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Pharmacology of Muscarinic Receptor Blockade. Acetylcholine is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors The nicotinic actions of acetylcholine

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Pharmacology of Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Slide 2 Acetylcholine is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors The nicotinic actions of acetylcholine remain when muscarinic receptors are blocked Slide 3 Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Does Not Affect Ganglionic Transmission X Muscarinic receptor blockade prevents generation of the IPSP and the sEPSP but not the fEPSP Slide 4 Muscarinic receptor blockade does not interfere with transmission at autonomic ganglionic sites, the adrenal medulla, or skeletal muscle fibers. Sympathetic adrenergic functions are not affected. X X Slide 5 In Dual Innervated Organs, Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Allows Sympathetic Dominance X Slide 6 Atropine Slide 7 Characteristics of Atropine Source Atropa belladonna Datura stramonium Known as Jamestown weed or jimsonweed Chemical nature An alkaloid Alternate name is d,l-hyoscyamine Nature of blockade Competitive Slide 8 Response to ACh in the Presence of Atropine Log dose of acetylcholine Response control atropine Atropine competitively inhibits muscarinic reponses to ACh Slide 9 Actions of Atropine at Tissue Sites Eye Sphincter muscle of the iris: mydriasis Ciliary muscle: cycloplegia Atropine limits focusing to distant objects Accomodation is blocked by atropine Slide 10 Changes in Accomodation and Pupillary Diameter after Administration of an Antimuscarinic Agent Reproduced from Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Slide 11 Actions of Atropine At Smooth Muscles And Glands Eye Lacrimal glands Mucus glands of the pharynx and nasal cavity Bronchial smooth muscle Gastric glands Intestinal glands Pancreas Mucus glands of the respiratory tract Lacrimal glands Eccrine sweat glands Slide 12 Cardiovascular Actions of Atropine Heart rate Low dose High dose Systemic blood vessels Peripheral resistance Cutaneous blood vessels Slide 13 Response to Doses of Atropine Reproduced from Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Slide 14 M 1 Receptor Activation at Parasympathetic Nerve Terminals Exerts A Small Negative Feedback Effect Upon ACh Release in Response to Nerve Impulse Flow postsynaptic fiber cardiac muscle fiber ACh (----) M1 M2 Slide 15 M 1 Receptor Blockade Eliminates the Negative Feedback Effect and Increases ACh Release in Response to Nerve Impulse Flow postsynaptic fiber cardiac muscle fiber Pirenzepine is an M 1 antagonist x ACh M1 M2 Slide 16 Intravenous infusion of acetylcholine in high doses produces actions at numerous sites. Bradycardia and hypotension are among the results. Such actions are accentuated in the presence of inhibitors of AChE (they also block plasma pseudocholinesterase). i.v. infusion Slide 17 Prior blockade of muscarinic receptors followed by intravenous infusion of a high dose of ACh converts the bradycardiac and hypotensive responses to tachycardia and hypertension, mediated through the nicotinic receptors. x x x i.v. infusion Slide 18 Effect Of Atropine in Relation to Dosage... Slide 19 Dose of Atropine DOSEEFFECT 0.5 mgSlight decline in heart rate Some dryness of mouth Inhibition of sweating Slide 20 Dose of Atropine DOSEEFFECT 1.0 mgDefinited dryness of mouth Thirst Inreased heart rate, sometimes preceded by slowing Mild dilatation of pupil Slide 21 Dose of Atropine DOSEEFFECT 2.0 mgRapid heart rate Palpitation Marked dryness of mouth Dilated pupils Some blurring of near vision Slide 22 Dose of Atropine DOSEEFFECT 5.0 mgAll the previous symptoms are marked Difficulty in speaking and swallowing Restlessness and fatigue Headache Dry hot skin Difficulty in micturition Reduced intestinal peristalsis Slide 23 Dose of Atropine DOSEEFFECT 10 mgPrevious symtoms are more marked and morePulse, rapid and weak Iris practically obliterated Vision very blurred Skin flushed, hot, dry, and scarlet Ataxia Restlessness and excitement Hallucinations and delirium Coma Slide 24 The previous five slides are reproduced from Goodman and Gilmans The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics Slide 25 Scopolamine (1) Source - Hyoscyamus niger (henbane) Chemical nature of the molecule Nature of blockade Changes in the dose response curve of muscarinic agonists in the presence of scopolamine Lower doses of scopolamine (0.1 - 0.2 mg) produce greater cardiac slowing than an equivalent dose of atropine. Higher doses produce tachycardia Low doses of scopolamine produce CNS effects that are not seen with equivalent doses of atropine Slide 26 Scopolamine (2) Therapeutic doses of scopolamine normally produce CNS depression, manifested as drowsiness, amnesia, fatigue, dreamless sleep, reduction in REM, euphoria In the presence of pain, the same therapeutic dose occasionally cause excitement, restlessness, hallucinations, or delirium. Such