Piaggio X8 400 Euro3 (EN)

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This Service Manual describes the technical features and servicing procedures for the Piaggio X8 400 Euro3

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SERVICE STATION MANUAL633779 633786

X8 400 Euro 3

SERVICE STATION MANUAL

X8 400 Euro 3

The descriptions and illustrations given in this publication are not binding. While the basic specifications as described and illustrated in this manual remain unchanged, PIAGGIO-GILERA reserves the right, at any time and without being required to update this publication beforehand, to make any changes to components, parts or accessories, which it considers necessary to improve the product or which are required for manufacturing or construction reasons. Not all versions shown in this publication are available in all countries. The availability of single versions should be checked at the official Piaggio sales network. " Copyright 2005 - PIAGGIO & C. S.p.A. Pontedera. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this publication in whole or in part is prohibited." PIAGGIO & C. S.p.A. - Q.C.S./After sales V.le Rinaldo Piaggio, 23 - 56025 PONTEDERA (Pi) www.piaggio.com

SERVICE STATION MANUALX8 400 Euro 3This service station manual has been drawn up by Piaggio & C. Spa to be used by the workshops of Piaggio-Gilera dealers. It is assumed that the user of this manual for maintaining and repairing Piaggio vehicles has a basic knowledge of mechanical principles and vehicle repair technique procedures. Any significant changes to vehicle characteristics or to specific repair operations will be communicated by updates to this manual. Nevertheless, completely satisfactory work cannot be carried out without the necessary equipment and tools. It is therefore advisable to read the sections of this manual relating to appropriate tools, along with the appropriate tool catalogue.

N.B. Provides key information to make the procedure easier to understand and carry out.

CAUTION Refers to specific procedures to carry out for preventing damages to the vehicle.

WARNING Refers to specific procedures to carry out to prevent injuries to the repairer.

Personal safety Failure to completely observe these instructions will result in serious risk of personal injury.

Safeguarding the environment Sections marked with this symbol indicate the correct use of the vehicle to prevent damaging the environment.

Vehicle intactness The incomplete or non-observance of these regulations leads to the risk of serious damage to the vehicle and sometimes even the invalidity of the guarantee.

INDEX OF TOPICS

CHARACTERISTICS TOOLING MAINTENANCE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ENGINE FROM VEHICLE ENGINE INJECTION SUSPENSIONS BRAKING SYSTEM COOLING SYSTEM CHASSIS PRE-DELIVERY TIME

CHAR TOOL MAIN ELE SYS ENG VE ENG INJEC SUSP BRAK SYS COOL SYS CHAS PRE DE TIME

INDEX OF TOPICS

CHARACTERISTICS

CHAR

X8 400 Euro 3

Characteristics

This section describes the general specifications of the vehicle.

RulesThis section describes general safety rules for any maintenance operations performed on the vehicle.

Safety rules Should it be necessary to keep the engine running while servicing, make sure that the area or room is well ventilated, and use special exhaust fans, if required. never let the engine run in an enclosed area. Exhaust fumes are toxic. The battery electrolyte contains sulphuric acid. Protect your eyes, clothes and skin. Sulphuric acid is highly corrosive; in the event of contact with your eyes or skin, rinse thoroughly with abundant water and seek immediate medical attention. The battery produces hydrogen, a gas that can be highly explosive. Do not smoke and avoid sparks or flames near the battery, especially when charging it. Fuel is highly flammable, and in some conditions it can be explosive. Do not smoke in the working area, and avoid open flames or sparks. Clean the brake pads in a well ventilated environment, directing the compressed air jet so as to not inhale the dust produced by the wear of the friction material. Even though the latter contains no asbestos, dust inhalation is harmful.

