaning, base + {-ancy} in most cases resembles root

+ {-ant} + {-cy}, thus supporting the view that {-ancy} is an allomorph of the

suffix {-cy}. For example, expectancy means ―the state of being expectant‖, or

―the state of expecting something‖. It can also be applied to the other words:

account accountant accountancy

ascend ascendant ascendancy

buoy buoyant buoyancy

consult consultant consultancy

malign malignant malignancy

hesitate hesitant hesitancy

occupy occupant occupancy.

Meanwhile, the nine words that only consist of roots and the suffix {-cy}

are constancy, discrepancy, infancy, pregnancy, redundancy, tenancy, truancy,

vacancy, and vagrancy. As we can see, it is impossible to further divide these

words into *const + {-ant} + {-cy}, *discrep + {-ant} + {-cy}, and so on.

3. Morphophonemic Processes in the Suffixation of Bases Ending with -ent

There are a total of 27 bases that end with the final segment -ent. Based on

the word classes, 22 are adjective bases (belligerent, clement, coherent,

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competent, complacent, consistent, constituent, contingent, decent, deficient,

delinquent, dependent, efficient, excellent, expedient, frequent, incumbent,

insurgent, potent, proficient, sufficient, and transparent) and 5 are noun bases

(agent, current, regent, president, resident). Regarding the word origins, just like

bases ending with -ate and -ant, bases that end with the final segment -ent are also

dominated by Latinate bases. 24 of the bases are derived from Latinate origin,

except clement, decent, and potent, which are derived from Indo European.

Just like with -ant bases above, there is only one morphological process

that occurs in the suffixation of these -ent bases, namely consonant deletion, as

shown with the bases agent, belligerent, and clement below.

Underlying form ˈeɪdʒənt + si

Consonant deletion ˈeɪdʒən + si

Phonemic form ˈeɪdʒənsi

Underlying form bɪˈlɪdʒərənt + si

Consonant deletion bɪˈlɪdʒərən + si

Phonemic form bɪˈlɪdʒərənsi

Underlying form ˈklemənt + si

Consonant deletion ˈklemən + si

Phonemic form ˈklemənsi

The same morphophonemic process also occurs in:

coherent coherency

competent competency

complacent complacency

consistent consistency

constituent constituency

contingent contingency

current currency

decent decency

deficient deficiency

delinquent delinquency

dependent dependency

efficient efficiency

excellent excellency

expedient expediency

frequent frequency

incumbent incumbency

insurgent insurgency

potent potency

president presidency

proficient proficiency

regent regency

resident residency

sufficient sufficiency

transparent transparency

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As with the morphophonemic process, the phenomena undergone by the

{-ency} words here are the same as the ones undergone by the {-ancy} words

above; the only actual difference lies in the spelling. Another slight difference can

be found in the proportion between the words that can be divided into {-ent} and

{-cy} and the ones that cannot. Of the 27 {-ency} words above, only 6 words can

be broken down to reveal the suffixes {-ent} and {-cy}, while 21 words just

consist of the suffix {-cy} and roots that happen to end with the -ent sound. The

latter category is much bigger in numbers than the former category in {-ency}

words, unlike the proportion in {-ancy} words, which is almost balanced.

The six words that contain the suffixes {-ent} and {-cy} are consistency,

dependency, excellency, presidency, residency, and sufficiency. Consistency can

be divided into the base consistent plus the suffix {-cy}, while consistent itself can

be further divided into the base consist plus the suffix {-ent}. Consist is also a root

because it cannot be further divided into smaller unit. The same phenomenon can

be found in the other words. The bases of the words above can be further divided

to reveal the suffix {-ent} attached to the verb roots: consist, depend, excel,

preside, reside, and suffice.

Just like the case of the {-ancy} words, the words above can be considered

as using the allomorph {-ency}. The meaning of base + {-ency} in most cases

resembles the meaning of root + {-ent} + {-cy}, thus supporting the view that

{-ency} is an allomorph of the suffix {-cy}. For example, dependency means ―the

state of being dependent‖, or ―the state of depending on someone or something‖.

It can also be applied to the other words in the next page:

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consist consistent consistency

excel excellent excellency

preside president presidency

reside resident residency

suffice sufficient sufficiency

The 21 words that only consist of roots and the suffix {-cy} are agency,

belligerency, clemency, coherency, competency, complacency, constituency,

contingency, currency, decency, deficiency, delinquency, efficiency, expediency,

frequency, incumbency, insurgency, potency, proficiency, regency, and

transparency. Just like with their -ant counterparts, it is impossible to further

divide these words into *ag + {-ent} + {-cy}, *belliger + {-ent} + {-cy}, and so

on.