excitement is always seen with large doses, as is also seen with large doses of atropine Therapeutic use - prophylaxis of motion sickness; an adhesive preparation, the Transderm scop is used Slide 27 Therapeutic Uses of Antimuscarinic Agents Slide 28 Therapeutic Uses of Muscarinic Antagonists (1) Cardiovascular System - atropine is generally used for the following cases Improper use of choline esters Sinus or nodal bradycardia in cases of excessive vagal tone associated with myocardial infarct Hyperactive carotid sinus (syncope and severe bradycardia) Second degree heart block Slide 29 Therapeutic Uses of Muscarinic Antagonists (2) Gastrointestinal Tract Peptic ulcers In Europe, Japan, and Canada, M 1 muscarinic receptor antagonists such as pirenzepine and telenzepine are used In the U.S. H 2 histamine antagonists such as cimetidine are used Spasticity of the g.i. tract M 3 muscarinic antagonists are being investigated Excessive salivation associated with heavy metal poisoning and parkinsonism Production of partial blockade of salivation in patients unable to swallow Slide 30 Therapeutic Uses of Muscarinic Antagonists (3) Urinary Bladder Reverse spasm of the ureteral smooth muscle (renal colic) Increase bladder capacity in cases of enuresis Reduce urinary frequency in cases of hypertonic bladder Slide 31 Therapeutic Uses of Muscarinic Antagonists (4) Central Nervous System Parkinsons disease Motion sickness Produce tranquilization and amnesia prior to surgery and in certain cases such as labor (not a prominent use anymore) Anesthesia, to inhibit salivation (not a prominent use anymore) Prevent vagal reflexes induced by surgical manipulation of organs Slide 32 Therapeutic Uses of Muscarinic Antagonists (5) Posioning by inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase Mushroom poisoning due to muscarine In conjunction with inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase when they are used to promote recovery from neuromuscular blockade after surgery Injudicious use of choline esters Prevent vagal reflexes induced by surgical manipulation of visceral organs Atropine is used for the above Slide 33 Toxicity of Atropine Slide 34 Contraindications to the Use Of Antimuscarinic Agents Narrow Angle Glaucoma Slide 35 Flow of Aqueous and Its Escape From the Eye Slide 36 Contraindications to the Use of Antimuscarinic Agents Narrow angle glaucoma Hypertrophy of the prostate gland Atony of the bladder Atony of the G.I. Tract Slide 37 Tertiary Muscarinic Antagonists and Their Uses Ophthalmic applications Cyclopentolate Tropicamide Homatropine Parkinsons disease Benztropine Trihexphenidyl Slide 38 Tertiary Muscarinic Antagonists and Their Uses Used for antispasmodic purposes Flavoxate - urinary bladder Oxybutynin - urinary bladder Tolterodine - urinary bladder Dicyclomine Oxyphencyclimine In general, they are useful for spasms of the g.t. tract, bile duct, ureters, Slide 39 Tolterodine Therapeutic use - reduce urinary urgency Metabolism Cytochrome P450 Active metabolite is DD-01 Drug interactions Ketoconazole Erythromycin Slide 40 Quaternary Ammonium Antagonists (1) General characteristics Pharmacology and therapeutic uses Distinct side effects with high and sometimes therapeutic doses Slide 41 Quaternary Ammonium Antagonists (2) Methantheline (N + ) Propantheline (N + ) Methscopolamine (N + ) Homatropine methylbromide (N + ) Oxyphenonium (N + ) Slide 42 Quaternary Ammonium Antagonists (3) Anisotropine (N + ) Glycopyrrolate (N + ) Isopropamide (N + ) Mepenzolate (N + ) Ipratropium (N + ) Slide 43 Ipratropium Uses Distinctiveness from atropine Slide 44 M 1 Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists Pirenzepine Blocks the M 1 and the M 4 receptor Its usefulness for peptic ulcer Telenzepine Blocks the M 1 receptor Its usefulness for peptic ulcer Slide 45 M 2 Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists Tripitamine Blocks the M 2 receptor Blocks the action of acetylcholine at cardiac muscle fibers Gallamine Blocks M 2 muscarinic and the N N nicotinic sites Slide 46 M 3 Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist Darifenacin Blocks the M 3 receptor Blocks the actions of acetylcholine at smooth muscles and glands Slide 47 Drugs of Other Classes With Antimuscarinic Activity (1) Tricyclic antidepressants Imipramine Amitriptyline Protriptyline Others.: DEMONSTRATION.: DEMONSTRATION Slide 48 Drugs of Other Classes With Antimuscarinic Activity (2) Phenothiazine Antipsychotic Agents Chlorpromazine Thioridazine Perphenazine Others.: DEMONSTRATION.: DEMONSTRATION Slide 49 Drugs of Other Classes With Antimuscarinic Activity (3) Dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic agents Clozapine Olanzepine Dibenzoxazepine antipsychotic agents Loxapine.: DEMONSTRATION.: DEMONSTRATION Slide 50 Drugs of Other Classes With Antimuscarinic Activity (4) H 1 Histamine receptor blocking agents Diphenhydramine Dimenhydrinate Promethazine Carbinoxamine Dimenhydrinate Pyrlamine Tripelennamine Brompheniramine Chlorpheniramine Cyproheptadine.: DEMONSTRATION.: DEMONSTRATION