Maintenance rules Use original PIAGGIO spare parts and lubricants recommended by the Manufacturer. Nonoriginal or non-conforming spares may damage the vehicle. Use only the special tools designed for this scooter. Always use new gaskets, sealing rings and split pins upon reassembly. After removal, clean the components using non-flammable or low fire-point solvent. Lubricate all the work surfaces except the tapered couplings before refitting. After reassembly, check that all components have been installed properly and that they are in good working order. For removal, overhaul and reassembly operations use only tools provided with metric measures. Metric bolts, nuts and screws are not interchangeable with coupling members with English measurement. Using unsuitable coupling members and tools may damage the scooter. Should any interventions to the scooter electrical system be required, check that the electrical connections - especially earth and battery connections - have been implemented properly.

CHAR - 7

Characteristics

X8 400 Euro 3

Vehicle identificationChassis prefix ZAPM521001001

Engine prefix M521M1001

Dimensions and massWEIGHTSpecification Kerb weight Overall width Overall length Wheelbase Saddle height Overall height Desc./Quantity 206 kg 750 mm 2190 mm 1540 mm 790 mm 1360 mm

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X8 400 Euro 3

Characteristics

EngineENGINESpecification Engine Bore x stroke Cubic capacity Compression ratio Timing system Desc./Quantity single-cylinder, four-stroke 85.8 X 69 mm 399 cm 10.6 0.5 : 1 Single overhead camshaft with integrated tone wheel, control from flywheel side chain, 4 valves and automatic start-up valve lifting device. 0.15 mm (when cold) 0.15 mm (when cold) By threaded adjuster on the rockers 1500 50 rpm sponge, impregnated with mixture (50% petrol and 50% oil) 1 - 1.5% Electric starter system with freewheel. By trochoidal pump (inside the crankcase), pressure adjustment by-pass and oil filter. 4 bar 0.8 bar Electronic injection system with electric fuel pump, 38 mm throttle body and single injector. 24.5 kW at 7250 rpm 36 Nm at 5500 rpm Fluid circulation through a motor-driven pump, 3-way thermostat and electric fan.

Valve clearance: intake Valve clearance: discharge Valve clearance adjustment Engine idle speed Air filter CO % value (measured at the intake manifold) Starting system Lubrication Lubrication pressure Minimum allowed (at 100 C) Fuel supply Maximum power (to the crankshaft) Maximum torque (to the crankshaft) Cooling system

TransmissionTRANSMISSIONSSpecification Transmission Desc./Quantity With automatic expandable pulley variator with torque server, V belt, automatic clutch, gear reduction unit and transmission housing with forced air circulation cooling.

CapacitiesCAPACITYSpecification Engine oil (empty) Engine oil (at oil and filter change) Fuel tank capacity Rear hub Cooling system Desc./Quantity 1.7 lt. 1.5 lt. Tank capacity: ~12 l (approximate value) approx. 250 cc. approx. 1.8 litres

Electrical systemELECTRICAL SYSTEMSpecification Electronic ignition Spark plug Spark plug Battery Generator Desc./Quantity inductive, high efficiency integrated with the injection system, with variable timing and separate HV coil. NGK CR7EKB CHAMPION RG6YC Dry-cell lead-acid battery, 12V-14Ah Three-phase alternating current

CHAR - 9

Characteristics

X8 400 Euro 3

Frame and suspensionsFRAME AND SUSPENSIONSSpecification Chassis Front suspension Front fork max. stroke Rear suspension Desc./Quantity Welded steel pipes with pressed sheet metal stiffening Double effect hydraulic telescopic fork with 35 mm stems and pin backwards with connections for double brake calliper 104 mm Engine with swinging fork attached to the frame by means of an arm with one degree of freedom and a pair of double effect hydraulic shock absorbers with 4 adjustable preload positions.

BrakesBRAKESSpecification Front brake Rear brake Desc./Quantity 240mm double disk brake with hydraulic control activated by the handlebar right-hand lever. 240 mm disc brake with hydraulic control activated by handlebar left lever.

