O B. - i for dialectical materialism, scientific ... EXPOSITORY MID CRITICAL STUDIES OF ... Harold H. THE COf.'lMUNIS'l' REVOLUTION j AN OUTLINE OF

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  • . ~O,,"nl.~ B. from the.UJ.N-J, MISSIONARY RESEARCH LIBRARY

    3041 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 27, N, Y.

    November 1961 Sv.bscription: $2.00 per calendar year Vol. XII, No. 9


    M. Searle BatesProfessor of Missions

    Union Theological Seminary, New York

    Many have assumed in past years that the issues raised for Christians by Com-munism are stark and simple: Communism is materialist and atheist; Christians arespiritually oriented, even if concerned chiefly with production and the income tax.Communism is violent, heedless of morals, totalitarian; Christians are peaceful,dedicated to an ethical life, supported by democratic institutions--yet sometimesuneasy about the gulf between principle and practice, possibly uneasy about the Com-munist claim that for them theory and practice are one.

    In another approach, some Christians scourge their society with the whip ofCommunist seorpions, accepted as a judgment for Christian failure to achieve justiceand brotherhood in a peaceful order built upon an adequate material base. For stillothers, the dangerous errors and excesses in much of the professional, often vulgar,tlanti-communisms" blind us to the Communist threat to open societies and to Christianactivity in all parts of the "i-lOrld.

    We need fresh, clear, truthful understanding of major questions such as these:1. What is Communism today? 2. How and why has it become so significant in ourtime? Why is it attractive in many countries? 3. What are the real issues now?4. What ought Christians to think and to do as they confront Communists?

    Communism can be understood only in its Marxist origins, but with comprehensionof the changes connected with the names of Lenin and Stalin, Krushchev and Mao, andof the ways in which official ideology is modified in propaganda appeals of immensevolume and influence. But Communism has come to be much more than a rush of ideasand a hurricane of verbiage, to be met with a wall of ideas and words. It is anenormous organization of power--political, economic, military--controlling a thirdof mankind and strongly influencing much of the rest, including ourselves. Moreover,Communism is not a uniform ideology and a monolithic structure, despite strong ten-dencies in these directions. The working doctrines and the actual behavior of Russia,of China, of Poland, of Yugoslavia, of the Co~nvnist parties in non-Communist coun-tries, are far from homogeneous.

    The attractions of Communism today may begin as of old, in virulent denunciationof faults in "capitalist-imperialist-militarist" s.ocieties ranging widely in type andquality. But the attractions derive more powerfully from the achievements, real andadvertised, of Russia and China; and from the belief found in some leading or awaken---------------._.

    Single copies 25~

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    ing groups in undeveloped countries, that radical and effective collectivism affords the proven, indeed the only, way to move forward quickly to strength and to social well-being. Americans, especially, must recognize that where there is not enough of food, or of anything, to meet urgent general needs, power is required to enforce saving and investment and to allot scarce resourees to basic purposes.

    In our time the issues often appear in terms of the cold war, a confused struggl e of national interests, power, and ideas intermingled, r1xnning through a broad spectrum of goals and symbols: freedom, economic progress, security, peace. Christians need understanding not only of Communist concepts and slogans, but of the societies operated by Communists. We have to decide and to act, as citizens of our respective countries and of the world. We also want to know the situation of our Christian brethren within the Communist states, who help to humanize our attitudes toward the men, women, and children therein. We need to distinguish between the small though important number of Communists; the much larger number of citizens who accept ; more or less fu~ly but passively the Communist regimes; and the unknown number who in some degree oppose, inwardly if not outwardly, the Communist order and its dr as t i c controls.

    The volume of publications on Communism, on the Communist states in their many aspects, on issues raised by Communist factors in international relations, on Christian experience and attitudes under Communism and in regard to Communism, is now enormous. Selection must be rigorous. ~oreover, it is not possible to go into problems and measures of health in free and non-Communist societies--health understood comprehensively as economic, political, and spiritual. One can only say that the attached list represents a development based on an experience of more than a dozen years in the instructional program of Union Theological Seminary, and on the bibliographies published from time to time QY the Missionary Research Library. The needs and situations of readers will vary enormously, and any list will prove to be only partly satisfactory to the indiVidual reader, teacher, or librarian.


    Hunt, R. N. Carew. BOOKS ON COMMUNISf'.1. London: Ampersand, 1959. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960. 333 pp.

    An extensive English-language list , annotated.

    ------. A GUIDE TO COMl'1UNIST JARGON. London: G. Bles ; New York: Macmillan Co , , 1957. 169 pp.

    Fifty important terms defined or explained.

