It falls under the humanistic approach in psychology.
CIA 1ByName- Samatha A. S.Class- 1 MPCORegister Number- 1424338
Person-Centered TherapyTherapeutic ProcessIntroductionCarl R. Rogers was a prestigious and influential psychotherapist who formulated the Person-Centered Approach and was known as a quiet revolutionary.Also known as Client- Centered Therapy or Non-Directive Counselling.Client plays an active roleCounsellor plays a passive roleBasic Assumptions of this therapyClients are fully capable of finding out their problems and resolving it by themselvesClients are trustworthy and possess all other qualities for self-directed growthClients are the sole agents for changeClients are capable of understanding themselves without direct intervention
Determinants of successful therapyAttitudes, behaviour and personal characteristics of the therapist.Quality of relationship between client and therapist.Creating a conducive environment for the client to establish trust and disclose themselves for self-directed growth.Therapeutic GoalsThere are no specific goals as such, however, therapists help the clients in framing their own goalsFocus is on the client as a person and not at solving their problemsHelping the client to achieve independence and integrationSelf-awareness and self-actualization
ContEncouraging and boosting clients characteristics of self-actualization, openness to experience, trust in oneself, internal source of evaluation and willingness or striving for continuous growth
Providing a suitable atmosphere (climate of safety and trust) in order to establish clarity for the clients to become self aware of their problems, set goals and strive to change and growTherapists Functions and RoleTherapists attitudes and belief in the clients potential to help them become aware and resolve their problems is crucialNon-Directive attitude is of utmost importance Must be real, honest, genuine, authentic, congruent, empathetic, accepting, caring, respecting, supporting and understanding towards the client for establishing trust and also a healthy relationship based on equalityTo help clients unmask themselves, gain clarity and expose themselves freely for self-directed growthDonts of the TherapistUsually clients case history is not takenAsking probing questions or advicingEvaluating clients ideas, plans and decisionsInterpreting clients behaviour, being judgementalDeciding or setting the length of the therapyMaking decisions and setting goals for the clients
Clients Experience and Outcomes of Therapy
They soon realize that they are responsible for bringing about change and are a reliable creator of personal meanings, ideas, trust, beliefs, etc.Clients gradually expose their true, inner selves during the processGain self awareness, understanding and achieve self-acceptance and growth, also strive towards self-actualization.Become more self confident, self assertive, risk-taking, experiential, empathetic, goal-orientedClients are the magicians with healing powers and therapists set the stage and serve as assistants for the magic to operate.Client-Therapist RelationshipNo specific or special skills or techniques are required by the therapist. It is a shared journey.Relationship is mainly based on equality, which determines the success of the therapy.Four core conditions to bring about change and self-growth in the client which are used by the therapist are:-
Four core conditionsCongruence/Genuineness- therapists must be open and express freely, integrated, authentic, real, true, unbiased for effective therapy.Unconditioned Positive Regard- Non-possessive caring attitude towards the clients, non-judgemental, non-evaluative. Acceptance- Therapists must have high acceptance level and respect for the clients ideas, values, beliefs, etc. Cont4. Empathy - Therapists stepping into clients shoes in order to understand and feel their subjective feelings and emotions. Most important ingredient in order to bring about change in terms of self-understanding and clarifications of clients beliefs and world views.Empathy alleviates clients cognitive processes and emotional self- regulation. ApplicationsIndividual and group counsellingStudent-centered teaching and learning. As per research it helps in building positive self-concept amongst students in terms of independence, maturity, etc.Parent-child relations and human relations training labsAnxiety disorders, alcoholism, psychosomatic problems, agoraphobia, interpersonal difficulties, depression, cancer, personality disordersWell suited for early phases of crisis interventionAdministration and management and systems and institutions
Limitations of the TherapyUsing of control subjectsFailing to account for placebo effectsUsing of inappropriate statistical proceduresThe four core conditions are not necessarily sufficientClients to find their own way is challengingDiscounts significance pastCultural differences- difficult to apply in other cultures.
ContNot a standardized treatment due to lack of specific technique of counsellingAlso no guarantee that the therapists attitudes, beliefs, values, etc. will not interfere with the therapeutic process. Thus questions the genuine relationship element of the therapy.
Further ReadingAs per research, there have been many changes in school environment in the last fifty years that have changed the attitudes of the school counsellors.Since the student-counsellor ratio increased tremendously, in order to speed up the counselling process, elements such as advising, interpreting, evaluating, etc. have been incorporated.Thus school counsellors use both therapeutic and educative modes to bring about change and independence. ContVarious schools are incorporating this therapy in middle school teachers in order to bring about better and more effective learning methods and outcomes amongst students. These teachers also help students to become more creative, think out of the box, self-directed and self-growth, etc.ReferencesCorey, G. (1979). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (8th ed., pp.164-191). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Colvin, G. (1999). Person-Centered Counseling After Fifty Years: How Is It Fairing in School-Land? American Secondary Education, 28 (1), 19-26. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from Jstor.
Krause, C. (1972). Person-Centered Evaluation Builds Positive Self-Concepts. Peabody Journal of Education, 49 (4), 290-294. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from Jstor.
ReferencesTyrrell, R., & Natko, J. (1979). Person Centered Teachers For Emerging Adoloscents. Middle School Journal,10 (2), 18-19-26-27. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from Jstor.Witty,M C. (n.d). CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY. In Springer. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda./9780387296807-c2.pdf