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Running head: PIP! PIP: MEANING BEYOND NOISE 1 Pip! Pip: Meaning Beyond Noise Bayogo, Janine Gemino, Alvin Masayao, Analiza Ondiano, Christie Kaye Ruiz, Elvin Cebu Normal University

Pip! Pip! Meaning Beyond Noise

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Pip! Pip: Meaning Beyond Noise

Bayogo, JanineGemino, AlvinMasayao, AnalizaOndiano, Christie KayeRuiz, Elvin

Cebu Normal University

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Running head: PIP! PIP: MEANING BEYOND NOISE1iPIP! PIP: MEANING BEYOND NOISE2

List Of FiguresList Of TablesThe Problem And Its ScopeRationaleTheoretical BackgroundStatement of the ProblemSignificance of the StudyResearch MethodologiesDefinition of TermsData AnalysisResults And RecommendationsFindingsSummaryLimitationsRecommendationsWorks CitedAppendices

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List Of FiguresPIP! PIP: MEANING BEYOND NOISE3PIP! PIP: MEANING BEYOND NOISE25

Figure 1. Theoretical FrameworkFigure 2. Venn Diagram413

List Of Tables

Table 1. Registers of Liloan Jeep DriversTable 2. Registers of Metro Cebu Jeep Drivers1112

The Problem And Its ScopeRationaleLanguage is varied and registers are good examples of such. Register is a variation of language and is exclusive only to a specific group of individuals sharing specific similarities such as work, age, location, gender, et cetera (Wikipedia, 2012). Thus, understanding their register would impose much difficulty on the people who are not members of the so-called specific group of individuals. The researchers found it necessary to study registers for such noteworthy relevance on the part not only of the researchers but also of the society where the researchers belong. The researchers, being students, come across jeep drivers and their assistants in their day to day life as they travel from home to school and vice versa. They have seen how lack of knowledge about registers could cause misunderstandings between the drivers or their assistants and the passengers. When the drivers assistant doing his/her daily routine using his/her daily language (register), passengers might misunderstand the expressions uttered by the drivers assistant and they, more often than not, end up fighting chaos! This is a common picture in public utility jeeps a good example of the aforementioned misunderstanding.

The researchers consider the great significance of studying the registers of jeep drivers and/or their assistants and its indispensable role in the continuity of the harmonious interrelationship and interdependence of the drivers and/or their assistants and the passengers.

Hence, after mentioning for a couple of times or more, the title Pip! Pip! Meaning Beyond Noise is a perfect embodiment of the sole goal of this research which is to let afloat, brought upon by digging not just scratching, the significance of meaning in context. Pip! Pip are onomatopoeic words used to signify not only the noise produced by the vehicles pointed out at the last morpheme of the title but also the main subjects of this journey often referred to by the researchers as joyride: the jeeps their drivers and the drivers assistants. Meaning Beyond Noise means only one thing; and that is to highlight the focal point of this study, not on the sounds produced by the jeeps but rather on the registers used by the main subjects of this research. This research has no other aim but to articulate the dimensions of the register of jeep drivers and their assistants. Hence, only by listening beyond what can be heard the honk of vehicles could ones ears be able to hear and make-meaning to understand the register of jeep drivers and their assistants.

Theoretical BackgroundMaking sense has always been mans main aim of existing in this world: his main objective of living to make meaning and in order to make sense; to make sense and in order to be understood. However, understanding would be difficult to achieve without a universal meaning identical to all. Thus, this research on the register of jeep drivers and their assistants was conceived to rise up to the challenge of meaning-making. Hence, this research is anchored on the Register Theory and the Social Semiotics.

Register Theory is a theory of language variation according to situational context (Wikipedia, 2012). It focuses on the systematic relation between a context of situation and the language variety used in that context register. As Halliday puts it: register is a variety of language, corresponding to a variety of situation with situations interpreted by means of a conceptual framework using the terms field, tenor, and mode. Field refers to what language is being used that is, whether terms used are technical or just the everyday terms. It includes the topic what is being talked about and the interactants. Tenor describes the role relationship between the interactants. It encompasses the social or economic status, the age gap if there is, the affective involvement (may they be friends, family members, and so on), and the contact it could be seldom, occasional, frequent and so on. Mode refers to the role language is playing in the interaction. It could be written or spoken or spontaneous or planned. It could also have the level of interactiveness it could have the possibility of rapid feedback, delayed feedback or immediate feedback (Wikipedia, 2012).

