PASS Review Stone Age Periods Old Stone Age -> Paleolithic *hunters and gatherers *stone tools and weapons *cave art / NO written records.

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    17-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • PASS Review
  • Slide 3
  • Stone Age Periods Old Stone Age -> Paleolithic *hunters and gatherers *stone tools and weapons *cave art / NO written records
  • Slide 4
  • STONE AGE PERIODS New Stone Age -> Neolithic *man lived in larger groups *AGRICULTURE BEGAN *DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS *SURPLUS CROPS *SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS
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  • Ice Man
  • Slide 6
  • FIRST CIVILIZATIONS!! RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: Mesopotamia Egypt China India
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  • River Valley Civilizations
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  • Mesopotamia In the FERTILE CRESCENT Included Sumerian & Babylonian Empires *land between the rivers = TIGRIS & EUPHRATES *Sargon -> created FIRST EMPIRE *Hammurabi -> FIRST CODE OF LAWS Hammurabis Code of Laws *Achievements: wheel, ZIGGURAT (religious center) Hanging Gardens of Babylon, glass, *WRITING = CUNEIFORM
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  • Map of Fertile Crescent
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  • Map of Mesopotamia
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  • Sumerian Cuneiform
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  • Hammurabis Code of Laws
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  • ziggurat
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  • Judaism Began in Fertile Crescent in Canaan *FIRST MONOTHEISTIC Religion *begun by Abraham *holy text = Torah *Ten Commandments * Moses led Hebrews from Egypt to Canaan
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  • Torah
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  • Egypt Began along the NILE RIVER *Menes -> united Upper and Lower Egypt *Khufu -> (Cheops) Great Pyramid *Hatshepsut -> female pharaoh *Tutankhamun -> boy king, tomb found by Howard Carter *architecture = pyramids *writing = HIEROGLYPHICS on papyrus *government = pharaohs *economy = agriculture / FLOODING PRODUCED RICH SILT *religion = polytheistic *mummification
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  • Egypt Egypt
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  • hieroglyphics
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  • Great Pyramids of Giza
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  • India Began along the INDUS RIVER *subcontinent of Asian Himalayas cut it off from the rest of the continent *cities = Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa sometimes called Harappan Civilization *writing = SANSKRIT *TWO religions began here = HINDUISM & BUDDHISM
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  • Indus River Valley
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  • Hinduism Polytheistic religion introduced by the Aryans Brahman = supreme being holy text = Vedas / Books of Knowledge CASTE SYSTEM = different levels in society REINCARNATION = cycle of birth, death, & rebirth dharma = laws and duties of Hindus
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  • Buddhism Founder = Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha Beliefs = Four Noble Truths (Suffering in Life) Middle Way Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana Reincarnation Karma = end result of good & bad acts NO caste system
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  • Four Noble Truths
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  • The Buddha
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  • China Began along HUANG RIVER or Yellow River (because of loess or silt) government = dynasties Shang was the first *Mandate of Heaven = right to rule from the gods oracle bones = predict the future
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  • China continued: architecture = Great Wall of China -> built to keep out the Mongols tomb for Shihuangdi 1,000s of clay soldiers & horses achievements = SILK, Silk Road, seismograph, new type of rice, gunpowder, woodblock moveable type TWO religions began here = Confucianism & Taoism or Daoism
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  • Great Wall
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  • Shihuangdis Tomb
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  • Seismograph
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  • Silk Road
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  • Confucianism Founder = Confucius Social order, harmony, and good government based on STRONG FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS 5 basic relationships Education important to society
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  • Taoism or Daoism Founder = Laozi People should live simple lives in harmony with nature There should be little interference from the government
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  • Greece TWO important city-states -> ATHENS & SPARTA Architecture = Parthenon in Athens / temple for the goddess Athena acropolis = high hill in Greeks city-states Sparta = military was important Olympic Games 7 Wonders of the Ancient World (man made) writing = Greek alphabet / adopted from the Phoenicians agora = market place
  • Slide 37
  • Ancient Greece
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  • The Parthenon
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  • Athens FIRST DEMOCRACY in the world!! *people have a voice in the government
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  • Greece continued People / Know: *Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle = (SPA) philosophers *Archimedes = scientist & mathematician developed concept of pi *Homer = epic poems The Iliad & The Odyssey *Pericles = rich & poor had a part in the government / built Parthenon
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  • * Alexander the Great = King of Macedonia conquered land in Europe, Africa, and Asia military & political leader began the Hellenistic Age = the Greek culture spread to other parts of the world
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  • Alexanders Empire
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  • Rome Created a large empire on 3 continents: Europe, Asia and Africa Two groups of citizens = patricians (wealthy) & plebeians (common) TWELVE TABLES = first written laws for Rome Punic Wars = Rome fought Carthage and won Pompeii buried by Mt. Vesuvius
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  • Rome continued: Government = REPUBLIC -> people choose representatives to run the government *senators = patricians *tribunes represented plebeians *consuls = 2 elected officials /were supreme judges and commanders of the military
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  • Roman Empire
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  • Rome continued People to know: *Julius Caesar = made himself dictator assassinated by friends *Augustus = (Octavian) first emperor ruled during Pax Romana *Constantine = Byzantine Empire / Eastern Roman Empire allowed Christianity Two Roman Empires formed as Rome declined *Western Roman Empire (Rome) fell first *Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) Constantinople lasted 1,000 more years
  • Slide 47
  • Rome continued JUSTINIAN CODE = created by Justinian of the Byzantine Empire-> strict but fair laws which gave the same rights to everyone, rich or poor Achievements = aqueducts, domes, arches, Pantheon, Colosseum, roads, alphabet, Roman numerals, Latin, laws, concrete, keystones, etc.
