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PENDAHULUAN - media.unpad.ac.idmedia.unpad.ac.id/files/publikasi/2017/rpm_20170209151730_1946.pdf · Etiologi ----- 9 4.3.3.4. Gambaran Klinis ... Gambaran Klinis Torus Palatinus

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  • ii

    DAFTAR ISI

    PENDAHULUAN -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

    DAFTAR ISI -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii

    DAFTAR TABEL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- x

    DAFTAR GAMBAR ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- xi

    MODUL 1

    Kelainan Pada Bibir ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

    2. Relevansi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    4. Kegiatan Belajar -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    4.1. Kelainan Cacat Bawaan ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    4.1.1. Sumbing Bibir --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

    4.1.2. Cheilognathoschisis -------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    4.1.3. Sumbing Palatum ----------------------------------------------------------------- 2

    4.1.4. Cheilognathopalatoschisis ------------------------------------------------------ 2

    4.1.5. Obique Facial Cleft -------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    4.1.6. Transverse Facial Cleft ---------------------------------------------------------- 3

    4.2. Radang ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    4.2.1. Cheilitis Vesikularis -------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    4.2.2. Cheilosis --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

    4.2.3. Radang Kronis Tidak Spesifik -------------------------------------------------- 3

  • iii

    4.2.4. Radang Kronis Spesifik ---------------------------------------------------------- 4

    4.3. Tumor -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

    4.3.1. Tumor Jinak ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

    4.3.2. Pseudo Tumor --------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

    4.3.2.1. Keratoacanthoma ------------------------------------------------------- 6

    4.3.2.2. Granuloma Pyogenicum ----------------------------------------------- 6

    4.3.2.3. Verruform Xanthoma --------------------------------------------------- 7

    4.3.3. Tumor Ganas ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    4.3.3.1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    4.3.3.2. Definisi ------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

    4.3.3.3. Etiologi ------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

    4.3.3.4. Gambaran Klinis -------------------------------------------------------- 11

    4.3.3.5. Gambaran Histopatologis ---------------------------------------------- 12

    4.3.3.6. Lokasi dan Insidensi ---------------------------------------------------- 12

    4.3.3.7. Metastasis ---------------------------------------------------------------- 13

    4.3.3.8. Diagnosis ----------------------------------------------------------------- 14

    4.3.3.9. Diferensial Diagnosa --------------------------------------------------- 15

    4.3.3.10. Stadium ------------------------------------------------------------------ 15

    4.3.3.11. Prognosa ---------------------------------------------------------------- 16

    4.3.3.12. Terapi -------------------------------------------------------------------- 17

    5. Rangkuman ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19

    6. Daftar Pustaka ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20

  • iv

    MODUL 2

    Kelainan Pada Mukosa Mulut ------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

