OverviewWhat is phonics?Phonics TerminologyOverview of Phases sounds and tricky words
What is Phonics?Skills of segmentation and blendingKnowledge of alphabetical codeIdentifying sounds in wordsRecognising common spellings of each phonemeBlending phonemes in readingSegmenting phonemes in spelling
Phonic Definitions!PhonemeSmallest unit of sound in a wordc-a-t
Phonic Definitions!GraphemeLetters that represent the phonemeCould be 1 letter, 2 letters or moret, ai, igh
Grapheme Key Vocabdigraph (2 letters making a sound ai, ee, oo)trigraph (3 letters making one sound igh, dge)Split digraph (where the two letters are not adjacent (i-e, a-e, e-e)
Blending for readingRecognising the letter sounds in a written word (c-u-p, sh-ee-p)Merging them in the correct order to pronounce the word cup, sheep
Segmenting for spellingIdentifying individual sounds in a spoken wordh-i-ms-t-or-kwriting down letters for each sound (phoneme) to form the word him and stork
Letters and SoundsSplit into 6 phasesPhase 1 Pre SchoolPhases 2-4 ReceptionPhase 5 Year 1Phase 6 Year 2
Phase 1 (pre-school)Showing awareness of rhyme and alliterationDistinguishing between sounds in the environment and phonemesExploring and experimenting with sounds and wordsDiscriminating speech sounds in wordsBeginning to orally blend and segment phonemesActivities are divided into seven aspects, including environmental sounds, instrumental sounds, body sounds, rhythm and rhyme, alliteration, voice sounds and finally oral blending and segmenting.
Phase 2 Reception (6 weeks)Using common consonants and vowelsBlending and segmenting for reading and spelling simple CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) wordsUnderstanding that words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemesLearning 19 letters of the alphabet and one sound for each. Blending sounds together to make words. Segmenting words into their separate sounds. Beginning to read simple captions.
Letter Sets (Phase 2)Set 1: s, a, t, p Set 2: i, n, m, d Set 3: g, o, c, k Set 4: ck, e, u, r Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ssPhonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely.
Phase 3 Reception (Up to 12 weeks)By the time they reach Phase 3, children will already be able to blend and segment words containing the 19 letters taught in Phase 2.Twenty-five new graphemes are introduced (one at a time).Knowing one grapheme for each of the 43 phonemes43 phonemes in the English language!!!Reading and spelling a range of CVC wordsUsing all letters and less frequent consonant digraphs and some long vowel phonemesBy the end of Phase 3, the children will have acquired 1 way to represent each sound, therefore allowing clearer communication in writing.
Phase 3 Reception (up to 12 weeks)Set 6: j, v, w, xSet 7: y, z, zz, quConsonant digraphs: ch, sh, th, ngVowel digraphs: ai, ee, igh, oa, oo, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ear, air, ure, er
Phase 3 Tricky WordsDuring Phase 3, the following tricky words (which can't yet be decoded) are introduced:
he she we me be
was you they all aremy her
Phase 4 Reception Children will know a grapheme for each of the 42 phonemes. They will be able to blend phonemes to read CVC words and segment in order to spell them.Children will also have begun reading straightforward two-syllable words and simple captions, as well as reading and spelling some tricky words.No new graphemes are introduced. Main aim is consolidation of the children's knowledge and to help them learn to read and spell words which have adjacent consonants, such as trap, string and milk.
Phase 4 Tricky WordsDuring Phase 4, the following tricky words (which can't yet be decoded) are introduced:
come were there little one when said have like so do someout what
Phase 5 (Year 1)Reading phonetically decodeable two-syllable and three-syllable wordsUsing alternative ways of pronouncing and spelling the graphemes corresponding to the long vowel phonemesSpelling complex words using phonetically plausible attempts
Phase 5 Graphemesay as in day oy as in boy wh as in when a-e as in makeou as in out ir as in girl ph as in photo e-e as in these
ie as in tie ue as in blue ew as in new i-e as in like ea as in eat aw as in saw oe as in toe o-e as in home au as in Paul u-e as in rule Alternative graphemes for: i - fin, find ow - cow, blow y - yes, by, veryo - hot, cold ie - tie, field ch - chin, school, chefc - cat, cent ea - eat, bread ou - out, shoulder, could, youg - got, giant er - farmer, heru - but, put (south) a - hat, what
Phase 5 Tricky WordsDuring Phase 5, the following tricky words (which can't yet be decoded) are introduced:
Phase 6 (Year 2)Recognising phonic irregularities and becoming more secure with less common grapheme - phoneme correspondences Applying phonics skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of complex wordsIntroducing past tenseInvestigating and learning suffixesTeaching spelling of long wordsFinding and learning the difficult bits in words
Letters and SoundsChildren always work within the Phase that is appropriate to their learning. Assessment is regular and groupings sorted accordinglyThe Letters and Sounds progression of year groups and corresponding phase may not go hand in hand, depending on the progression of the children
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