4. Morphophonemic Processes in the Suffixation of Other Bases

Besides the three large groups of bases above, there are 16 miscellaneous

bases that receive the suffix {-cy}, which end with 13 different sounds: -et, -ain,

-rupt, -alse, -tic, -at, -ect, -ot, -ope, -ire, -eme, -erve, and -end. Unlike the previous

groups of bases, which are dominated by Latinate adjectives, these miscellaneous

bases are comprised of various word classes from various origins. Based on the

word classes, there are only 5 adjective bases (bankrupt, false, lunatic, secret, and

supreme), 8 noun bases (baronet, prophet, captain, chaplain, diplomat, effect,

idiot, and pope), and all 3 verb bases (conserve, conspire, and tend). Based on the

word origins, there are 12 bases derived from Latin, 1 derived from Middle

English, 1 derived from French, and 2 derived from Greek.

Not only the word classes and origins, but the morphophonemic processes

undergone in the suffixation of these bases are also various; from no

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morphophonemic process to five kinds of different morphophonemic processes.

Indeed, the base bankrupt does not undergo any morphophonemic change at all in

the suffixation process. In other words, its underlying form and phonemic form

are identical, as demonstrated below.

Underlying form ˈbæŋkrʌpt + si

Phonemic form ˈbæŋkrʌptsi

There are several bases that undergo one morphophonemic process,

namely baronet, captain, chaplain, and idiot, as shown in the examples below.

1) Underlying form ˌbærəˈnet + si

Stress shift ˈbærəˌnet + si

Phonemic form ˈbærəˌnetsi

2) Underlying form ˈkæptɪn + si

Vowel change ˈkæptən + si

Phonemic form ˈkæptənsi

Underlying form ˈtʃæplɪn + si

Vowel change ˈtʃæplən + si

Phonemic form ˈtʃæplənsi

3) Underlying form ˈɪdiət + si

Consonant deletion ˈɪdiə + si

Phonemic form ˈɪdiəsi

As shown in example (1) above, the morphophonemic process of stress

shift occurs in the suffixation baronet baronetcy. The word baronet actually

has two accepted pronunciations, namely /ˈbærənɪt/ and /ˌbærəˈnet/, and the word

baronetcy also has two accepted pronunciations, namely /ˈbærənɪtsi/ and

/ˈbærəˌnetsi/. In the first version of those pronunciations, the base does not

undergo any morphophonemic process at all in the suffixation process; however,

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in the second version of those pronunciations, the primary stress changes from

/ˈnet/ to /ˈbærə/.

In example (2), the morphophonemic process of vowel change occurs in

the suffixation of the noun bases captain captaincy and chaplain

chaplaincy. The word captain actually has two accepted pronunciations, /ˈkæptən/

and /ˈkæptɪn/. The second version of pronunciation is discussed here, while in the

first version of pronunciation, no morphological process occurs. In this

morphophonemic process, the vowel /ɪ/ changes to /ə/ in the suffixation. However,

unlike in previous cases, the final consonant /n/ is not deleted when attached to the

suffix {-cy}, possibly because /n/ is a voiced consonant while /s/ is a voiceless

consonant, and pronouncing those two consonants together is not really difficult.

Then, in example (3), the morphophonemic process of consonant deletion

occurs in the suffixation of idiot idiocy. This process is quite straightforward

just like in the previous parts, in which the consonant /t/ is deleted once the base is

attached to the suffix {-cy}.

Meanwhile, there are some other bases that undergo two kinds of

morphophonemic processes, namely prophet, secret, pope, and supreme.

1) Underlying form ˈprɒfɪt + si

Vowel change ˈprɒfət + si

Consonant deletion ˈprɒfə + si

Phonemic form ˈprɒfəsi

Underlying form ˈsikrɪt + si

Vowel change ˈsikrət + si

Consonant deletion ˈsikrə + si

Phonemic form ˈsikrəsi

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2) Underlying form pəʊp + si

Vowel change ˈpeɪp + si

Schwa epenthesis ˈpeɪpə + si

Phonemic form ˈpeɪpəsi

Underlying form səˈprim + si

Vowel change səˈprɛm + si

Schwa epenthesis səˈprɛmə + si

Phonemic form səˈprɛməsi

As shown in example (1) above, the morphophonemic processes of vowel

change and consonant deletion occur in the suffixation of two noun bases, prophet

prophecy and secret secrecy. These processes resemble the ones undergone

by the bases ending with -ate segment, namely the change of vowel from /ɪ/ to /ə/,

then the deletion of the final consonant /t/. Then in example (2), the

morphophonemic process of vowel change and schwa epenthesis occur in the

suffixation of pope papacy and supreme supremacy. The first process

changes the diphthong vowels /əʊ/ to /eɪ/ in pope papacy and the vowel /i/ to

/ɛ/ in supreme supremacy. Then, unlike in previous cases, where the final

consonant is either deleted or directly attached to the suffix {-cy}, in this case the

sound /ə/ is inserted between the final consonant of the bases, /p/ and /m/

respectively, and the attached suffix /si/.