    1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21

    2. Relevansi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

    3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 21

    4. Kegiatan Belajar -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

    4.1. Radang ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21

    4.1.1. Ginggivo-Stomatitis Herpetika Acuta ----------------------------------------- 22

    4.1.2. Stomatitis Acuta Fibronosa ----------------------------------------------------- 23

    4.1.3. Ginggivitis Ulcerative Nekroticans -------------------------------------------- 23

    4.1.4. Angina Ludwig -------------------------------------------------------------------- 23

    4.1.5. Stomatitis Acuta Catarrhalis----------------------------------------------------- 23

    4.1.6. Stomatitis Nicotina --------------------------------------------------------------- 23

    4.1.7. Stomatitis Aphtosa ---------------------------------------------------------------- 24

    4.2. Pigmentasi --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

    4.2.1. Tatto Amalgam -------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

    4.2.2. Argyria ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

    4.2.3. Plumbism --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

    4.2.4. Melanosis -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

    4.3. Tumor Jinak ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28

    4.3.1. Papiloma --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28

    4.3.2. Fibroma ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29

    4.3.3. Lipoma ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30

    4.3.4. Hemangioma ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 32

  • v

    4.3.5. Limfangioma ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 33

    4.3.6. Neurofibroma --------------------------------------------------------------------- 34

    4.3.7. Rhabdomyoma --------------------------------------------------------------------- 35

    4.3.7.1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------- 35

    4.3.3.2. Klasifikasi----------------------------------------------------------------- 36

    4.4. Epulis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40

    4.4.1. Epulis Granulomatosa ----------------------------------------------------------- 40

    4.4.2. Epulis Angiomatosa -------------------------------------------------------------- 41

    4.4.3. Epulis Fibromatosa --------------------------------------------------------------- 41

    4.4.3. Epulis Gigantocellulare ---------------------------------------------------------- 42

    4.4.5. Epulis Fissuratum ---------------------------------------------------------------- 42

    4.4.6. Epulis Gravidarum --------------------------------------------------------------- 43

    5. Rangkuman ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 43

    6. Daftar Pustaka ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44

    MODUL 3

    Kelainan Pada Lidah ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45

    1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45

    2. Relevansi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45

    3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 45

    4. Kegiatan Belajar -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45

    4.1. Kelainan Kongenital --------------------------------------------------------------------- 45

    4.1.1. Mikroglosia ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 45

    4.1.2. Makroglosia ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 46

  • vi

    4.1.3. Lingual Thyroid ------------------------------------------------------------------- 46

    4.1.4. Median Rhomboid Glossitis ----------------------------------------------------- 47

    4.1.5. Bifid Tongue------------------------------------------------------------------------ 48

    4.2. Radang ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48

    4.2.1. Radang Akut ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 48

    4.2.1.1. Glossitis Akuta ----------------------------------------------------------- 48

    4.2.1.2. Stomatitis Scarlanita ---------------------------------------------------- 48

    4.2.2. Radang Khronis Spesifik -------------------------------------------------------- 49

    4.2.2.1. Tuberculosis ------------------------------------------------------------- 49

    4.2.2.2. Sifilis ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 49

    4.2.3. Radang Kronis Yang Tidak Spesifik ------------------------------------------- 49

    4.2.3.1. Geographic Tounge ----------------------------------------------------- 49

    4.2.3.2. Hairy Tounge ------------------------------------------------------------ 50

    4.3. Lesi-lesi Prekanker ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 51

    4.3.1. Leukoplakia ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 51

    4.3.2. Erythroplakia ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 56

    4.3.3. Karsinoma In Situ ---------------------------------------------------------------- 57

    4.4. Lesi-lesi yang Lain ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 58

    4.4.1. Lichen Planus --------------------------------------------------------------------- 58

    4.4.2. Nevus Pigmentosus --------------------------------------------------------------- 60

    4.5. Neoplasma --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 62

    4.5.1. Pendahuluan ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 63

    4.5.2. Tipe-tipe Rhabdomiosarkoma -------------------------------------------------- 64

    4.5.3. Sistem Staging -------------------------------------------------------------------- 65

  • vii

    4.5.4. Prognosis --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68

    4.5.5. Perawatan -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69

    4.2.3.1. Tindakan Pembedahan ------------------------------------------------- 71

    4.2.3.2. Terapi Radiasi ----------------------------------------------------------- 71

    5. Rangkuman ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 73

    6. Daftar Pustaka ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74

    MODUL 4

    Kelainan Pada Gigi dan Tulang Rahang ------------------------------------------------------- 75

