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Phonics, Word Recognition, and Spelling. Sharon Walpole University of Delaware. Overview of the Session. Look at development of the alphabetic principle in a child’s natural writing Discuss stages in reading and spelling development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Phonics, Word Recognition, and Spelling

  • Phonics, Word Recognition, and SpellingSharon WalpoleUniversity of Delaware

  • Overview of the SessionLook at development of the alphabetic principle in a childs natural writingDiscuss stages in reading and spelling developmentReview principles of, strategies for, and research on phonics instructionLook at reflection of the alphabetic principle in a childs developmental spelling assessmentsReview some basic concepts about the spelling system that are helpful for teachers to knowConsider strategies for developing teacher knowledge in this area

  • Childrens spellings can give us insight into their knowledge of the characteristics of an alphabetic orthography.From spellings, we can document what children know, what they can do, and what they need to learn.

  • TRNSXtyrannosaurus rex

    October, Kindergarten

  • What does the child


    Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall(and I made the O into a pumpkin!)

    October, Kindergarten

  • What does the child

  • Fin you dot limi wrkingyou ovwas s locat the mes you mad

    Fine. You dont like my working. You always say look at the mess you made.

    Summer Between Kindergarten and First

  • What does the child

  • I like gowin g to the moves with my mom

    September, First Grade

  • What does the child


    October, First Grade

  • What does the child

  • I like horsisThe besteI like anomols.

    November, First Grade

  • What does the child

  • I like to ski on the hill.I like green eggs and ham.

    January, First Grade

  • What does the child

  • February, First Grade

  • Onc my brother had a dream. We had a krab. We boet the krab that day. That same knite the krab crold on my brothers head and he dreamd abuot that crab. He wock up and said I dremd abuot a krab.

  • What does the child

  • Today at library we talkt about Sinthiea Riyhlent. She had a real dog naemd mudge. And she rote abuot Henry and mudge. A subetot came in and read us a henry and mudge book.

    March, First Grade

  • What does the child

  • My uncel came on Saterday. He was the kcick me chaimpieon. He juggled 585 times in a row. He was the best in the word back then. He realy was!!!!

    April, First Grade

  • What does the child

  • The watercress seeds are poiting towerd the window because it needs sun. We are going to be able to eat them at the end of school.

    May, First Grade

  • What does the child

  • General QuestionsDo you have adequate understanding of developmental issues in reading and spelling?Do you have adequate understanding of the role of decoding in word recognition and spelling?Does your reading program include adequate attention to instruction in phonics and decoding?Does your reading program include a sensible plan for assessment of phonics knowledge and decoding skills?Does your reading program include adequate attention to intervention in decoding?

  • General PlanWho needs phonics instruction? When?A look at literacy ages and stagesInstructional strategies for teaching phonicsResearch on phonics instructionBuilding a knowledge base for teaching phonics

  • Development of ReadingEmergent Stage: Before children have a concept of wordBeginning Stage: As children are building a sight vocabularyInstructional Stage: Continues through years--advances with instructionTransitional reader: Begin to read silently and read/write with greater fluencyIntermediate and Advanced: Read to learn and write to convey meaning

  • Stages in Beginning Reading Ehri (1997)Pre-alphabetic Uses environmental and visual cuesPartial alphabeticReads words by forming connections between only some of the lettersFull alphabetic Reads words by forming complete connections because child can segment to the phonemeConsolidated alphabeticReads words by chunking (morphemes, syllables, etc.)

    Ehri, L. (1997). Sight word learning in normal readers and dyslexics. In B. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention (pp. 163-189). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Stages in Beginning SpellingGentry (1982)PrecommunicativePictures or letters, but randomSemiphonetic Abbreviated spellings, some sounds representedPhonetic All sounds representedTransitional Long vowels marked, but not always correctlyConventional Spelling Mostly correct spellings

    Gentry, J.R. (1982). An analysis of spelling development in GYNS AT WRK. The Reading Teacher, 36, 192-200.