There are two bases that undergo three kinds of morphophonemic

processes, namely false and lunatic, as shown in the examples below.

1) Underlying form fɔ:ls + si

Vowel change ˈfæls + si

Consonant deletion ˈfæl + si

Schwa epenthesis ˈfælə + si

Phonemic form ˈfæləsi

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2) Underlying form ˈlu:nətɪk + si

Deletion ˈlu:nətɪ + si

Deletion ˈlu:nət + si

Deletion ˈlu:nə + si

Phonemic form ˈlu:nəsi

In example (1) above, the morphophonemic processes of consonant

deletion, vowel change, and schwa epenthesis occur in the suffixation of false

fallacy. In the first process, the final consonant /s/ is deleted because it is the same

as the initial consonant of the suffix {-cy}. Then the vowel is changed from /ɔ:/ to

/æ/. Lastly, as with pope papacy and supreme supremacy above, the sound

/ə/ is inserted between the final consonant /l/ and the attached /si/. While in

example (2), there is an unusual phenomenon of deletion of the whole syllable,

/tik/. However, since all sources consulted by the writer state that

morphophonemic process only recognizes deletion of sound segments rather than

deletion of a whole syllable, the base lunatic can be considered as undergoing

three subsequent processes of deletion for three sound segments, /t/, /i/, and /k/.

Next, there is one base that undergo four kinds of morphophonemic

processes, namely diplomat, as shown in the examples below.

Underlying form ˈdɪpləmæt + si

Stress shift dɪˈpləmæt + si

Vowel insertion dɪˈpləʊmæt + si

Vowel change dɪˈpləʊmət + si

Consonant deletion dɪˈpləʊmə + si

Phonemic form dɪˈpləʊməsi

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In the example above, the morphophonemic processes of stress shift,

vowel insertion, vowel change, and consonant deletion occur in the suffixation of

diplomat diplomacy. In the first process, the stress shifts from the first syllable

to the second syllable. Then the vowel /ʊ/ is added after the vowel /ə/, thus

creating the diphthong /əʊ/. Next, the vowel /æ/ is changed into /ə/, and lastly the

final consonant /t/ is deleted, just like in most other cases.

Besides the examples discussed above, two special cases are found in the

suffixation of conserve conservancy and tend tendency, which respectively

have -ancy and -ency ending although they do not have the corresponding -ant and

-ent bases. The words *conservant and *tendent do not exist in the English

vocabulary, which explains why these two words are categorized in this part

instead of the previous parts with the other {-ancy} and {-ency} words. None of

these bases undergo any morphological process in the suffixation; their underlying

form and phonemic form are exactly the same, as shown in the example below.

Underlying form kənˈsɜrv + ənsi

Phonemic form kənˈsɜrvənsi

Underlying form tɛnd + ənsi

Phonemic form ˈtɛndənsi

Although practically these words do not undergo any morphophonemic

process, they provide more information about the form {-ancy}/{-ency}. In Word

Formation in English, Plag tried to examine further about the connection between

closely related forms of suffix like {-ancy}/{-ency} and {-cy} as well as

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{-ance}/{-ence} and {-ce}, but he used {-ance} instead of {-ancy} as his example.

He found that not all words that receive the suffix {-ance} have corresponding

{-ant} adjectives, for instance riddance and furtherance, which have no

corresponding adjectives *riddant and *furtherant (Plag, 2002: 110). It turns out

that the same phenomenon happens with the suffix {-ancy}/{-ency}, namely with

the words conservancy and tendency above. This strengthens the finding that there

is the form {-ancy}/{-ency} which cannot be divided into two suffixes {-ant}/

{-ent} and {-cy}.

The writer believes that {-ancy} and {-ency} are the allomorphs of the

suffix {-cy} because {-ancy} and {-ency} have the same meaning and the same

grammatical function with the main suffix of this study, namely suffix {-cy}. The

writer called the suffix {-cy} as the main suffix because this suffix has more

chance to be attached to the words listed in the data collections. The suffix {-cy}

is more flexible than the suffix {-ancy} and {-ency} which most of them are

attached to the words ending in segments –ant and –ent.