Social Semiotics one of the Semiotic Theories examines semiotic practices, specific to a culture and community, for the making of various kinds of texts and meanings in various situational contexts and contexts of culturally meaningful activity. It also investigates human signifying practices in specific social and cultural circumstances and which tries to explain meaning-making as a social practice. It is divided into three branches, namely: semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics. Semantics examines the relation between signs and the things to which they refer to. Syntactics examines the relation among signs in formal structure. Pragmaticsexamines the relation between signs and the effect they have on the people who use them (Wikipedia, 2012).

Through the use of these two theories, the researchers will be able to dissect the jeep drivers and their assistants register through certain parameters such as: social, economic and linguistic aspects affecting usage. This could be considered as meaning-making through understanding by means of thorough examination on the relevance of the language used on a particular context - register towards the situational context. Thus, this theoretical framework shows

Figure 1.TheoreticalFramework (Register Theory and Social Semiotics)

how the three branches of both theories singularly and wholly contribute to the meaning-making process which is the primary business of both theories which stands as the core of this academic endeavor.

Statement of the ProblemThis paper aims to understand and analyze the registers used by the jeep drivers and their assistants to communicate with their passengers. This research on the register of jeep drivers and their assistants in Liloan and Metro Cebu aims to answer these questions:1. What are the registers of jeep drivers and/or their assistants in Metro Cebu? In Liloan? words used (their registers) meaning1. Are there differences in (the use of) their registers? according to age according to economic/social status according to profession/educational attainment1. How do people passengers react and respond to their (driver and/or assistant) registers?

Significance of the StudyThe results of this research study categorically benefited some sectors of the society by providing information on the results of the register analysis of jeep drivers and assistants of Liloan and Metro Cebu, whether it is a boon or a bane to the society for better communication. Among the people who will be directly or indirectly benefited are the following:

Passengers. The results of this research study will give insights and first-hand knowledge on how the drivers and assistants interact with people especially the passengers. By the time they hear the register they will not be left dumbfounded even if some words are unfamiliar which sometimes sounds malicious. Furthermore, it is for them to be able to understand the registers of the jeep drivers and their assistants to avoid misunderstandings and instead, promote harmonious relationships between passengers and drivers and/or assistants.

Students. The result of this study can give them the authentic knowledge of the registers which is of significant use in there socialization and daily routine. This research can give them information through their perusal of the researchers output.

English Teachers. This study will integrate their knowledge in teaching and start their own pursuit related to this study. This can also be another source of information in the aspect of register analysis which is quite useful, especially for English majors.

Future Researchers. The output of this study will benefit and help the future researchers. This can serve as their guide and a building block for their own study. Further study can also help in the development of this research.

Interested Readers. This study will help them learn a handful of new things and may motivate them to explore more and discover further relevant and interesting information in this field of study.

Research MethodologiesIn every situation, people will shift into different registers, the idea which has been believed since the 1960s (Vlack, 2012). An individual in the course of the day would change the way they speak in many different times (Vlack, 2012). Now, in relevance to the study, the researchers, as passengers, found it interesting and momentous to investigate. With their daily activities, it will also enhance their understanding of the meaning of every word in the uttered expressions. After doing the research, the reader will realize the significance of the study just as the researchers expected.

The varieties of expressions and utterances in different communities bring the researchers the essence of the study. When passengers speak in jeeps, other commuters may stare at them or give them a puzzled look. Others, however, have different reactions. When the speaker talks about funny things with his/her comrades, the other observers seem to be confused and others laugh with the speaker as a sign of understanding. There are also a lot of reasons why observers tend to have that behavior. Personality could be one of them.

The researchers found it very reasonable to have this study because of their day to day activities as mentioned above. The cogency of the research, as the researchers know it, depends upon the validity of the measures taken to amass the data, as well as the time taken to conduct the analysis.

In order to realize this research, the researchers will use three research methods, namely: ethnographic method, comparative and discourse analysis.

Ethnographic method will be used in the data gathering stage. The researchers will immerse themselves in the context of the respondents and gather the data registers through observation. They will also do video and sound recordings to produce authentic research data. The researchers will also conduct an interview to provide concrete and reliable data and also to verify the data gathered through observation.