    Berlin, Isaiah. KARL MARX, HIS LIFE AND ENVIRONNENT. London, New York : Oxford Uni

    versity Press, 1939, 1948. 280 pp.

    Excellent for placing MarA in gener a l thought.

    Carr, Edward H. KARL MARX, A STUDY IN FANATICISM. London: J. M. Dent, 1935. 315 pp. By a major historian of Communist Russia.

    \Deut scher, Isaar. STALIN, A POLITICAL BIOGRAPHY. Net.. York: Vintage Books, 1960. 600 pp. P. Sh).lb, David. LENIN, A BIOGRAPHY. New York: Doubleday & ce., 1949. l38 pp.

    Abridged ed., Mentor Books. P.

    1. P - indicates a paperback edition, or a pamphJ_et.

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    Brandt, C., Schwartz, E., and Fairbank, J~K. A DOCUIvlENTARY HISTORY OF CHINESE COMMUNISM. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1952. 552 pp.

    Excellent both for rnaterials and for introductions.

    Burns , Emile. HAl\DBOOK OF MARX ISM. London, New York: International Publishers , 1934. 1087 pp . O?l

    An extensive and valuable source book, including some writings by Lenin and Stalin.

    Daniels, Robert V. A DOCUHENTARY H:;::STORY OF CQi.1MUNISI'.1. 2 vols. in one. Ne,r York : Random Eouse , 1960. 714 pp .

    Excellent edition of twentieth-century materials , including China ; chiefly doctrinal.

    Engels, F. HERR EUGEN DUEHRllTG'S REVOLUTION llJ SCIENCE. (Anti-Duehring). London: International Publishers, 1935, (and other editions). 364 pp .

    Classical for dialectical materialism, "scientific" socialism.

    Hook, Sidney. MARX AND /rHE ''1iJAR::ISTS; THE /\.MBIGlJOUS LEGACY. Nell Yor k : Anvil Books, 1955. 254 pp.

    Short and varied selections , by a democratic Marxist.

    Lenin, N. SELECTED WOffiffi. 2 vols. Mosccw, New York: International Publishers,1947j 1951.

    ------. THE STA'l'E AND REVOLUTION. - TI1PERIALISIvI, THE HIGHEST STAGE OF CAPITALISM. RELIGION. Paperback editions by International Publishers.

    Thes e pamphlets or small books are mor e significant than Lenin's attempt at gener a l philosophy errt f.t.Led Mater i al i sm and Enrpirio -critic ism (London: M. Lawrenee , 1927- . )

    Lindsay, A. D. KARL i'iJARX 'S CAPITAL ; AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. London: J. M. Dent, 1931, 1947. 128 pp.

    Liu Shaoch'i. I~ITERNATIONALISM AND NATIONAIJISM. 1948. P. Exultation in the twocamp theory of the Ilorld ; against Titoism.

    ------. ON THE mNER PARTY STRUGGLE. 1941. P. The fight against deviation. ------. ON THE PARTY. 1945. P. The most complete teaching regarding the party,

    but less full than the following 'one on ethics. ------. ON THE TRAllJING OF A COMMUNIST PARTY MEMBER. 1939. P.

    The above addresses and essays by the chief theoretician of the Chinese party were printed in Pel~ing in English from 1951, and are available in New York and London from such agencies as International Publishers and Four Continent Book Corporation.


    Available in New York and London from such agencies as International Publishers and Four Continent Book Corporation.

    1. OP - notes that the item is out of print.

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    L5.---'.--. SELECTED WORKS. 4 vols., cover-Ing to 19L. Peking, London, 1954-. Ne,{ York : International Publishers. Texts officially altered at points.

    Marx, K. CAPITAL AND CYrHER HRITINGS. Edited by Max Eastman. New York: Modern Library, 1932. ~.29 pp.

    Includes the "Mani:Z'esto." A good, inexpensive edition.

    Marx, 1

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    Federn; Karl. THE ~1ATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY. London) New York: Macmillan Co.) 1939. 277 pp. An abl e criti~ue.

    Fisher; Harold H. THE COf.'lMUNIS'l' REVOLUTION j AN OUTLINE OF STRATEGY. Palo Alto)Caltf.: Stanford University Press ; London: Oxford University Press) 1955. 89 pp. P.

    Concise summary of fact and program.

    Hunt) R. N. Carew. MARXISM PAST AND PRESENT. London: G. Bles; New York: Macmillan Co.) 1954. 180 pp.

    Somewhat more penetrating criti~ue than Hunt's longer book; directed to ~arx i sm as revised in Russia and prevalent today.

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