Wheels and tyresWHEELS AND TYRESSpecification Tyre pressure (cold) front Tyre pressure (cold) rear Front wheel rim Rear wheel rim Front tyre Rear tyre N.B. Desc./Quantity 2.1 bar 2.3 bar (2.5 bar with passenger) Die-cast aluminium alloy, 3.50"x14'' Die-cast aluminium alloy 4.50"x14" Tubeless 120/70 - 14'' - Michelin Gold Standard M/C 55S Tubeless 140/70 - 14'' - Michelin Gold Standard M/C 68S

CHECK AND ADJUST TYRE PRESSURE WITH TYRES AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE. ADJUST PRESSURE ACCORDING TO THE WEIGHT OF RIDER AND ACCESSORIES.CAUTION

IT IS MANDATORY TO ADOPT EXCLUSIVELY "S" CLASS TYRES, WHICH GUARANTEE CORRECT VEHICLE PERFORMANCE AT THE DIFFERENT SCOOTER SPEEDS. USING ANY OTHER TYRE MAY RESULT IN VEHICLE INSTABILITY. IT IS ADVISABLE TO USE TYRE TYPES RECOMMENDED BY PIAGGIO.

Tightening TorquesFRAMEName Electric pump locking ring nut Torque in Nm 20

BRAKE SYSTEMName Brake calliper coupling Front brake disc mounting Torque in Nm 20 - 24 56

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X8 400 Euro 3

Characteristics

Name Rear brake disc mounting Front brake calliper mounting on fork Rear calliper support on crankcase retainer Pipe / brake calliper coupling Pipe / brake pump coupling Front brake pipe splitter coupling Lock with Loctite 243 medium strength threadlock

Torque in Nm 11 13 20 25 20 25 20 25 20 25 20 25

FRONT SUSPENSIONName Front wheel axle Holding torque of lower ring nut Fork stem mounting to the plate Steering lower ring nut Upper steering ring nut Stem upper cap Fixing screw handlebar to steering tube Pumping element fixing screw Safety screw on fork leg Wheel fastening screws * tighten and loosen completely. ** tighten and loosen by 90. Torque in Nm 45 50 20 25 20 25 10 - 13 ** 36 - 39 35 - 55 45 50 25 - 35 67 33 - 37

REAR SUSPENSIONName Upper shock absorber clamp Lower shock absorber clamp Shock absorber-crankcase attachment bracket Rear wheel axle Muffler arm clamping screws Torque in Nm 33 41 33 41 20 25 104 126 27 30

ENGINE ASSEMBLYName Starter motor screws Torque in Nm 11 13

THERMAL GROUP AND TIMING SYSTEMName Spark plug Head fixing stud bolts Head fixing nuts Exhaust / intake head fixing nuts Head lubrication control jet Coolant temperature sensor: Lambda probe on exhaust manifold injector fixing screw Counterweight screw Tensioner sliding block fixing screw Rpm timing sensor fixing screw Valve lifter mass stop bell fixing screws Inlet manifold screws Tappet cover fixing screws Throttle body fixing screws Head fixing screws Camshaft retaining bracket screws: Tightener screw: Tightener fastening screws: Torque in Nm 12 14 *** 10 - 12 10 - 12 5-7 10 - 12 10 - 12 34 7 8.5 10 - 14 3-4 30 - 35 11 13 7-9 11 13 10 - 12 46 5-6 11 13

*** Apply a preliminary torque of 7 Nm in a crossed sequence. - Tighten by 90 in a crossed sequence. - tighten again by 90 in a criss-crossed sequence.

CRANKCASE AND CRANKSHAFTName Countershaft fixing nut Engine oil filter Torque in Nm 25 29 12 - 16

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Characteristics

X8 400 Euro 3

Name Engine oil drainage plug Engine-crankcase coupling screws Oil pump screws Gear mounting on crankshaft screws Bulkhead screws for oil pump housing cover

