1
164 Book Reviews experiments into; the study of receptor/G-protein inter- actions; G-protein function; studying functional domaines of Gs a subunit; adenylate cyclase and CAMP; inositol lipids and phosphates; phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phos- pholipases C and D; determination of phospholipase A2 activity in stimulated cells; electrophysiological approaches to G-protein function. In siru Hybridization; a Practical Approach. Edited by D. G. WILKINSON. 163 pp. 1992. IRL/Oxford University Press, Oxford. Hardback $58. Paperback $36. In situ hybridization is the specific annealing of a labelled nucleic acid probe to complementary sequences in fixed tissue, followed by visualization of the location of the probe. This technique can be used to locate DNA sequences on chromosomes or to detect RNA or viral DNA. The target nucleic acid is cross linked and embedded in a complex matrix that hinders access of the probe and decreases the stability of the hybrids. In addition nucleases may be present that can degrade the probe. This book describes the prin- ciples and practice of in situ hybridization (H); H of cellular RNA with radiolabelled RNA probes; H with oligodeoxyri- bonucleotide probes; H with biotinylated probes; whole mount H in Drosophila; whole mount H of vertebrate embryos; simultaneous detection of cellular RNA and pro- teins; H at the EM level; detection of viruses in infected human tissue; H of chromosomes with biotinylated probes. Enzymatic Analysis; a Practical Guide. New Edition.-J. V. PA~~ONNEAU and 0. H. LOWRY. 403~~. 1993. Humana Press. NJ. $69.50 (U.S.A.). Elsewhere $79.50. This book is a sequel to A Flexible system of Enzymatic Analysis published in 1972. It has three parts. (1) General principles (pyridine nucleotides, kinetics, constriction pipets, preparation of tissues for analysis). (2) Specific methods and procedures (enzymatic cycling, assay methods for 47 metab- elites, assay methods for 44 enzymes, improvements, trouble shooting and development of new methods). (3) Quantitat- ive histochemistry (preparation of tissues and sections, dissection and histological control, quartz fiber fishpole balance, histochemical analyses). The methods have been tried, tested and used by the authors who truly give them authority. Most researchers who do analyses will find much of interest in this book. Stability of Protein Pharmaceuticals. Edited by T. J. AHERN and M. C. MANNING. Part A. Chemical and Physical Path- ways of Protein Degradation 434~~. 1992. Plenum Press, New York. S79.50. Part B. In Fire Pathways of Degradation and Strategies for Protein Stabilization. 337 pp. 1992. Plenum Press, New York. $65. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to produce designer proteins on a large enough scale to make their use as drugs economically feasible. Such proteins would have to be stable and steps have to be taken to reduce their premature denaturation. These two volumes deal with this problem. In Part A, the topics are; lability of asparagine and aspartic acid residues, spontaneous deamidation; disul- phide bonds; proteolytically sensitive peptides; protein solu- bility; aggregation-precipitation; conformational stability; adsorption at interfaces; effect of temperature; protein water interactions; water sorption; compaction; effect of radiation. Part B deals with; improper glycosylation; protein aggrega- tion; intracellular protein degradation; aging of proteins; increase in stability of subtilisin; increased stability of yeast cytochrome c; formulation of protein pharmaceuticals; PEG-modified proteins; solvent additives; heat shock pro- teins as pharmaceuticals. Luminescent Spectro=oPY of Proteinsby E. A. PERMYAKov. I64 pp. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. e64. Most proteins in aqueous solutions possess intrinsic lu- minescence (L) in the near UV. Tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine are mainly responsible for the Land measure- ment of L to changes in the solvent enables characterization of their environment. This book deals with; energy levels in molecules and transition between them; spectroscopic prop- erties of isolated protein chromophores (absorption spec- trum, emission spectra, emission lifetime. spectrum shape. fluorescence quantum yield, acid-base properties, fluor- escence quenching, temperature dependence); protein i. (position and shape of spectra, quantum yield, decay, intermediate states, pH dependence, ionic strength, denatu- rants, quenching, low temperature fluorescence). Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Edited by Y. BECKER and G. DARAI. 426~~. 1992. Springer Verlag, Berlin. DM168. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplifying very small amounts of DNA can enable identification of viruses before they are in sufficient concentration to produce ident- ifiable specific antibodies in the serum. PCR allows the identification of a single molecule against a background of 10,000 cells, as in the case of a low frequency ( < 1: 10.000) of infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. One prob- lem is that the HIV-l virus has enormous genetic diversity and so false-negative PCR results may be due to divergent nucleotide sequences in some isolates. There may also be a problem due to contamination of sample or reagent. This book gives examples of how these problems can be over- come allowing PCR diagnosis of virus infection with a high degree of confidence. The book deals with human retro- viruses (HIV-l, human T-cell leukemia, Spumaviruses); human Hepatitis viruses; human Herpes viruses, airborne and respiratory viruses (prenatal Rubella. Measles, Influ- enza, Rhinoviruses, Paravirus B 19, Adenoviruses. Conaviruses); RNA viruses (Enteroviruses, Rotaviruses. Flaviviruses, Hantaviruses, Rabes). X-ray Microanalysis in Biology; Experimental Techniques and Applications. Edited by D. C. SIGEE, A. J. MORGAN, A. T. SUMNER and A. WARLEY 337 pp. 1993. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, Cambridge. E50. Electron probe X-ray analysis determines the elemental composition of specimens on a microscopic scale. It has been in use for about 30 years and the machines have been improving all the time with better solid state silicon and germanium detectors and electronics, improved specimen preparation, reduction in radiation damage and artifacts. This book deals with the detection and quantification 01 X-rays; improved specimen preparation (rapid freezing, low temperature machines, histochemistry, sprayed microdro- plets, renal physiology); applications (P, S, Cl, K and Ca in plant pathogenic bacter&K, Na, Cl, ion localization in cells, diffusible ions, Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd pollution studies, biomaterial research, biomedicine, mammalian cells in cul- ture). Role of Free Radicals in Biological Systems Edited by J. FEHER, A. BLAZOVICS, B. MATKOVICS and M. MEZES. 258 pp. 1993. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest. $52. Free radicals are formed in many biological systems such as arachidonic acid metabolism, microsomal enzyme metab- olism of drugs, electron transport, and the oxygen depen- dent killing of bacteria by phagocytes. Free radicals probably are important in the pathology of inflammation. ischaemia-reperfusion damage, hyperlipidemia, liver cirrho- sis, streptozotocin induced diabetes, atherosclerosis. and in