Comparative analysis will be used in analyzing the data gathered in the data analysis stage. This method will be used to analyze the similarities and differences in the jeep drivers and/or their assistants use of their registers considering the age, the economic status and the profession/educational attainment of the passengers.

Discourse analysis will be used to furthermore analyze the data gathered. This time, the jeep drivers and/or their assistants will be considered alongside with the registers.

Hence, with these three methods, the researchers aim to lay solid grounds and concrete evidences for their assertions.Definition of TermsField refers to the type of language being used - that is, whether the terms used are technical or just the everyday terms. In this research, this refers to the registers of jeep drivers and their assistants.

Tenor refers to the relationship between the interactants. It encompasses the social or economic status, the age gap if there is, the affective involvement and the contact. In this research, this refers to the driver and/or their assistants and the passengers.

Mode refers to the means by which language is used in an interaction. It could be written or spoken or spontaneous or planned. In this research, this refers to the drivers and/or their assistants spoken manner of relating their registers.

Semantics examines the relation between signs and the things to which they refer to. In this research, this refers to the registers and their corresponding meaning.

Syntactics examines the relation among signs in formal structure. In this research, this refers to the register and their usage. This has something to do with the appropriateness of registers according to the situational context.

Pragmatics examines the relation between signs and the effect they have on the people who use them. In this research, this refers to the reactions of the passengers with the registers that the jeep drivers and/or their assistants.

Liloan Jeep Drivers refers to jeep drivers who operate jeeps having the route Liloan-Cebu and the number at the rear ends of their jeeps 25.

Metro Cebu Jeep Drivers refers to jeep drivers who operate jeeps having their routes just within the metro. For the purpose of this research, the researchers chose to have the jeeps with the number at the rear ends of their jeeps 01K.

Data AnalysisREGISTERMEANING

1. kinsa ning pliti?Passengers identity/owner of the money; Scope of destination (from and to)

2. aginudTo remind the driver to make a stop ahead

3. asa ni?The place where the passenger disembarks

4. lingkuri ug balig singkuMove closer to one another/compress

5. bangkuSmall wooden chairs as seat extensions put in the middle of the jeep to accommodate passengers more than the seating capacity of the jeep

6. asa gikan?The place where the passenger rode on the jeep

7. di makuutPassengers pockets

8. gahiVertical metal bar attached onto the ceiling of the jeep

9. gawasTo go back on the track

10. kubra daanPay the fare before the said destination; pay ahead of the time when the passenger disembarks

11. lugarStop!/A passenger is going to get off

12. mas daku paCoins

13. naa paVacant seats are still available

14. number + na langNumber of passenger/passengers yet to be accommodated

15. PapaA traffic enforcer

16. pusing/posingSit properly

17. sigi/giSignals the driver to resume driving after unloading a passenger/passengers

18. sikatsikatBig, fully accessorized (with flashy lights and groovy music) and beautifully decorated jeeps

19. tagak naGo! The passenger already got off

20. wala naThe jeep is fully accommodated already (including the bangku, if there is)

Table 1. Registers of Liloan Jeep Drivers

The words that appear in the table above are the registers that Liloan jeep drivers use. The words enlisted above were gathered through the observations of the researchers in their daily encounter with jeep drivers and their assistants as the researchers rode on jeeps on their way to school. These words are not the only registers the drivers use but are the most common. To confirm the meaning of the words, the researchers have interviewed some drivers. The researchers found these words significant because they are quite confusing when one has his first exposure to such words.WORDSMEANING

1. aginudReminds the driver to drive slow for a passenger to get off safely

2. asa gikan?The place where the passenger rode on the jeep

3. asa ni?Passengers destination

4. ayaw pugsa kay magduguHard-headed passengers who insist to get on a jeep that is already full

5. buakCoins for fare

6. buayaSelfish jeep drivers

7. galakaw sa panganudPassenger who walks really slow

8. gahiThe bar attached to the ceiling of the jeep

9. hupiaStop

10. irugiMove closer

11. kapyutTo hang onto a bar at the rear portion of the jeep

12. kuputHold firmly on the vertical bar attached onto the jeeps ceiling

13. lahusTo continue the travel after slowing down or a stop

14. lahus sa kusina/second floorTo let the passenger move straight towards the back of the drivers seat