Both {-ancy} and {-ency} have the same pronunciation /ənsi/. Based on

the analysis, the writer finds that the most of those suffixes are attached to a base

depend on the final vowel of that base.

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

In this morphological study, the writer has collected and analyzed a total

of 77 words formed through affixation with the suffix {-cy} or its allomorphs.

This study aims to examine the English suffix {-cy} by answering the three

problems formulated in the first chapter. The problems involve identifying the

base of words that receive the suffix {-cy}, discovering the meaning of the suffix

{-cy} in English words, and identifying the allomorphs of the suffix {-cy} and the

morphophonemic processes undergone in the affixation of the suffix {-cy}.

The suffix {-cy} is a derivational, nominal (noun-forming) suffix. It

mostly attaches to adjective bases (49 bases / 64%), but it can also attach to noun

bases (25 bases / 32%), and in very few cases verb bases (3 bases / 4%). Being a

Latinate suffix, the suffix {-cy} attaches most productively to Latinate bases (66

bases / 86%), although it does produce a small number of new words by attaching

to non-Latinate bases. These non-Latinate bases originate from Indo-European (5

bases), Greek (2 bases), Spanish, Celtic, French, and English (1 base each). As the

bases that attach productively to the suffix {-cy} are dominated by Latinate

adjectives, Nomina Essendi is a process which is dominantly associated to this

suffix.

As a derivational suffix, {-cy} always changes the meanings of the bases it

attaches to. The most common meanings obtained in the suffixation are ―quality,

condition, state, or fact of being‖, which occurs to adjective, noun, and verb bases

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alike, as well as ―position, rank, or office‖, which occurs to noun bases and one

adjective base. Other less common meanings include ―the act or process of‖,

which occurs to adjective, noun, and verb bases; ―ability to be X‖ and ―power to

produce X‖, which occur to adjective and noun bases; ―people or group of people

who are X‖, which occurs to adjective bases; and ―movement in the manner of

X‖, which occurs to one noun base.

Finally, the morphophonemic processes undergone by the bases in the

suffixation process of the suffix {-cy}. The morphophonemic processes that occur

in the suffixation process are vowel and schwa insertion; vowel and consonant

deletion; vowel change; vowel reduction; and stress shift. The most common

morphophonemic process is final consonant deletion, which is undergone by 69

(90%) of the bases.

Many of the bases (44 bases / 57%) end with the segments -ant and -ent,

which are similar in sound but different in spelling. All of them undergo final

consonant deletion and are dominated by Latinate adjectives. About one-third of

the resulting words (14 words) can be divided into verb root + -ant/-ent + -cy and

can also be considered as taking the allomorphs {-ancy} or {-ency}; while two-

thirds of the resulting words (30 words) cannot, thus taking the main suffix,

namely {-cy} itself. 17 bases (22%) end with the segment -ate. They are also

dominated by Latinate adjectives and undergo final consonant deletion; some of

them also undergo the processes of vowel change and vowel reduction. These

bases take the original allomorph {-cy}. The remaining 16 bases (21%) originate

from various word classes and various origins, which end with various,

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miscellaneous sound segments. The morphophonemic processes that occur are

highly diverse, from vowel and schwa insertion, vowel and consonant deletion,

vowel change, vowel reduction, and stress shift, to no process at all.

Two special cases were found in this study, to be precise in the words

conservancy and tendency. These words do not have the corresponding -ant and

-ent bases, since the words *conservant and *tendent do not exist in the English

vocabulary. This case is different from their counterparts, namely the other

resulting words with -ancy and -ency ending.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bauer, Laurie. Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh

University Press, 1988.

Finch, Geoffrey. Linguistic Terms and Concepts. New York: St. Martin‘s Press,

2000.

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to

Language. Boston: Thomson, 2003.

Gleason, H. A. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. New York: Holt,

Rinehart and Winston, 1961.

Handono, Bibit Nur. ―A Synchronic Study on the Form of English suffix -ion.‖

Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2007.

Katamba, Francis. Morphology. New York: St. Martin‘s Press, 1993.

Ladefoged, Peter. Vowels and Consonants: And Introduction to the Sounds of

Languages. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.

O‘Grady, Wiliam, Michael Dobrovolsky, and Francis Katamba, Contemporary

Lingustics: An Introduction (fourth edition). Hong Kong: Longman Asia

Limited, 1997.

Plag, Ingo. Word Formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

2002.