  • Reading and Spelling Development

  • How does developmental data inform instruction?Core instruction mirrors developmental sequenceAssessments identify developmental statusNeeds-based and intervention programs accelerate development for struggling readers

  • What does this development really look like?Take a few minutes to put some developmental milestones for kindergarten and first grade in order based on your knowledge of beginning reading.

    Notice the relationships among alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling.

  • Principles of Good Phonics InstructionGood phonics instruction should develop the alphabetic principle.Good phonics instruction should develop phonological awareness.Good phonics instruction should provide a thorough grounding in the letters.Good phonics instruction should not teach rules, need not use worksheets, should not dominate instruction, and does not have to be boring.

    Stahl, Duffy-Hester, & Stahl, 1998

  • Good phonics instruction provides sufficient practice in reading words, both in isolation and in stories, and in writing words, both from dictation and using invented spelling. Good phonics instruction leads to automatic word recognition.Good phonics instruction is one part of a reading program.

    Stahl, Duffy-Hester, & Stahl, 1998

  • To what extent does the phonics instruction in your setting honor these principles? What strategies might you use to improve it?

  • Take time to identify the most common instructional approaches to teaching phonics.

    To what extent are these approaches reflected in your phonics curriculum, either singly or in combination?

  • What does SBRR say about phonics instruction?No matter what the type or types, it has to be systematic and explicitGoes in a preset, logical order.The teacher and the childare clear about the element under study.

  • National Reading Panel ReportGeneral question:

    What do we know about phonics instruction with sufficient confidence to recommend for classroom use?

    NRP, 2000

  • Method

    NRP, 2000

  • Sources38 studies Some type of phonics instruction compared with unsystematic or non-phonics instructionSchool-based rather than laboratory-based curriculaMeasure of readingNot used in the PA meta-analysis

    NRP, 2000

  • Coding Variables

    NRP, 2000

  • FindingsSystematic phonics instruction had a significant effect on childrens reading achievement compared to controls.Synthetic, larger-unit (onset-rime), and other phonics programs all were more effective than controls, but no one type of instruction or instructional program was significantly more effective.

    NRP, 2000

  • Tutoring, small groups, and whole classes are all effective delivery systems for phonics instruction.Phonics instruction is more effective when it occurs in kindergarten and first grade than later.Phonics instruction is effective for at-risk kindergarteners, at-risk first graders, and disabled students. The findings for older weak readers are confusing.

    NRP, 2000

  • Phonics instruction improves students ability to read real words, pseudowords, and (to a lesser extent) irregular words.Phonics instruction improves reading comprehension in kindergarteners, first graders, and disabled readers, but not necessarily in older readers.Phonics instruction improves spelling in kindergarten and first grade, but not for older readers.

    NRP, 2000

  • Phonics instruction is effective for children at different levels of SES.Phonics instruction was more effective than all forms of control groups (basal, whole language, whole word, regular curriculum).

    NRP, 2000

  • And heres what they said they didnt know . . .How long should phonics instruction be? Years? Minutes?How many letter-sound relationships should be taught?How can we maintain consistency in instruction and interest and motivation of teachers?What is the role of teacher knowledge?How should teachers be trained to teach phonics?

    NRP, 2000

  • Given the new core programs you are using, to what extent are these questions answered for you? Are they answered in a satisfactory way? What are the big issues in the schools right now?

  • What are some ways we can go wrong?Rely solely on teachable momentsInvent phonics curriculum as we goPace inappropriatelyIgnore developmental dataForget to provide practice of phonics taught in real reading and spellingTeach phonics all day longForget to collect data on childrens learning

  • How do we measure phonics knowledge in K and 1?Nonsense word reading (mep)Real word reading in isolation (map)Spelling tasks, both controlled and naturalReading tasks -- but not until later

    Why are each of these tasks useful? To what extent are they part of the assessment plan in your setting?

  • Watch a child acquire the alphabetic principle during

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