Part B. In vito pathways of degradation and strategies for protein stabilization

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Page 1: Part B. In vito pathways of degradation and strategies for protein stabilization

164 Book Reviews

experiments into; the study of receptor/G-protein inter- actions; G-protein function; studying functional domaines of Gs a subunit; adenylate cyclase and CAMP; inositol lipids and phosphates; phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phos- pholipases C and D; determination of phospholipase A2 activity in stimulated cells; electrophysiological approaches to G-protein function.

In siru Hybridization; a Practical Approach. Edited by D. G. WILKINSON. 163 pp. 1992. IRL/Oxford University Press, Oxford. Hardback $58. Paperback $36.

In situ hybridization is the specific annealing of a labelled nucleic acid probe to complementary sequences in fixed tissue, followed by visualization of the location of the probe. This technique can be used to locate DNA sequences on chromosomes or to detect RNA or viral DNA. The target nucleic acid is cross linked and embedded in a complex matrix that hinders access of the probe and decreases the stability of the hybrids. In addition nucleases may be present that can degrade the probe. This book describes the prin- ciples and practice of in situ hybridization (H); H of cellular RNA with radiolabelled RNA probes; H with oligodeoxyri- bonucleotide probes; H with biotinylated probes; whole mount H in Drosophila; whole mount H of vertebrate embryos; simultaneous detection of cellular RNA and pro- teins; H at the EM level; detection of viruses in infected human tissue; H of chromosomes with biotinylated probes.

Enzymatic Analysis; a Practical Guide. New Edition.-J. V. PA~~ONNEAU and 0. H. LOWRY. 403~~. 1993. Humana Press. NJ. $69.50 (U.S.A.). Elsewhere $79.50.

This book is a sequel to A Flexible system of Enzymatic Analysis published in 1972. It has three parts. (1) General principles (pyridine nucleotides, kinetics, constriction pipets, preparation of tissues for analysis). (2) Specific methods and procedures (enzymatic cycling, assay methods for 47 metab- elites, assay methods for 44 enzymes, improvements, trouble shooting and development of new methods). (3) Quantitat- ive histochemistry (preparation of tissues and sections, dissection and histological control, quartz fiber fishpole balance, histochemical analyses). The methods have been tried, tested and used by the authors who truly give them authority. Most researchers who do analyses will find much of interest in this book.