15. larga naTo remind the driver to resume driving after unloading a passenger

16. naa paSome passengers can still be accommodated

17. palingkura ang bisitaTo let the other passenger have a seat

18. pila ni?The number of passengers to be paid for by the fare

19. sikiti bahalag di mu uyabTo maximize the available space

20. tuyukRoundtrip

Table 2. Registers of Metro Cebu Jeep Drivers

The words that appear in the table above are the registers that Metro Cebu jeep drivers use. Some of the words enlisted above were gathered by means of an interview (Appendix A) conducted by the researchers. Nevertheless, most were gathered through the observations of the researchers in their daily encounter with jeep drivers and their assistants as the researchers rode on jeeps on their way to school. These words are not the only registers the drivers use but are the most common in occurrence. To confirm the meaning of the words, the researchers have interviewed some drivers. The researchers found these words significant because they are quite confusing when one has his first exposure to such words.

LILOANMETRO CEBU

aginudasa ni?asa gikan?gahinaa pa

Figure 2. Venn Diagram for the Registers of Liloan and Metro Cebu

The fifteen words on the left oval are the distinct registers used by jeep drivers in Liloan, and the other fifteen words on the right oval are the unique registers used by jeep drivers in Metro Cebu. The five words found on the overlap of the two ovals are the words that are used by both Liloan and Metro Cebu jeep drivers.

In the course of performing this study, the researchers found out, with the help of the jeep drivers and/or their assistants, that there were, indeed, similarities and differences in the jeep drivers and/or their assistants use of registers. The researchers considered three parameters or factors in analyzing the registers of the jeep drivers and/or their assistants. The parameters are as follows:

Considering the age of the passengers, the researchers found out that most young passengers (aged 13-20 years old) understood the words better than the older passengers (aged 21 years and older) do. One reason, according to the drivers, could be because older passengers do not travel often, unlike the younger ones; and that most of the more mature passengers are not socially updated, too. So, most of the time, they dont really listen or engage in conversations in the jeep. This is one factor which tailors the jeep drivers and/or their assistants usage of their registers.

Considering the passengers economic status, the researchers found out that most rich passengers do not understand the jeep drivers and/or their assistants registers. They oftentimes use the normal Cebuano-Visayan language for conversations, technical or interactional, inside the jeep. On the other hand, the poor passengers understand the jeep drivers and/or their assistants registers quite well (Appendix B);

they could even use them everywhere they go. This is another factor which tailors the jeep drivers and/or their assistants usage of their registers.

Considering the educational attainment of the passengers, the researchers found out that whereas some professionals such as teachers, engineers and nurses understand the jeep drivers and/or their assistants register, there are also some professionals who dont get the meaning of the jeep drivers and/or their assistants register. The passengers who were not able to study for higher education, especially those who just loiter around Cebu and Liloan, are the ones who understand better these varying registers of the jeep drivers and/or their assistants. This is also another factor which tailors the jeep drivers and/or their assistants usage of their registers.

The aforementioned are all factors which affect, or even tailor to some extent, jeep drivers and/or their assistants use of their registers. As service providers, the drivers and/or their assistants would always seek ways to please their passengers; thus, they are compelled to adjust their language registers depending on who they are talking to in order to avoid misunderstandings and the air of being disrespectful.

With those several conditions mentioned and the premise established, it would be predictable enough that the passengers reactions would be varied, one from the other, and, of course, variable to the context.

As what the researchers found out, and what the jeep drivers and/or their assistants confirmed, there are a handful of different reactions positive, neutral, and even negative the passengers have whenever the drivers and/or their assistants use their registers. They said that the effect of the registers to the passengers and the passengers reactions are as varied as the timing of its usage.

Sometimes, the registers would sound humorous, sometimes it would sound disrespectful. As the researchers have observed, there are some passengers who would laugh or smile whenever they hear such registers like aginud, lingkuri ug balig singku, tagak na and lahus sa kusina/second floor. This is so if the passengers understood or if they took the word positively. However, some passengers would get angry (Appendix A) or insulted and would, in some cases, find the jeep drivers and/or their assistants disrespectful and smirk when they hear registers such as ayaw pugsa kay magdugu, galakaw sa panganud, gahi, palingkura ang bisita, di makuut and sikiti bahalag di mu uyab. This is usually the case if the passengers mistook the registers, if they dont understand at all or if they just took the registers negatively. Nevertheless, the most common reaction the jeep drivers and/or their assistants get from their passenger is a poker face or a look that tells the drivers or their assistants that the passengers felt dumbfounded because they didnt understand the word and they would not dare to ask for its meaning for fear of seeming dumb neutral reaction. However, there are some, like the researchers, who took bold steps and asked the meaning of the jeep drivers and/or their assistants registers.