Torque in Nm 24 30 11 13 5-6 10 -12 8 - 10

FINAL REDUCTIONName Rear hub cover screws Torque in Nm 24 27

TRANSMISSION COVERName Driven pulley nut driving pulley nut Anti-vibration roller screw M8 retainers for transmission cover M6 retainer Anti-vibration roller retainer Clutch ring nut Air conveyor screws Water pump cover screws External transmission cover screws Flywheel cover screws Torque in Nm 92 - 100 160 - 175 16.7 19.6 23 26 11 13 17 - 19 65 - 75 11 12 34 79 11 - 13

FLYWHEEL COVERName Chain guide sliding block retain plate fastening screws Flywheel fixing nut Stator retainers Blow-by recovery duct fixing screws Screw fixing freewheel to flywheel Stator cable harness guide bracket screws Supporting screws with bulkhead Minimum oil pressure sensor Water pump impeller Torque in Nm 34 115 - 125 8 - 10 3-4 13 15 3-4 0.3 - 0.4 12 14 45

LUBRICATIONName Oil pump cover screws Screws fixing oil pump to crankcase Torque in Nm 0.7 0.9 5-6

See alsoRefitting Refitting Overhaul

Overhaul dataThis section provides the main information for scooter servicing.

Assembly clearances

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X8 400 Euro 3

Characteristics

Cylinder - piston assy.

HEIGHT AT WHICH THE DIAMETER SHOULD BE MEASUREDSpecification A B Desc./Quantity 43.2 mm 43 mm

CYLINDER- PISTONSpecification Cylinder diameter C Piston P CYLINDER - PISTON Desc./Quantity 85.8 - +0.018 -0.01 mm 85.768 0.014 mm

COUPLING CATEGORIESName Cylinder- Piston Cylinder- Piston Cylinder- Piston Cylinder- Piston CATEGORIES OF COUPLING N.B. Initials A B C D Cylinder 85.79085.797 85.79785.804 85.80485.811 85.81185.818 Piston 85.75485.761 85.761 85.768 85.76885.775 85.77585.782 Play on fitting 0.0290.043 0.0290.043 0.0290.043 0.0290.043

THE PISTON MUST BE INSTALLED WITH THE ARROW FACING TOWARDS THE EXHAUST SIDE, THE PISTON RINGS MUST BE INSTALLED WITH THE WORD TOP OR THE STAMPED MARK FACING UPWARDS.

Piston rings

* Fit rings 2 and 3 with the word TOP facing upwards. ** Position the openings in the rings as shown here. *** Value A of sealing ring inside the cylinder **** Ring opening CHAR - 13

Characteristics

X8 400 Euro 3

SEAL RINGSSpecification 1st compression ring 2nd compression ring Oil scraper ring SEAL RINGS Desc./Quantity 0.150 0.300 0.250 0.500 0.250 0.500

Crankcase - crankshaft - connecting rodDiameter of crankshaft bearings. Measure the bearings on both axes x-y.

CRANKSHAFTSpecification Cat. 1 Cat. 2 Desc./Quantity Standard diameter: 40.02040.026 Standard diameter: 40.02640.032

Crankshaft alignment

Specific tooling020335Y Magnetic support for dial gauge

MAX. ADMISSIBLE DISPLACEMENTSpecification A= B= C= D= Desc./Quantity 0.15 mm 0.010 mm 0.010 mm 0.10 mm

Crankcase / countershaft coupling Besides considering it should match the crankshaft, the crankcase is chosen according to the centre to centre distance between the seat of the crankshaft and that of the contra-rotating shaft. Both the centre to centre distance and the pair of gears driving the contra-rotating shaft are divided into two types (A and B) to be matched (A with A and B with B).

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X8 400 Euro 3

Characteristics

This selection is useful to keep the difference between the working distance of the gears and their distance without clearance at a given value in order to avoid abnormal noise.

TYPE ASpecification Centre to centre distance of the gears without clearance Centre to centre distance on the crankcase Desc./Quantity 76.937 76.867 77.022 76.992

TYPE BSpecification Centre to centre distance of the gears without clearance Centre to centre distance on the crankcase Desc./Quantity 76.907 76.837 76.992 76.962

The gears with centre to centre distance without c...