Phased Array Olimpus

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    Advanced Practical NDT Series

    Advances in Phased Array

    Ultrasonic Technology

    Applications

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    Advances in Phased ArrayUltrasonic Technology Applications

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    Advanced Practical NDT Series

    Advances inPhased Array UltrasonicTechnology Applications

    Olympus NDT

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    Advances in Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Applications

    Series coordinator: Nol Dub

    Technical reviewer and adviser: Dr. Michael D. C. Moles (Olympus NDT)

    Layout, graphics, editing, proofreading, and indexing: Technical Communications Service,Olympus NDT

    Published by: Olympus NDT, 48 Woerd Avenue, Waltham, MA 02453, USA

    Marketing and distribution: Olympus NDT

    This guideline and the products and programs it describes are protected by the Copyright Act ofCanada, by laws of other countries, and by international treaties, and therefore may not be reproducedin whole or in part, whether for sale or not, without the prior written consent from Olympus NDT.Under copyright law, copying includes translation into another language or format.

    The information contained in this document is subject to change or revision without notice.

    R/D Tech part number: DUMG071A

    2007 by Olympus NDTAll rights reserved. Published 2007.

    Printed in Canada

    ISBN 0-9735933-4-2

    Notice

    To the best of our knowledge, the information in this publication is accurate; however, the Publisherdoes not assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy or completeness of, or consequencesarising from, such information. This book is intended for informational purposes only. Finaldetermination of the suitability of any information or product for use contemplated by any user, andthe manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user. The Publisher recommends that anyoneintending to rely on any recommendation of materials or procedures mentioned in this publicationshould satisfy himself or herself as to such suitability, and that he or she can meet all applicable safetyand health standards.

    Trademarks

    Olympus and the Olympus logo are registered trademarks of Olympus Corporation. R/D Tech, theR/D Tech logo, OmniScan, and PipeWIZARD are registered trademarks, and Innovation in NDT,Tomoscan, QuickScan, QuickView, Tomoscan FOCUS, TomoScan FOCUS LT, and TomoView aretrademarks of Olympus NDT Corporation in Canada, the United States, and/or other countries.AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc., in the USA and/or other countries. CANDU(CANada Deuterium Uranium) is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited(AECL) in Canada and other countries. CompactFlash is a trademark of SanDisk Corporation, regis-tered in the United States and other countries. Cycolac and Lexan are registered trademarks of theGeneral Electric Company. Lexan is a registered trademark of General Electric Company. Hypertronicsis a trademark of Hypertronics Corporation. Imasonic is a registered trademark of Imasonic S.A.Inconel is a registered trademark of the Special Metals Corporation group of companies. Lucite is aregistered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Microsoft, Excel, Windows, and theWindows logo are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or othercountries. Plexiglas is a registered trademark of Arkema. Polysulfone is a trademark of Union CarbideCorp. Profax is a trademark of Hercules, Inc. Rexolite is a registered trademark of C-Lec Plastics Inc.Zetec and UltraVision are registered trademarks of Zetec, Inc. Zircaloy is a trademark of Westing-house Electric Company, LLC. All other product names mentioned in this book may be trademarks orregistered trademarks of their respective owners and are hereby acknowledged.

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    Table of Contents v

    Table of Contents

    Foreword .............................................................................................. xiii

    Acknowledgements ............................................................................ xv

    Introduction ............................................................................................ 11. Main Concepts of Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology ......... 5

    1.1 Historical Development and Industrial Requirements .............................. 51.2 Principles ........................................................................................................... 71.3 Delay Laws, or Focal Laws ........................................................................... 141.4 Basic Scanning and Imaging ......................................................................... 181.5 Limitations and Further Development of Phased Array Ultrasonic

    Technology ...................................................................................................... 22References to Chapter 1 ........................................................................................ 25

    2. Scanning Patterns and Ultrasonic Views .................................. 292.1 Scanning Patterns ........................................................................................... 29

    2.1.1 Linear Scan ........................................................................................... 302.1.2 Bidirectional Scan ................................................................................ 322.1.3 Unidirectional Scan ............................................................................. 322.1.4 Skewed Scan (for TomoView Software) ........................................ 332.1.5 Helicoidal Scan .................................................................................... 342.1.6 Spiral Scan ............................................................................................ 34

    2.1.7 Beam Directions ................................................................................... 352.1.8 Other Scanning Patterns ..................................................................... 372.1.9 Time-Based Scanning .......................................................................... 39

    2.2 Ultrasonic Views (Scans) ............................................................................... 392.2.1 A-Scan ................................................................................................... 412.2.2 B-Scan .................................................................................................... 432.2.3 C-Scan ................................................................................................... 442.2.4 D-Scan ................................................................................................... 442.2.5 S-Scan .................................................................................................... 452.2.6 Polar Views ........................................................................................... 47

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    vi Table of Contents

    2.2.7 Strip Charts .......................................................................................... 482.2.8 Multiple Views and Layouts ............................................................. 482.2.9 Combined TOFD and Pulse Echo (PE) ............................................. 532.2.10 Combined Strip Charts ....................................................................... 532.2.11 R/D Tech TomoView Cube Views ..................................................... 54

    References to Chapter 2 ........................................................................................ 56

    3. Probes and Ultrasonic Field Formula ......................................... 593.1 Piezocomposite Materials ............................................................................. 59

    3.1.1 Matching Layer and Cable Requirements ....................................... 603.1.2 Backing Material .................................................................................. 61

    3.2 Piezocomposite Manufacture ....................................................................... 613.3 Types of Phased Array Probes for Industrial Applications ..................... 653.4 Linear Arrays .................................................................................................. 70

    3.4.1 Active Aperture ................................................................................... 71

    3.4.2 Effective Active Aperture ................................................................... 723.4.3 Minimum Active Aperture ................................................................ 723.4.4 Passive Aperture ................................................................................. 733.4.5 Minimum Passive Aperture ............................................................... 753.4.6 Elementary Pitch ................................................................................. 763.4.7 Element Gap ......................................................................................... 763.4.8 Element Width ..................................................................................... 763.4.9 Maximum Element Size ..................................................................... 763.4.10 Minimum Element Size ...................................................................... 763.4.11 Sweep Range ........................................................................................ 773.4.12 Steering Focus Power ..............................................

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