Stability of Protein Pharmaceuticals. Edited by T. J. AHERN and M. C. MANNING. Part A. Chemical and Physical Path- ways of Protein Degradation 434~~. 1992. Plenum Press, New York. S79.50. Part B. In Fire Pathways of Degradation and Strategies for Protein Stabilization. 337 pp. 1992. Plenum Press, New York. $65.

Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to produce designer proteins on a large enough scale to make their use as drugs economically feasible. Such proteins would have to be stable and steps have to be taken to reduce their premature denaturation. These two volumes deal with this problem. In Part A, the topics are; lability of asparagine and aspartic acid residues, spontaneous deamidation; disul- phide bonds; proteolytically sensitive peptides; protein solu- bility; aggregation-precipitation; conformational stability; adsorption at interfaces; effect of temperature; protein water interactions; water sorption; compaction; effect of radiation. Part B deals with; improper glycosylation; protein aggrega- tion; intracellular protein degradation; aging of proteins; increase in stability of subtilisin; increased stability of yeast cytochrome c; formulation of protein pharmaceuticals; PEG-modified proteins; solvent additives; heat shock pro- teins as pharmaceuticals.

Luminescent Spectro=oPY of Proteinsby E. A. PERMYAKov. I64 pp. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. e64.

Most proteins in aqueous solutions possess intrinsic lu- minescence (L) in the near UV. Tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine are mainly responsible for the Land measure- ment of L to changes in the solvent enables characterization of their environment. This book deals with; energy levels in molecules and transition between them; spectroscopic prop- erties of isolated protein chromophores (absorption spec- trum, emission spectra, emission lifetime. spectrum shape. fluorescence quantum yield, acid-base properties, fluor- escence quenching, temperature dependence); protein i. (position and shape of spectra, quantum yield, decay, intermediate states, pH dependence, ionic strength, denatu- rants, quenching, low temperature fluorescence).

Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Edited by Y. BECKER and G. DARAI. 426~~. 1992. Springer Verlag, Berlin. DM168.

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplifying very small amounts of DNA can enable identification of viruses before they are in sufficient concentration to produce ident- ifiable specific antibodies in the serum. PCR allows the identification of a single molecule against a background of 10,000 cells, as in the case of a low frequency ( < 1: 10.000) of infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. One prob- lem is that the HIV-l virus has enormous genetic diversity and so false-negative PCR results may be due to divergent nucleotide sequences in some isolates. There may also be a problem due to contamination of sample or reagent. This book gives examples of how these problems can be over- come allowing PCR diagnosis of virus infection with a high degree of confidence. The book deals with human retro- viruses (HIV-l, human T-cell leukemia, Spumaviruses); human Hepatitis viruses; human Herpes viruses, airborne and respiratory viruses (prenatal Rubella. Measles, Influ- enza, Rhinoviruses, Paravirus B 19, Adenoviruses. Conaviruses); RNA viruses (Enteroviruses, Rotaviruses. Flaviviruses, Hantaviruses, Rabes).

X-ray Microanalysis in Biology; Experimental Techniques and Applications. Edited by D. C. SIGEE, A. J. MORGAN, A. T. SUMNER and A. WARLEY 337 pp. 1993. Cambridge Univer- sity Press, Cambridge. E50.

Electron probe X-ray analysis determines the elemental composition of specimens on a microscopic scale. It has been in use for about 30 years and the machines have been improving all the time with better solid state silicon and germanium detectors and electronics, improved specimen preparation, reduction in radiation damage and artifacts. This book deals with the detection and quantification 01 X-rays; improved specimen preparation (rapid freezing, low temperature machines, histochemistry, sprayed microdro- plets, renal physiology); applications (P, S, Cl, K and Ca in plant pathogenic bacter&K, Na, Cl, ion localization in cells, diffusible ions, Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd pollution studies, biomaterial research, biomedicine, mammalian cells in cul- ture).

Role of Free Radicals in Biological Systems Edited by J. FEHER, A. BLAZOVICS, B. MATKOVICS and M. MEZES. 258 pp. 1993. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest. $52.

Free radicals are formed in many biological systems such as arachidonic acid metabolism, microsomal enzyme metab- olism of drugs, electron transport, and the oxygen depen- dent killing of bacteria by phagocytes. Free radicals probably are important in the pathology of inflammation. ischaemia-reperfusion damage, hyperlipidemia, liver cirrho- sis, streptozotocin induced diabetes, atherosclerosis. and in