    1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 75

    2. Relevansi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75

    3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 75

    4. Kegiatan Belajar -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75

    4.1. Patogenesis Kelainan Cacat Bawaan -------------------------------------------------- 75

    4.1.1. Dentinogenesis Imperfecta ------------------------------------------------------ 76

    4.1.2. Amelogenesis Imperfecta -------------------------------------------------------- 76

    4.1.3. Hipoplasia Email ----------------------------------------------------------------- 77

    4.1.4. Anodontia -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77

    4.1.5. Microdontia ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 78

    4.1.6. Macrodontia ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 78

    4.1.7. Agnathia ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78

    4.1.8. Micrognathia ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 79

    4.1.9. Macrognathia --------------------------------------------------------------------- 79

    4.1.10. Acromegalia --------------------------------------------------------------------- 79

  • viii

    5. Rangkuman ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 101

    6. Daftar Pustaka ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 101

    MODUL 5

    Kelainan Pada Lidah ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 102

    1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 102

    2. Relevansi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 102

    3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 102

    4. Kegiatan Belajar -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 102

    4.1. Sialadenitis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103

    4.2. Mucocele ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 104

    4.3. Mikuliczs Disease ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 105

    4.4. Mikuliczs Syndrome --------------------------------------------------------------------- 105

    4.5. Sjogren Syndrome ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 105

    4.6. Tumor Jinak Kelenjar Ludah ----------------------------------------------------------- 106

    4.6.1. Pendahuluan ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 106

    4.6.2. Patogenesis ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 107

    4.6.3. Klasifikasi Tumor Jinak Kelenjar Ludah -------------------------------------- 109

    4.6.3.1. Pleomorfik Adenoma --------------------------------------------------- 109

    4.6.3.2. Monomorfik Adenoma -------------------------------------------------- 111

    4.6.3.3. Ductal Papiloma -------------------------------------------------------- 120

    4.7. Tumor Ganas Kelenjar Ludah ---------------------------------------------------------- 122

    4.7.1. Pendahuluan ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 122

    4.7.2. Klasifikasi ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 123

  • ix

    5. Rangkuman ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 129

    6. Daftar Pustaka ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 130

    MODUL 6

    Cara Pengambilan, Pengiriman dan Dasar Penilaian Biopsi/ Sitologi -------------------- 131

    1. Pendahuluan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 131

    2. Relevansi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 131

    3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Khusus ----------------------------------------------------------------- 131

    4. Kegiatan Belajar -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 131

    4.1. Prinsip Dasar Fiksasi -------------------------------------------------------------------- 131

    4.2. Macam-Macam Cairan Fiksasi --------------------------------------------------------- 132

    4.3. Cara Pengiriman Sediaan Biopsi ------------------------------------------------------- 135

    4.4. Cara Pengiriman Sediaan Sitologi ----------------------------------------------------- 135

    4.5. Pengelolaan Jaringan -------------------------------------------------------------------- 136

    4.6. Interpretasi Hasil Pemeriksaan Biopsi ------------------------------------------------ 140

    4.7. Interpretasi Hasil Pemeriksaan Sitologis ---------------------------------------------- 140

    4.8. Klasifikasi Diagnosa Sitologi ----------------------------------------------------------- 141

    5. Rangkuman ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 141

    6. Daftar Pustaka ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 142

    LATIHAN PENGUASAAN DAN PENERAPAN TEORI ------------------------------ 143

  • x

    DAFTAR TABEL

    Tabel 1.1. Faktor Penyebab Karsinoma Sel Squamous -------------------------------------- 10

    Tabel 1.2. TNM Untuk Malignansi Pada Tumor Rongga Mulut --------------------------- 16

    Tabel 1.3. Stadium Untuk Karsinoma Rongga Mulut --------------------------------------- 17

    Tabel 2.1. Gambaran Klinis Variasi Klasifikasi Rhabdomyoma --------------------------- 36

    Tabel 3.1. Sistem Pengelompokan Menurut Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Study Group (IRS) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 66

    Tabel 3.2. Sistem Staging dengan G-TNM ---------------------------------------------------- 67

    Tabel 3.3. Pengelompokan Stadium dan Angka Bertahan Hidup -------------------------- 69

    Tabel 6.1. Klasifikasi Diagnosa Sitologis ----------------------------------------------------- 141

  • xi

    DAFTAR GAMBAR

    Gambar 1.1. Gambaran Klinis Moniliasis pada Bibir --------------------------------------- 4

    Gambar 1.2. Gambaran Klinis dan Histopatologis Granuloma Pyogenicum

    Pada bibir --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

    Gambar 1.3. Karsinoma Sel Squamous Pada Bibir dan Lidah ------------------------------ 11

    Gambar 1.4. Gambaran Histopatologis karsinoma Sel Squamous

    Well Differentiated ---------------------------------------------------------------- 13

    Gambar 2.1. Gambaran Klinis dan Histopatologis Stomatitis Nikotina ------------------- 24

    Gambar 2.2 Gambaran Histopatologis Tubercle Pada Tuberculosis ---------------------- 25

