Pertemuan 1 Pengenalan Teknologi Jaringan Komputer 9.2.13

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    Introduction to ComputerNetwork and Technology

    Rizal Munadi

    Magister Teknik Elektro2013

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    Sistem Evaluasi

    Sistem dan Bobot Penilaian

    Kehadiran 10%

    Tugas individual 20%

    Tugas Kelompok 10%

    Quiz 20%

    Ujian Tengah Semester 20%

    Ujian Akhir Semester 20%

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    Buku Referensi:1. J. F. Kurose, K. W. Ross, Computer

    Networking, A Top-Down Approach

    Featuring the Internet, Addison-Wesley.2. Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie,

    Computer Networks: A Systems Approach.

    3. W. Richard Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated,

    Volume 1: The Protocols.

    3

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    Copyright 2005 Prentice Hall,

    Inc. 5-4

    MeredithHow to build a network when there is nopremises wiring?

    SuzanneNeed to connect all locations

    LedaConnectivity would allow easier exchange ofideas with franchisees

    MitchRemote access to corporate network fromanywhere

    JuliaMinimize costs and improve data collection and

    communications with all locations MiriamElectronic sales data and marketing materials RachelWork flow systems to reduce paperwork JimUse of electronic forms instead of paper forms

    Bead Bar Consultant

    Networking Needs

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    5

    Computer Networks A computer networkis a system for communicating

    between two or more computers and associated devices. It

    is an interconnection of computers for the purposes of

    sharing information and resources.

    A popular example of a computer network is the internet,

    which allows millions of users to share information

    Computer networks can be classified according to their

    size:

    Personal area network (PAN)

    Local area network (LAN)

    Metropolitan area network (MAN)

    Wide area network (WAN)

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    Router

    An example of a network

    Internet

    Segment Node

    Hub

    Hub

    Bridge

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    Personal Area Network APANis a network that is used for

    communicating among computers andcomputer devices (includingtelephones) in close proximity ofaround a few meters within a room

    It can be used for communicatingbetween the devices themselves, or forconnecting to a larger network such asthe internet

    PANs can be wired or wireless

    PANs can be wired with a computerbus such as a universal serial bus: USB

    (a serial bus standard for connectingdevices to a computer, where manydevices can be connected concurrently)

    PANs can also be wireless through theuse of bluetooth(a radio standarddesigned for low power consumptionfor interconnecting computers anddevices such as telephones, printers or

    keyboards to the computer) orIrDA(infrared data association) technologies

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    A LAN is a network that is used for communicating among

    computer devices, usually within an office building or

    home

    LANs enable the sharing of resources such as files orhardware devices that may be needed by multiple users

    Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters,

    and no more than a mile

    Is fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps

    Requires little wiring, typically a single cable connecting

    to each device

    Has lower cost compared to MANs or WANs

    Local Area Network

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    LAN basics LANs can be either wired or wireless. Twisted pair, coax or fiber optic cable can be used in

    wired LANs

    Nodes in a LAN are linked together with a certain topology. These topologies include:

    Bus

    Ring

    Star

    Branching tree

    A nodeis defined to be any device connected to the network. This could be a computer, aprinter, a router, etc.

    A Hubis a networking device that connects multiple segments of the network together

    A Network Interface Card(NIC) is the circuit board that has the networking logicimplemented, and provides a plug for the cable into the computer (unless wireless). Inmost cases, this is an Ethernetcard inserted in a slot of the computers motherboard

    The Network Operating System(NOS) is the software (typically part of the operatingsystem kernel) that communicates with the NIC, and enables users to share files andhardware and communicate with other computers. Examples of NOS include: Windows XP,Windows NT, Sun Solaris, Linux, etc..

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    Network Topologies Bus Topology

    Each node is connected one after the other (like christmaslights)

    Nodes communicate with each other along the same pathcalled the backbone

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    Ring Topology The ring network is like a bus network, but the end of the

    network is connected to the first node

    Nodes in the network use tokens to communicate with eachother

    Backbone

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    Star Topology Each node is connected to a device in the center of the

    network called a hub

    The hub simply passes the signal arriving from any node tothe other nodes in the network

    The hub does not route the data

    Hub

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    Branching Tree Topology

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    Access Control Methods Two primary access control methods

    exist for computers to communicate

    with each other over the network Token based access

    Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision

    Detection (CSMA/CD)

