Text of Persuasion. What is persuasion? Persuasion: the process by which a message induces change in...
What is persuasion? Persuasion: the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. I. Where does persuasion live? Everywhere! A. The Media B. Science C. The Arts D. Interpersonal Encounters (where persuasion attempts are most prevalent and have their greatest impact)
II. The Pathways of Persuasion A. The Central Route to Persuasion: the case whereby people systematically process a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments. This occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication. B. The Peripheral Route to Persuasion: the case whereby people heuristically process a persuasive communication and are swayed by peripheral cues (such as a speakers appearance or the amount of evidence rather than the quality of evidence). This occurs when people do not have the ability and/or the motivation to listen carefully to a communication.
C. If its a complex message, written communication is more effective in changing attitudes. D. If its a simple message, audio-visual is more effective in changing attitudes.
III. The Communicator: Who is the Messenger? I. Credibility: judgments made by a perceiver concerning the believability of a communicator. A.Credibility is dynamic. It can change over time, and even during a single persuasive message.
B. The Sleeper Effect: refers to a situation in which a message attributed to a lower credibility source becomes more persuasive over time compared to a message attributed to a high credibility source. 1) The sleeper effect operates through a process of disassociation, whereby a message becomes separated from its source in the minds of receivers. 2) Although the sleeper effect has been empirically documented in laboratory settings, it is difficult to produce in real-world settings.
C. The underlying dimensions of credibility. 1) Expertise (competence, qualification) Expertise can be established by possessing advanced degrees (Ph.D.) or through experience like a recovered alcoholic serving as a coordinator at AA meetings. Both of these help to give the impression that you are knowledgeable. Mature angular faced people appear more like experts than baby faced people. Taller people appear more like experts than shorter people and people with a full head of hair appear more like experts than bald people.
2) Trustworthiness Looking someone straight in the eye Although eye contact may make a person more persuasive by increasing perceptions of trustworthiness, its effectiveness may depend on a number of factors (e.g., the legitimacy of the request thats made). Baby faced people appear more trustworthy than mature angular faced people. Arguing against your own self-interest. Fast talkers appear more credible and trustworthy than slow-talkers.
3) Goodwill: perceived caring. 4) Composure: speaking confidently and being straightforward. II. Liking: favorable judgments made by a perceiver concerning the believability of a communicator. A. Charisma: someone who possesses a certain indefinable charm or allure.
B. Celebrities 1)Advertisers frequently rely on celebrity endorsers to boost their companys image because consumers like, or may even idolize, those celebrities. 2) If a celebrity endorser becomes embroiled in a scandal, the sponsors image may suffer as well. C. Attractiveness 1) We perceive attractive people to be healthier, happier, more sensitive, more successful, more intelligent, and more socially skilled. 2) Attractive well-dressed people are more likely to make a favorable impression on potential employers and get out of legal trouble. 3) People are more likely to vote for attractive candidates.
D. Similarity 1) We are more likely to help and like others who are dressed similarly to us. 2) We are more likely to help and like others who have similar backgrounds and interests. 3) People are more likely to buy products, sign petitions, and agree to other activities when the seller is perceived as similar in age, religion, politics, etc. 4) Similar Names! 5) Kidney Donors!
E. Mimicry Fosters Liking F. Compliments 1) Compliments can significantly increase someones liking of you EVEN when they know you have ulterior motives. 2) Ingratiation: the act of gaining acceptance or affection for yourself by persuasive and oftentimes subtle compliments. 3) However, transparent attempts at ingratiation are less effective than well-disguised, or genuine efforts at ingratiation.
IV. The Communication: What is the message and how is it being delivered? Fixed-Action Patterns: mechanical like behavior sequences. Trigger Feature: a specific cue that activates the fixed-action pattern.
I. Visual Persuasion A. Iconicity: images can represent, or sum up, ideas and concepts. They serve as symbolic representations of things. 1) Iconic images evoke emotional responses in receivers. 2) Iconic images can distort or violate reality. 3) Iconic images are selective; they can exaggerate or minimize certain features over others. Fast Food! It looks delicious, right???
B. The Persuasiveness of Architecture 1) Architectural design can facilitate certain forms of behavior and inhibit others. 2) Visual and spatial cues affect peoples perceptions of, and attitudes toward, their environment. C. The Persuasiveness of Color
1) Historically, art has been used to further political, religious, and social ends. D. The Persuasiveness of Art 2) The arts have been used as tools for political and societal propaganda, most notably by totalitarian regimes. 3) Artists use their art to make political and social statements.
E. The Persuasiveness of Movies 1) Storytelling in movies as persuasion. 2) Viewers do not expect to be persuaded by movies, so they let down their guard. 3) Movies promote popular culture (fashions, trends, lifestyles). 4) Movies promote viewer identification with the characters.
F. The Persuasiveness of Television 1) The Selection of Issues Sensationalism: when more exciting (often visually exciting) stories are chosen over less exciting stories even if the less exciting stories are more newsworthy. 2) The Selection of Guest and Panel Members 3) What is Included on a Set 4) Camera Angles and Cuts
II. Music and Persuasion A.Song lyrics can persuade via the central route, but may be more effective than words alone because the music helps to relax the listener and be more open to the message. B. Typically, however, music persuades via the peripheral route because it puts people in a better mood and relaxes them while there exposed to advertisements. C. Background music is used by retailers to influence consumer behavior. 1) Background music has been shown to affect shopping pace. 2) Background music has been shown to affect moods. D. The Right Ear!
III. Aromas and Persuasion A.Fragrance manufacturing is a multi-billion dollar industry. However, much of what sells a fragrance, like a perfume, is the promise that you will be sexy like the model in the ad supposedly using the perfume. B. Some evidence suggests that fragrances may increase attraction. C. As with positively received music, ambient aromas (like vanilla, chocolate, and floral scents) can affect consumers shopping pace, and make them linger longer in stores and restaurants. D. Repeated exposure to a given fragrance may result in desensitization, or create an aversion to the smell.
IV. Haptics: the study of touch. Touching other people, if done appropriately, tends to facilitate persuasion. V. Proxemics: the study of how we use space to communicate. A. Invading another persons space facilitates persuasion if the invader is perceived as rewarding but hinders persuasion if the invader is not perceived as rewarding. B. The degree of personal space distance between two people varies across cultures.
VI. The Scarcity Principle: opportunities seem more valuable to us when they are less available. A. Limited Numbers: when we learn that there are only a few left in stock or that its the last one in stock, we have a tendency to assume that it is of remarkable value. It is kind of like the social proof of material goods. If everyone is buying it, it must be the thing to have. B. Time Limits: when we believe that we must act now in order to get the deal or the product or the deal or the product will be gone, we are enticed to do so. 1)Chronemics: the study of how time is used to communicate.
C. Psychological Reactance: whenever free choice is limited or threatened, the need to retain our freedoms makes us want free choice significantly more than before. Therefore, when increasing scarcity interferes with our prior access to some item, we will react against the interference by wanting and trying to possess the item more than we did before. D. Censorship: when information becomes censored, it becomes scarce. This increases the appeal of acquiring such information. E. Optimal Conditions 1) New Scarcity is More Powerful than Constant Scarcity