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  • Roman aqueduct
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  • Roman Colosseum
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  • keystones
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  • Christianity Religion begun during the time of the Roman Empire Founder = Jesus Holy Text = Bible Beliefs = monotheistic People will gain salvation if they follow the teachings of Jesus Three largest groups: Catholic, Protestant & Eastern Orthodox
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  • Religion of Islam Founder = Muhammad Holy Text = Koran or Quran Islamic God = Allah Five Pillars of Faith: *Faith in Muhammad and Allah *Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca *Almsgiving -> give money to the poor *Fast during the month of Ramadan *Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime
  • Slide 53
  • Map of West Africa
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  • Geography of West Africa: Climate Zones from north to south: Mediterranean Sea Sahel shore of the Sahara Desert Sahara Desert (largest desert in the world) Savanna or grasslands (in the Sahel) Tropical Rainforest
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  • Sahel
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  • Sahara
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  • Ghana GHANA -> first great empire in WEST AFRICA ->controlled gold & salt trade *resources included iron ore & gold *used the iron ore to make tools & weapons *used gold to trade with other nations *MUSLIMS of North Africa were important trade partners with Ghana -> Muslims brought horses, cloth & SALT to trade with Ghana *SALT-> important to preserve food & to stay healthy
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  • Mali A great TRADE EMPIRE TIMBUKTU -> major trading city of Mali Trade with MUSLIMS was linked to the conversion of local people to the ISLAM religion Islamic influence was evident in government, education, & architecture in west Africa
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  • Songhai the largest of the three west Africa Empires developed along the Niger River it became a rich nation because of the large GOLD-SALT trade routes between Arabia, North Africa, & West Africa
  • Slide 60
  • Mesoamerica First people came from Asia by way of BERINGIA -> a land bridge that was formed during the Ice Age between Asia and North America Greatest civilizations in Mexico and Central America MAYAS & AZTECS slash and burn agriculture / grew maize stone pyramids for religious purposes steles = flat stones with glyphs (symbols) codex = folding screen book conquered by Spanish Conquistadors
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  • Beringia
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  • Mesoamerica
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  • Mayan Pyramid
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  • stele
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  • codex
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  • Incas Lived in the Andes Mountains in South America Cities = Machu Picchu & Cuzco NO written language Quipu = knotted cord used for record keeping Conquered by Spanish conquistadors
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  • Inca Empire
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  • quipu
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  • Machu Picchu
  • Slide 70
  • Middle Ages Also known as MEDIEVAL (Latin for middle) Period between AD 500-1400 Between fall of the Roman Empire & the Modern Age FEUDALISM->way of life during the Middle Ages based on ownership of land and loyalty
  • Slide 71
  • Middle Ages continued Society: *King or monarch *Lords *Vassals = lower lords *Knights = protected the land *serfs or peasants = worked the land MANORS = lords estate / including castle, farmland, & village GUILDS = first workers unions of craftsmen / set rules on quality of products and prices of products
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  • Middle Ages continued MAGNA CARTA = THE Great Charter which for the first time limited the power of a king and gave more power to the nobility King John I = was forced to sign the Magna Carta
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  • knight & castle
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  • King John signing the Magna Carta
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  • Medieval Guilds
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  • Japanese and European Feudal System: JAPAN EUROPE *Emperor *King (Monarch) *Shogun *Lord (Noble) *Daimyo *Vassals *Samurai *Knights *Serfs or Peasants---------------------
  • Slide 78
  • Crusades HOLY WARS (1096-1272) Purpose = to regain the Holy Lands (Palestine) from the Muslim Turks Outcome = opened TRADE between Europe and Asia Important products that were traded = SPICES, silk, linen, coffee, jewels, etc.
  • Slide 79
  • Trade Items Included:
  • Slide 80
  • Bubonic Plague followed Trade Routes from Asia to Europe
  • Slide 81
  • Renaissance 1400-1600 REBIRTH of Greek & Roman Culture Began in FLORENCE, ITALY Focus on HUMANISM, secular belief on education and what the individual could achieve during his/her lifetime MEDICI family were PATRONS of the arts
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  • Renaissance People to Know: Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa & The Last Supper Michelangelo painted Sistine Chapel Johannes Gutenberg movable type printing press Martin Luther protested ways of the Catholic Church & began Protestantism
  • Slide 83
  • Age of Exploration People began to explore to find an all water route to get to Asia to buy the products like spices and silk There was already a land route = the Silk Road Portugal led the way *Vasco da Gama-> rounded Africa to get to Asia Columbus (sponsored by Spain) went west across the Atlantic Ocean to get to Asia * Columbus called the natives Indians because he thought he was in the Indies *He NEVER realized he discovered a New World Ferdinand Magellan-> FIRST TO CIRCUMNAVIGATE the world
  • Slide 84
  • Vasco da Gama
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  • Christopher Columbus
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  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Slide 87
  • Columbian Exchange

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