Regardless of the similarities and difference in the registers of jeep drivers in Liloan and in Metro Cebu, the researchers discovered that the reactions of passengers, may they be in Liloan or in Metro Cebu, are more or less the same.

After comparing and identifying the similarities and differences in the registers used by jeep drivers in Liloan and Metro Cebu, the researchers will now examine the underlying theories that govern the drivers and their assistants usage of their registers with respect to the context of situation including their passengers.

When the driver or his/her assistant uses his/her register, he/she takes into consideration his audience: the passengers. The passengers are limiting factors, so to speak, that determine, in one way or the other, the words that the driver or his/her assistant uses. This is explained by Register Theory which basically asserts that registers are language variations which are variable to situational context. When viewed parallel with the Register Theory, it could then be understood why drivers and/or their assistants sometimes opt to or not to use their registers. If the terms under Register Theory would be considered, it could also be understood how the registers, its speakers and the listeners interplay in a certain situational contexts. The registers of jeep drivers and/or their assistants are the fields; the drivers and/or their assistants, who act as speakers, and the passengers, who act as listener, are the interactants of the situational context which is inside the jeep and their interaction is the tenor; and the spoken words registers are the modes of the language.

The events in the jeep the identified situational context can also be examined through the use of Social Semiotics which examines the semiotic practices usage of register specific to a culture culture of Metro Cebu and Liloan, particularly the drivers and/or the assistants, for the making of various kinds of meanings associated to registers in various situational contexts. It could also be furthermore examined through the use of its three branches: semantics, examines the relation between the signs registers and the things to which they refer to parts of the jeep, actions and daily practices of passengers and the drivers and/or their assistants, including the instructions and requests which are usually done through a conversation; syntactics, examines the relation among signs registers and their usage; and pragmatics, examines the relation between signs registers and the effect reactions of passengers they have on the people who use them the drivers and/or their assistants and the passengers.

To furthermore support their assertions, the researchers took into account one unpublished research of the undergraduate studies of Cebu Normal University-College of Arts and Sciences. It is a research entitled The Gayspeak: The Language of Style by Aonuevo, John Carlo, Jumao-as , Rowena, Malunjao, Daniel and Siroy, Lyn Michelle BA-English Language III students. Their research is on register analysis and they focused on the registers of gays in Cebu. The contents of their paper aimed to give examples and cite similarities and differences within the usage of gay language among its native speakers in Cebu. It also described the nature of the language and how expressions were coined. In addition, it also explained how the gay language spreads.

Specifically, it identified the common vocabulary of local gays and the corresponding meanings through a self-administered questionnaire and an informal conversation. Thus, the researchers could say that they are not alone in their assertions about the significance of studying registers.

Results And RecommendationsFindingsAfter analyzing the data gathered, the researchers have reached these findings:1. The registers of jeep drivers and/or their assistants in Liloan and Metro Cebu are varied enough despite the relative proximity of their location. Such is proven by the fact derived from the figures. Out of the twenty registers in both Liloan and Metro Cebu, which are most commonly used by the jeep drivers and/or their assistants, fifteen registers on both locations were proven to be distinct to each location while five registers of jeep drivers and/or their assistants in Liloan and Metro Cebu were found co-occurring in both locations: aginud, asa ni?, asa gikan?, gahi, naa pa.2. There are similarities and differences in the jeep drivers and/or their assistants use of their registers: young passengers understand their registers better compared to older passengers; poor passengers understand better the registers compared to rich passengers; and professionals such as teachers, engineers and nurses understand the registers while there are also some professionals who do not and passengers who did not have higher education understand better.3. The common reactions that the drivers and/or their assistants get are: positive laugh or smile; neutral poker face or dumbfounded look; and negative smirk.

SummaryThe research conducted has been into jeep drivers and their assistants registers. The researcher has done enough effort to come out with a certain result. The researcher used few authors namely: Halliday, Vlack and several sites to produce a credible research output. The terms used by the researchers are registers which were successfully explained in a chapter of this research. Thus, the researchers successfully found out the differences and similarities of the registers which can prevent misunderstanding between the drivers and/or their assistants and the passengers.