    Gambar 2.3. Gambaran Klinis Tatoo Amalgam ---------------------------------------------- 26

    Gambar 2.4. Gambaran Histopatologis Tatto Amalgam ------------------------------------ 27

    Gambar 2.5. Gambaran Klinis Papiloma Pada Lidah ---------------------------------------- 28

    Gambar 2.6. Gambaran Histopatologis Papiloma -------------------------------------------- 29

    Gambar 2.7. Gambaran Klinis Fibroma Rongga Mulut ------------------------------------- 30

    Gambar 2.8. Gambaran Histopathologis Fibroma -------------------------------------------- 30

    Gambar 2.9. Gambaran Klinis Lipoma Rongga Mulut -------------------------------------- 31

    Gambar 2.10. Gambaran Histologis Lipoma -------------------------------------------------- 31

    Gambar 2.11. Gambaran Klinis Hemangioma ------------------------------------------------ `32

    Gambar 2.12. Gambaran Histopatologis Hemangioma Cavernosum

    dan Hemangioma Capilare ---------------------------------------------------- 33

    Gambar 2.13. Gambaran Klinis dan Histopatologis Limfangioma ------------------------ 34

    Gambar 2.14. Gambaran Klinis Epulis Pada Gusi ------------------------------------------- 40

    Gambar 2.15. Gambaran Histopatologis Epulis Granulomatosa -------------------------- 41

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    Gambar 2.16. Gambaran Histopatologis Giant Cell Epulis --------------------------------- 42

    Gambar 2.17. Gambaran Klinis Epulis Fissuratum ------------------------------------------ 43

    Gambar 3.1. Gambaran Klinis Median Rhomboid Glossitis -------------------------------- 47

    Gambar 3.2. Gambaran Histopatologis Median Rhomboid Glossitis --------------------- 48

    Gambar 3.3. Gambaran Klinis Leukoplakia Pada Lidah dan Mukosa Bukal ------------- 54

    Gambar 3.4. Gambaran Histopatologis Leukloplakia ---------------------------------------- 56

    Gambar 3.5. Gambaran Klinis Erythroplakia yang Bercampur

    dengan Leukoplakia --------------------------------------------------------------- 57

    Gambar 3.6. Gambaran Klinis Lichen Planus, Reticular Form

    dan Hyperthropyform ------------------------------------------------------------- 59

    Gambar 4.1. Gambaran Klinis Ameloblastoma ----------------------------------------------- 83

    Gambar 4.2. Gambaran Histopatologis Ameloblastoma Tipe Follikeler ------------------ 84

    Gambar 4.3. Gambaran Histopatologis Ameloblastoma Tipe Plexiform ------------------ 84

    Gambar 4.4. Gambaran Histopatologis Ameloblastoma Tipe Akantomatous ------------ 85

    Gambar 4.5. Gambaran Klinis Torus Palatinus ---------------------------------------------- 99

    Gambar 4.6. Gambaran Klinis Torus Mandibularis ----------------------------------------- 99

    Gambar 4.7. Gambaran Mikroskopis Oswteogenic Sarcoma ------------------------------- 100

    Gambar 5.1. Gambaran Klinis dan Histopatologis Mucocele ------------------------------ 105

    Gambar 5.2. Gambaran Klinis Pleomorfik Adenoma Kelenjar Parotis -------------------- 110

    Gambar 5.3. Gambaran Histopatologis Pleomorfik Adenoma ------------------------------ 111

    Gambar 5.4. Gambaran Histopatologis Onkositoma ----------------------------------------- 111

    Gambar 5.5. Gambaran Klinis Tumor Warthin Pasda Kelenjar Parotis ------------------- 119

    Gambar 5.6. Gambaran Histopatologis Tumor Warthin ------------------------------------- 120

  • xiii

    Gambar 5.7. Gambaran Histopatologis Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

    Low Grade Malignancy --------------------------------------------------------- 125

    Gambar 5.8. Gambaran Histopatologis Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma ----------------------- 126

    Gambar 5.9. Gambaran Histopatologis Acinic Cell Carcinoma ---------------------------- 127

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