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    Token based access Used in bus and ring network topologies (token ring)

    Each computer in the network can only send its dataif it has the token. This prevents collisions that occur

    when data is sent at the same time over the network

    The token is a special pattern of bits/bit in a framethat is directly detectible by each node in the network

    A computer may only transmit information if it is in

    possession of the token

    The message is sent to all other computers in thenetwork

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    Types of LANs

    The three most popular types of LANsare:

    Token ring Ethernet

    FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

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    Operation of token ring As an example, suppose node # 1 wants to send information to

    node # 4 over the network

    Initially, an empty frame (network packet) circulates in thenetwork

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

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    When node # 1 receives the empty frame, it inserts a token in thetoken bit part of the frame. This operation may just be an insertion of a1 bit

    The node then inserts the message it wants to send as well as theaddress of the receiving node in the frame

    The frame is then successively received and examined by each node inthe network. First it is sent to node #2. Node #2 examines the frameand compares the address in the frame to its own address. Sinceaddresses do not match, it passes the frame onto node #3, which doesthe same thing

    When the frame is received by node #4, the address of the nodematches the destination address within the frame. The node copies themessage and changes the token bit in the frame to 0

    The frame is then sent over to node #5. This node also comparesaddresses and sends it to node #6 which does the same procedure

    When node #1 receives the frame, it examines the token bit andrecognizes that it has been changed to 0. Node #1 then concludesthat the message has been received by the intended node: node #4.Node #1 then empties the frame and releases the empty frame backinto the network for circulation

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    Lets see an animationof the token ring

    http://www.datacottage.com/nch/troperation.htmhttp://www.datacottage.com/nch/troperation.htm
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    CSMA/CD Usually used in a bus topology

    Used in EthernetLANs

    Unlike the token ring, all nodes can send whenever they havedata to transmit

    When a node wants to transmit information, it first listens tothe network. If no one is transmitting over the network, thenode begins transmission

    It is however possible for two nodes to transmit simultaneouslythinking that the network is clear

    When two nodes transmit at the same time, a collisionoccurs

    The first station to detect the collision sends a jam signal intothe network

    Both nodes back off, wait for a random period of time and thenre-transmit

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    A B C D

    A B C D

    A B C D

    CSMA/CD

    Collision

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    Ethernet

    First network to provide CSMA/CD

    Developed in 1976 by Xerox PARC (Palo AltoResearch Center) in cooperation with DEC and Intel

    Is a fast and reliable network solution One of the most widely implemented LAN standards

    Can provide speeds in the range of 10Mbps- 10Gbps

    Used with a bus or star topology

    Ethernet data packet - datagram drawn on board.

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    Types of Ethernet LANs 10Base-T

    Operates at 10 Mbps

    IEEE 802.3 standard

    Fast Ethernet (100Base-T)

    Operates at 100 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet

    Operates at 1 Gbps

    Uses fiber optic cable

    10 Gbps Ethernet

    Latest development of ethernet Uses fiber optic cable

    Developed to meet the increasing bandwidth needs of the LANmarket

    Wireless Ethernet

    IEEE 802.11 standard

    Operates at around 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz

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    Fiber-Distributed Data Interface(FDDI)

    Fiber-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) provides astandard for data transmission in a local area network thatcan extend in range up to 200 kilometers (124 miles).

    The FDDI protocol uses as its basis the token ringprotocol.

    In addition to covering large geographical areas, FDDIlocal area networks can support thousands of users.

    As a standard underlying medium it uses optical fiber

    (though it can use copper cable, in which case one canrefer to CDDI).

    FDDI uses a dual-attached, counter-rotating token-ringtopology.

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    Computer technology trends

    Future computer technology trends suggestthat mankind has not even begun to tap into

    computational power and networking. In a few years, cloud computing will be so

    Old School.

    The PC will be what the mainframe is today.

    And, Web 5.0 will have finally kicked in forfuture computers.

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    Future? Wait and See

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    Question and Answer ???

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    http://www.cartoonresource.com/umbraco/ImageGen.ashx?image=/327504/cnt108mp.jpg&class=full

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    References:

    http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/atzacheva/SIMS201.html

    http://www.futuretechnologyportal.com/

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    http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/atzacheva/SIMS201.htmlhttp://www.futuretechnologyportal.com/http://www.futuretechnologyportal.com/http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/atzacheva/SIMS201.html