physiological stress and response

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2. STRESS What isstress? Pressures, demands(stressors), exert force on the body, stress is the bodys response to this. A stress response is an innate, defensive and adaptive reaction Stress levels also depend on whether the person feels that they can cope with demands placed on them or not 3. StressorsA stressor is a___ physical chemical biological agent environmental condition event causes stress to an organism or disturbances the homeostatsis 4. Homeostasis The process ofmaintaining a reasonable constant internal environment in the bodyTemperature maintanance of body37C or 98.6 F 5. Acute vs. Chronic Stress Acute stress Sudden, typically short-lived, threatening event (e.g., robbery, giving a speech) Chronic stress Ongoing environmental demand (e.g., marital conflict, work stress, personality) 6. PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS INVOLVED IN THE STRESS RESPONSE The nervous system The endocrine system The immune system 7. Nervous system Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Consists of all neural pathways to the extremities Triggered through the stimulation of sensory nerves Triggers a series of involuntary chemical response throughout the body Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord 8. The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a network of four components: Glands Hormones Circulation Target organsImmune system T-cells found in the form of T-helper and T-suppressor 9. A decade of brain research Repeated exposure to cortisol increases aging process of brain Repeated exposure to cortisol damages/ shrinks brain tissue Damage due to repeated exposure to cortisol appears to be irreversible We are wired for stress for physical threats yet all threats set the alarm 10. How does stress cause physical illness? DIRECTLY SUPPRESSING THE IMMUNE SYSTEMINDIRECTLY Changes in health practices that will increase risk of illnessLeucocytes (white blood cells) SmokingLymphocytes (B Cells or T Cells) DrinkingAnti bodies DrugsNatural killer cells SleeplessnessEndorphins Exercise lessCARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Hypertension Strokes 11. Biopsychosocial Aspect of Stress How stress affects health Via behavior Via physiology 12. Physiological Aspects Cardiovascular reactivity increased blood pressure,platelets, lipids (cholesterol) Endocrine reactivity increased catecholamines and corticosteroids Immune reactivity increased hormones impairs immune function 13. Behavioural Aspects Increased alcohol Smoking Increased caffeine Poor diet Inattention leading to carelessness 14. Psychophysiological Disorders Digestive system e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome Respiratory system e.g., asthma Cardiovascular system e.g., hypertension, lipiddisorders, heart attack, angina 15. How to survive?1) Remove the STRESSOR! 2) EFFECTIVELY Cope with the STRESSOR! 16. Thanks


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