The researchers topic is about the meaning of the words and utterances used by the jeep drivers and their assistants in Liloan and Metro Cebu. Indeed there are differences and similarities in their registers but what the researchers wanted to emphasize to the reader is a deeper understanding and a deeper meaning-making which adds sense to these words. These words produced or spoken by these people are not just noise around but they are meaningful utterances which can make a reader or a person ignorant if not exposed to these level of word usage.

The researchers gathered information through the use of ethnographic method. The researchers also did interviews and recordings to support their assertions. The data gathered were analyzed through the use of comparative delete and discourse analysis. The data gathered were presented through listing the words with the corresponding meaning to instruct the unknowledgeable of these words. The researchers found out that there are a handful different reactions positive, neutral, and even negative the passengers have whenever the driver and their assistants use their registers. The researchers then realized that though the passengers have those reactions, there are also times that they have almost all positive and seldom negative reactions. The researchers took into account one unpublished research of the undergraduate studies of Cebu Normal University-College of Arts and Sciences to further support the study. Their research focused more on the registers of gays in Cebu. The overall presentation of their research shares a similar goal this study has presented.

Upon their perusal of this research, the readers, will know the registers and their corresponding meaning and understand the language that the jeep drivers and their assistants use. The readers will also be able to interact without the feeling of nuisance to the jeep drivers and their assistants.

LimitationsAlthough this research has, indeed, reached its aims and fulfilled its goals, there were limitations which the researchers encountered in the course of performing this research. The researchers found it noteworthy to enumerate such limitations in order for the future researchers to avoid the same difficulty the researchers had with these limitations and also for the future researchers to think in advance ways on how to go through the whole research process even with the presence of these limitations. The limitations are as follows:

First in hand would be the short time frame for this research. This research is very much a variable to the time factor because it determines, in one way or the other, the probable data that could be collected and the expected results of this research.

Second, would be the limited sources. Back-up information is very much needed in a research paper and because such resource is limited, the researchers found it hard to realize this research especially that their assertions must be supported by previous researches.

Third limitation is the availability of the respondents. Had more drivers been available, then the researchers would have opted to have survey method for the data gathering procedures; but since the drivers are always on the go, the researchers chose to have the ethnographic method. The availability of the respondents also determines the possible data to be gathered.

Fourth limitation is the scope or the location of the research. The researchers chose the places Liloan and Metro Cebu because these two are the most preferable and most available. The researchers are in Metro Cebu in most days of the week, and two of the researchers are living near Liloan while the other three takes permanent residence in Metro Cebu. The two places, for the purpose of comparison, are not too far to be different and not too near to be the same.

Fifth limitation is the financial requirements of this research. Having jeep drivers as our respondents and two quite distant places for our location, money would always be a requirement, and the limited financial resources the researchers have are what helped them choose the location of their respondents. That way, they would not find the research too financially demanding and, also, to be able to give justice to this research.

RecommendationsUpon identifying the limitations of this research, the following recommendations are drafted to counterbalance the limitations and achieve the expected outcome of this research.

Careful planning must be performed and flexible alternatives must be prepared to counter what if emergencies that may occur. The activities that the research work entails must be scheduled rigidly and carefully so that complications in the course of the research writing process would be addressed and delays would be avoided.

Data sources must be widened and the scope of the data banks must not be confined to Internet sources. Books, journals, periodicals, articles, and other previously done, published or unpublished works, should be considered.

Respondents must be identified and classified beforehand to avoid hassle and delay. Should the researcher decide to have interviews as part of the data gathering process, interviews must be assigned to a schedule feasible to both parties so as not to cause delay and waste of time to both parties.

The location of focus of this research could be extended to other neighboring places (municipalities) to elaborate furthermore the scope of this research and to provide more concrete evidences to support the researchers assertions. Perhaps, five municipalities would be sufficient and doable.

For the limitation on financial resource, the researchers could have activities which require travel scheduled within the same day so as to avoid excessive spending and to save time as well.

