# Physics 6C

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Physics 6C. Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity. Prepared by Vince Zaccone For Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSB. Mass Defect (Binding Energy). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Text of Physics 6C

• Physics 6CNuclear Physics and RadioactivityPrepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSB

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBA stable nuclei is comprised of Z protons and N neutrons, bound together by the strong nuclear force. The fully assembled nucleus is less massive than the individual protons and neutrons, if they are weighed separately. The difference between these masses is called the mass defect.From Einsteins E=mc2 equation, we can also consider this mass defect to be binding energy.Mass Defect (Binding Energy)

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBA stable nuclei is comprised of Z protons and N neutrons, bound together by the strong nuclear force. The fully assembled nucleus is less massive than the individual protons and neutrons, if they are weighed separately. The difference between these masses is called the mass defect.From Einsteins E=mc2 equation, we can also consider this mass defect to be binding energy.Mass Defect (Binding Energy)As an example, we will calculate the mass defect for oxygen-16, the most common isotope of oxygen. This nucleus has 8 protons and 8 neutrons.We can look up the atomic mass of O-16 in a table (below).This is the mass of a neutral atom of O-16. We will need to account for the 8 electrons in our calculation.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBMass Defect (Binding Energy)Now that we have the mass of the assembled atom (mO16=15.994915u), we need to add up the mass of all the parts. Also listed in a table are the masses we need.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBMass Defect (Binding Energy)We have 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons. As a shortcut we can group the protons and electrons together and use 8 hydrogen atoms instead. Here is the calculation:Now that we have the mass of the assembled atom (mO16=15.994915u), we need to add up the mass of all the parts. Also listed in a table are the masses we need.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBMass Defect (Binding Energy)We have 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons. As a shortcut we can group the protons and electrons together and use 8 hydrogen atoms instead. Here is the calculation:Now we just subtract to find the defect:Now that we have the mass of the assembled atom (mO16=15.994915u), we need to add up the mass of all the parts. Also listed in a table are the masses we need.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBMass Defect (Binding Energy)We have 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons. As a shortcut we can group the protons and electrons together and use 8 hydrogen atoms instead. Here is the calculation:Now we just subtract to find the defect:This value is in atomic mass units. We can also convert to kg or energy, either in Joules or MeV. The conversion factors are also in the book.Now that we have the mass of the assembled atom (mO16=15.994915u), we need to add up the mass of all the parts. Also listed in a table are the masses we need.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBNuclear StabilityThis chart shows the binding energy per nucleon for all the stable nuclei. The higher the value, the more stable the nucleus will be.Our calculation for oxygen-16 gives 7.98 MeV/nucleon. The most stable nuclei are metals like iron, cobalt and nickel, with values just below 9 MeV/nucleon.Oxygen-16 is here.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBAlpha Decay ()When a nucleus is too large to be stable, it will often emit an alpha-particle, which is really just a helium nucleus (2 protons and two neutrons). The alpha particle carries away some energy, and the resulting nucleus has 2 fewer protons and 2 fewer neutrons (and thus is 2 places lower on the periodic table).Types of Radioactive Decay

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBAlpha Decay ()When a nucleus is too large to be stable, it will often emit an alpha-particle, which is really just a helium nucleus (2 protons and two neutrons). The alpha particle carries away some energy, and the resulting nucleus has 2 fewer protons and 2 fewer neutrons (and thus is 2 places lower on the periodic table).Types of Radioactive DecayBeta Decay ()When a nucleus has too many excess neutrons, it may undergo beta-minus decay, whereby a neutron decays into a proton and an electron. The electron is emitted, leaving the nucleus with one more proton than before (and one less neutron). So the result is an atom that is one step higher on the periodic table.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBAlpha Decay ()When a nucleus is too large to be stable, it will often emit an alpha-particle, which is really just a helium nucleus (2 protons and two neutrons). The alpha particle carries away some energy, and the resulting nucleus has 2 fewer protons and 2 fewer neutrons (and thus is 2 places lower on the periodic table).Types of Radioactive DecayBeta Decay ()When a nucleus has too many excess neutrons, it may undergo beta-minus decay, whereby a neutron decays into a proton and an electron. The electron is emitted, leaving the nucleus with one more proton than before (and one less neutron). So the result is an atom that is one step higher on the periodic table.Gamma Decay ()Sometimes another decay process will leave the resulting nucleus in an excited state, when the nucleus drops down a gamma-ray photon is emitted to carry away the excess energy.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBFor any decay process there will be an associated HALF-LIFE, which describes how long it should take for half of the radioactive nuclei in a sample to undergo the decay.

We can keep track of this in several different ways, but it all boils down to the same basic formula. Here is an exponential decay formula:Decay RatesThis will count the remaining radioactive nuclei in a sample at any given time. You can also use it for the activity of a sample.N0 is the starting amount, and is the decay constant (related to the half-life).The fundamental relationship you need is for the decay rate (this is also called ACTIVITY:Units for activity are usually decays/second.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Suppose a radioactive sample has an activity of 100,000 decays per second. When the same sample is measured again 10 days later, the activity has dropped to 80,000 decays per second. What is the half-life of the sample?

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Suppose a radioactive sample has an activity of 100,000 decays per second. When the same sample is measured again 10 days later, the activity has dropped to 80,000 decays per second. What is the half-life of the sample?We can use our basic exponential decay equation and solve for the decay constant:

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Suppose a radioactive sample has an activity of 100,000 decays per second. When the same sample is measured again 10 days later, the activity has dropped to 80,000 decays per second. What is the half-life of the sample?We can use our basic exponential decay equation and solve for the decay constant:

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Suppose a radioactive sample has an activity of 100,000 decays per second. When the same sample is measured again 10 days later, the activity has dropped to 80,000 decays per second. What is the half-life of the sample?We can use our basic exponential decay equation and solve for the decay constant:Now just use our formula for half-life:

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5730 years. It is sometimes used to find the age of archaeological finds. Suppose a bone is dug up and it is determined that 20% of the original amount of 14C remains. How old is the bone?

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5730 years. It is sometimes used to find the age of archaeological finds. Suppose a bone is dug up and it is determined that 20% of the original amount of 14C remains. How old is the bone?We can use our basic exponential decay equation and solve for the time.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5730 years. It is sometimes used to find the age of archaeological finds. Suppose a bone is dug up and it is determined that 20% of the original amount of 14C remains. How old is the bone?We can use our basic exponential decay equation and solve for the time.The decay constant is found from the half-life equation.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBExample: Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5730 years. It is sometimes used to find the age of archaeological finds. Suppose a bone is dug up and it is determined that 20% of the original amount of 14C remains. How old is the bone?We can use our basic exponential decay equation and solve for the time.The decay constant is found from the half-life equation.

• Prepared by Vince ZacconeFor Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSBWhen radiation is absorbed by living tissue we need a way to measure the eff

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