Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for Kandyan Forest Garden Conservation
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for Kandyan Forest Garden Conservation W.K.A.M.D.S. AththanayakePGIA/2012/115Post Graduate Institute of Agriculture
Content Introduction Problem identification Methodology Discussion Suggestion/solutionsConclusionSri LankaTotal area65,610 km2.The land area is64,740 km2Water is870 km2.Coastline1,340 kmThe highest point2,524 mTheGDP (purchasingpowerparity)ofSri Lanka is $82.02 billion and GDP(official exchange rate) is $30.01 billion.
Growth rate of GDP of Sri Lanka is 6.8%. and per capita GDP is $4,000.Agricultural sector11.7%Industrial sector29.9%The services sector58.4%.Home gardens in Sri Lanka
4Kandyan Forest Garden
Typical Kandyan Forest Garden
Land use in the three districts of Sri Lanka where the Kandyan garden system is practicedArea in the district (ha)KandyMataleKurunegalleTotal area (ha)% of Sri Lankas totalTotal land215,770199,530477,590892,89013.6watersForest23,00033,20010,50066,5004.1Rice37,96718,728109,704166,39919.0Tea78,2497,990 37686,61535.4Rubber5,8817,0365,80418,7218.4Cacao3,0154,4395227,97694.3Cinnamon176812970.4Cardamom1,9492,294344,27780.7Cintronella90903.6Black pepper2,6523,0213886,06166.8Productive role of KFGs
Protective role of KFGs
Critical problems in Up country wet zone areas DeforestationBiodiversity degradationHuman nutrition problem Land slides Rapidly reduce of drinking water sources Soil erosion Land degradation Why ecosystem valuation?
The logic of PES
ContIdea:Those who provide ES get paid for doing so (service provider gets)Those who benefit from ES pay for provision (service user pays)PES are popular for perceived simplicity and cost-effectivenessPES = new paradigm for contractual conservation
Definition and scope of PESPES are defined asvoluntary transactions in which a well-defined ES (or a land use likely to secure that service) is bought by a (minimum of one) buyer from a (minimum of one) provider if and only if the provider continuously secures the provision of the service (conditionality).
Uses of PESFour areas of application: Carbon trading Water shed management Bio-diversity conservation Land scape beauty enrichmentHuman nutrition and well-being PES definitions betweenhard core and peripheryPES CorePES-like SchemesPES CoreOther EconomicIncentivesPES-like SchemesPES CorePES Core Theory & some private PES PES-like Schemes:Public agro-environmental schemes; eco-labels(e.g. ecotourism), etc.Other Economic Incentives: Any payment for any environmental service by anybodypark-ranger salaries, reforestation subsidies, etc.Methodology
Implementation of PES
Areas can be adopted in KFGsPollinator protection Eg: Honey bee cultureIntroduce nesting places for Carpenter bee (Ambalan paluwa)Plant breeding activities Eg: food cropsWater shed mgt programsInland ornamental fisheries EcotourismIndigenous medicinal plants breeding Can PES improve livelihoods?PES schemes have not led to weakening of land tenure, and in some cases have strengthened itDirect evidence from case studies on the impact on livelihoods is limitedEven if initially access constraints for poor, subsequent corrections occurred (e.g. Costa Rica)Despite seemingly low payment levels, PES is popular with farmers (Costa Rica, Mexico)Little evidence of local economy impact on prices and employment
Suggestions Promising tool, with regional differences (PES mainly in LA, emerging in SEA and Africa)Should practice in Sri LankaBut, effectiveness difficult to assess becauseMany schemes still too recentInsufficient baseline data (no control area)Few analyses based on solid monitoring and evaluation methodsPerformance payments (PES) = key for REDD , but upfront conditions neededTo address DD drivers, PES = promising, but not sufficient need governance investments & extra-sectoral transfers
Conclusion To enhance livelihood/equity outcomes:no-harm approachNarrow focus on environmental goalUndesired livelihood/equity side-effects are mitigated (e.g. collective contracting-provision)pro-poor approachPoverty reduction objectives are explicit side-objectives (e.g. in areas where rural poverty is pervasive)participation of the poor is actively pursued (e.g. rewarding upland rural poor for ES)
References USAID PES Sourcebookhttp://www.oired.vt.edu/sanremcrsp/menu_research/PES.Sourcebook.Contents.phpWorld Bank - Introduction to PES http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTEEI/Resources/IntroToPES.pdf?&resourceurlname=IntroToPES.pdfCIFOR PEShttp://www.cifor.cgiar.org/pes/_ref/home/index.htmRewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Networks/RUPES/index.aspThe Katoomba Group (Regional Network for China and East-Asia)http://www.katoombagroup.org/Ecosystem Marketplacehttp://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/