Works CitedBaum, Josh. (2013). How to Write a Research Methodology. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_4597601_write-research-methodology.htmlHolmes, Vance. (2011). Style, Context and Register [Modules]. Retrieved from http://linguisticswiki.blogspot.com/2011/09/12-style-context-and-register.htmlVlack, Stephen van. (Spring 2009). Introduction to Linguistics. Retrieved from http://www.udveksling.com/EdLing/EdLingWeek5AnsWikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2012, October 28). Social Semiotics. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_semioticsWikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2013, February 21). Register (sociolinguistics). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Register_%28sociolinguistics%29Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2013, February 28). Interlanguage. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InterlanguageYouTube PH. (2012). Registers of Jeepney Drivers. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qe3dqdtXKeM

APPENDICESAppendix ATranscript of Video Interview with a 01K Jeep Driver(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qe3dqdtXKeM)

Analiza:Maayung hapun sa atung tanan. Naa tay intirbyuhun karun nga usa ka jeep driver. Maayung hapun Kuya. Ahh Unsay pangan nimu kuya?Driver: Jurik EtanisAnaliza:Ahh Unsa nga jeep imung ginadrayban?Driver:01KAnaliza:Naa tay mga pangutana Kuya. Sa kanang adlawadlaw nimu nga pag-drive, unsay mga pinulungan ninyu nga mga driver nga kaming mga tawu di kasabut?Driver:Kanang muingun mu nga gunit sa gahi. Ang uban nga pasahiru masuku. Nya lahus lang sa kusina; ang uban masuku sad.Analiza:Unsa may pasabut anang gunit sa gahi?Driver: Para di mahug, pagunitun sa tubu.Analiza: AhhKani siya nga tubu? Nya kadtung lahus lang sa kusina unsa mana siya Kuya?Driver: Para mudiritsu didtu ang mga pasahiru sa tumuy.Analiza:Ahh Unsa pa may lain Kuya?Driver:Kuan kanang masuku sila nga mu abanti mi, nya naa may dakup.Analiza:Unsa nang lahus? Unsa na siya?Driver:Kanang padiritsuun sila sa tumuy. Analiza:Kanang bungkag lang sa buntag? Driver:Sinsilyu.Analiza:Ahh Sinsilyu diay na siya. (Unsa pay laing word?) Nya unsa pa may lain Kuya nga mga mga pinulungan nga di mi kasabut.Driver:Kanang palihug mi anang mga sinsilyu, niya ang uban hatag kay hatag gyud ug tibu-uk ba.Analiza:Ahh... (laugh)Driver:Dili sila kasakup, kasabut namu.Analiza:Ahh Nya kanang inyuhang mga kuan, kanang gunit sa gahi, naa puy ubang taw nga makasabut?Driver:Ang uban makasabut, ang uban di; masuku.Analiza:Ahh so, para nimu Kuya nganung di man sila kasabut?Driver:Para nila, murag sayup siguru na nila.Analiza:AhhDriver:Sa ilang pagpaminaw ba sayup (dirty-minded).Analiza: Daghang salamat Kuya ug mau na tu siya para sa amung research.

Appendix BTranscript of Voice Record Interview with a Liloan Jeep Driver

Alvin: Maayung hapun. Aku si Alvin Gemino. Nia ku karun sa Liloan mag-interview kung unsay mga reaction sa mga tawu kung makadungug sila sa mga pinulungan sa driver ug kunduktur.Unsay pangan nimu Manung?Driver: Diego Ysolana.Alvin:Pila imung idad?Driver:38 akung idad.Alvin:Unsay imung economic status?Driver:Wa lagi. Wa gyud kuy trabahu lagi; ngita ku ug trabahu lagi. Murag dili gyud siya stable ba.Alvin:Unsa man, diba kunduktur man ka?Driver:Uu, kunduktur ku.Alvin:Mau ni pangutana naku. Unsa may mga, unsay reaction ninyu kung makadungug ka or unsa ang reaction sa mga pasahiru kung makadungug sila sa inyung mga pinulungan nga murag bag-u ra nila ba?Driver:Aw, kanang mga ingun ana ba? Dipindi. Naa man say mga tawng mga datu nga di kasabut kanang nabag-uhan nga sakay ug jeep ba xample kanang murag matinga na sila ba kung unsay pasabut namu isip mga tambay-tambay, mga higala namu. Kana makasabut na ang uban. Mu na nga di na mi mahibung kung kasabut na sila. Kana ra amung kahibulungan kanang mga nabag-uhan rag sakay ug sakyanan ba.