Radford, Andrew, Martin Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen, Andrew

Spencer. Linguistics: An Introduction (fifth edition). Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Szymanek, Bogdan. Introduction to Morphological Analysis. Warszawa:

Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1989.

Yuwono, Vivin Andhika. ―A Morphological Analysis of the Suffix –ic.‖

Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2003.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 5th edition. London: Pearson

Education Limited, 2009.

Webster’s New World College Dictionary. 4th edition. Columbia: Wiley

Publishing,Inc, 2005.

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APPENDIX 1

English Phonetic Features for Vowels and Consonants

(Ladefoged, 2001: 180)

Feature Value English examples

Vocalic

Consonantal

Height

Backness

Place

Manner

Nasal

Lateral

Voicing

Labial

Coronal

Dorsal

{high}

{mid-high}

{mid-low}

{low}

{back}

{central}

{front}

{bilabial}

{labiodental}

{dental}

{alveolar}

{palatoalveolar}

{velar}

{stop}

{fricative}

{approximant}

{nasal}

{oral}

{central}

{lateral}

{voiced}

{voiceless}

i:, u:

ɪ, ʊ, ə

e, ɔ:, ʌ

æ, ɑ:

u:, ʊ, ɔ:, ɑ:

ə, ʌ

i:, ɪ, e, æ

p, b, m, w

f, v

θ, ð

t, s, z, n, r, l

ʃ, ʒ, j

k, g, ŋ

p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ŋ

f, θ, s, ʃ, v, ð, z, ʒ

w, r, l, j, h

m, n, ŋ

b, d, g, v, ð, z, ʒ, w, r, l, j, p,

t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ

b, d, g, v, ð, z, ʒ, w, r, j, p, t,

k, f, θ, s, ʃ, m, n, ŋ

l

b, d, g, v, ð, z, ʒ, m, n, ŋ, w,

r, l, j

p, t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ, h

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APPENDIX 2

Data Collections

Latinate adjective bases attached to the suffix {-cy}

Bases Words Origin

accurate accuracy Latin

adequate adequacy Latin

ascendant ascendancy Latin

bankrupt bankruptcy Latin

belligerent belligerency Latin

coherent coherency Latin

competent competency Latin

complacent complacency Latin

confederate confederacy L. Latin

consistent consistency Latin

constant constancy Latin

constituent constituency Latin

contingent contingency Latin

deficient deficiency Latin

delicate delicacy O. Latin

delinquent delinquency Latin

dependent dependency Latin

discrepant discrepancy Latin

efficient efficiency Latin

excellent excellency Latin

expectant expectancy Latin

expedient expediency Latin

false fallacy Latin

frequent frequency Latin

hesitant hesitancy Latin

immediate immediacy L. Latin

incumbent incumbency Latin

infant infancy Latin

insurgent insurgency Latin

intimate intimacy Latin

intricate intricacy Latin

legitimate legitimacy Latin

literate literacy Latin

lunatic lunacy Latin

malignant malignancy L. Latin

numerate numeracy Latin

pregnant pregnancy O. Latin

private privacy Latin

proficient proficiency Latin

redundant redundancy Latin

secret secrecy Latin

sufficient sufficiency Latin

supreme supremacy Latin

transparent transparency Latin

vacant vacancy Latin

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Indo-European adjective bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Bases Words Origin of Base

clement clemency Indo European

decent decency Indo European

potent potency Indo European

Spanish adjective bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Indo European noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Bases Words Origin of Base Classification

pirate piracy Indo European concrete countable

tenant tenancy Indo European concrete countable

Greek noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Bases Words Origin of Base

buoyant buoyancy Spanish

Bases Words Origin of Base Classification

idiot idiocy Greek concrete countable

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Latin noun bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Bases Words Classification

accountant accountancy concrete countable

advocate advocacy concrete countable

agent agency concrete countable

candidate candidacy concrete countable

captain captaincy concrete countable

chaplain chaplaincy concrete countable

consultant consultancy concrete countable

curate curacy concrete countable

current currency concrete countable

effect efficacy abstract uncountable

magistrate magistracy concrete countable

occupant occupancy concrete countable

president presidency concrete countable

primate primacy concrete countable

prophet prophecy concrete countable

regent regency concrete countable

resident residency concrete countable

vagrant vagrancy concrete countable

Middle English, French, Celtic noun bases attach to suffix {-cy}

Base Word Origin of Base Classification

baronet baronetcy Middle English concrete countable

diplomat diplomacy French concrete countable

truant truancy Celtic concrete countable

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Latin verb bases attached to suffix {-cy}

Base Word Origin of Base

conserve conservancy Latin

conspire conspiracy Latin

tend tendency Latin

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