of 1 /1
1800 396,000. For instance, if there is any suspicion about a dairy being the vehicle by which typhoid or scarlet fever is conveyed, it is useless to send ordinary inspectors to investigate the question. They do their very best, and no doubt collect useful information, but they have not the right knowledge of the behaviour of disease. What is wanted is young medical men with a knowledge of the latest laboratory methods, and who have had practical experience as house physicians in some good fever hospitals. The public of Belfast have a feeling that the public health administration will have to go a little more with the scientific progress of the day, and that it is really no excuse for the existence of a gradually increasing epidemic of four years’ duration to say, "We can do nothing; we are only like other cities in this respect." Sanatorium Beitefit in Ulster. The Sanatorium Committee of County Down had almost completed arrangements to have a sana- torium erected at Killynether, a beautiful situation about three miles from Comber, but the plan has fallen through. The County Tyrone county council have adopted a scheme by which two convalescent homes and dispensaries are to be erected in towns in the county, each to contain a dispensary, waiting-room, and eight beds, with accommodation for staff, at an approximate cost of £800 ; also the provision of six sleeping shelters to cost .f:2S each. It is also suggested that a surgeon-dentist be appointed and that tuberculosis dispensaries be opened in Strabane, Omagh, Dungannon, Cookstown, and Clogher. It is left optional to the Sanatorium Committee to select a suitable site for a sanatorium to contain 20 beds. It is roughly estimated that the expenses of this scheme will be .f:2886 annually. Dec. 15th. PARIS. Decrease of Vaccination in France. THE chief of the vaccination institute at the Académie de Medecine de Paris, as the result of an examination of the French vaccination statistics for some years past, finds that vaccination is decreasing in many of the departments. The legally prescribed revaccinations are but little attended to save when there occurs an occasional epidemic; but there is a remarkable diminution in the primary vaccinations in infancy which the law demands, notwithstanding the numerous affairs of life in which citizens of either sex cannot escape the demand for the production of a vaccination certificate-such as entry to private or public schools, service in the army, admission to any administrative office, and so forth. Nevertheless, many folks manage to escape it, rather through negligence than from any considered antivaccination ideas, for there are few antivaccinators in France. Not- withstanding that every child is required by law to be vaccinated in infancy numbers of conscripts join their regiments who have never been vac- cinated. They are at once vaccinated, of course, by order of the medical officer. M. Camus’s statistics show a lessened vaccination rate throughout France. Primary vaccination, though increasing for the large cities like Paris, Lyons, Lille, Bordeaux, and Marseilles, is diminishing in 60 departments. Last year in only 38 departments was there a diminution as compared with the preceding year. It is true that the number of cases of variola continues to diminish yearly, the reason being doubtless that in consequence of the severe epidemic of 1907 almost the entire population got vac- cinated in a panic, the acquired immunity from which still persists. But it is to be feared that if any great movement of the population should take place, as, for instance, a military mobilisa- tion, the disease would reappear. M. Camus calls on the Government, therefore, to keep closer watch on the regular and continued administration of the law. An Uncommon Intestinal Parasite. Professor Blanchard has reported to the Academie de Medecine the sixth case noted in France (the sixty-seventh in scientific literature) of infection by the dipylidium caninum. The present case occurred in an infant 7’2 months old. The organism is parasitic in the dog, from which it is conveyed by fleas, through milk and other foods which they frequently contaminate. This kind of tænia, which seems to cause infection more frequently now than formerly, gives rise to an ensemble of symptoms among which epileptiform attacks predominate. Alopecia of Dental Causcctiori. Dr. Jacquet has long been a believer that alopecia is a trophoneurosis of purely reflex and non-parasitic origin, and has reported many obser- vations in which when the alopecia coincided with dental lesions the cure of the latter has been accompanied by the disappearance of the former. He has now added a very curious case which possesses almost the weight of a physiological experiment. A lady had periodontitis. The tooth was loose in its socket, and each time it was moved she immediately felt a sharp pain in the left parietal region, always at the same spot. One day she had the tooth removed, and almost immediately a patch of alopecia appeared exactly at the spot where the pain used to manifest itself. This patch did not last long, but underwent a spontaneous cure. A New Culture Medium for the Gonococcus. M. Auguste Lumiere and M. Jean Chevrotier have brought before the Académie des Sciences a new culture medium for the gonococcus. It consists of 6 grammes of albumin in a litre of beer wort. This is put into the autoclave at a temperature of 115° C., filtered, rendered alkaline, and sterilised afresh at 110° C. for 10 minutes. It is improved by the addi- tion of 1½ c.c. of horse or ass serum to 15 c.c. of wort, though this is not essential. With this liquid it has been possible to obtain cultures from pus taken at the hospital in the morning and left for some eight hours at ordinary temperatures, then sown without reheating. The culture shows itself fertile next day, after a night passed in the ctuve. This discovery is interesting in view of the produc- tion of antigonococcic vaccines. The fact from which this process was developed-viz., that beer favours. the development of the gonococcus-is in line with the well-known fact that the ingestion of beer in a person infected with the gonococcus increases the intensity of the urethritis. Death of Dr. Enapis. Dr. Empis, to whom reference was made in this column last week, has just died. He was the doyen of the Académie de Medecine. He had been médecin des h6pitaztx of Paris, professor .agrégé of the Faculty of Medicine, and President of the Academy in 1883. His name is associated with some remarkable studies on acute miliary tuberculosis, of which he has left a classical description. Dec. 15th.

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1800

396,000. For instance, if there is any suspicionabout a dairy being the vehicle by which typhoidor scarlet fever is conveyed, it is useless to send

ordinary inspectors to investigate the question.They do their very best, and no doubt collectuseful information, but they have not the rightknowledge of the behaviour of disease. What iswanted is young medical men with a knowledge ofthe latest laboratory methods, and who have hadpractical experience as house physicians in somegood fever hospitals. The public of Belfast havea feeling that the public health administrationwill have to go a little more with the scientificprogress of the day, and that it is really noexcuse for the existence of a gradually increasingepidemic of four years’ duration to say, "We cando nothing; we are only like other cities in thisrespect."

Sanatorium Beitefit in Ulster.The Sanatorium Committee of County Down had

almost completed arrangements to have a sana-torium erected at Killynether, a beautiful situationabout three miles from Comber, but the plan hasfallen through. The County Tyrone county councilhave adopted a scheme by which two convalescenthomes and dispensaries are to be erected in townsin the county, each to contain a dispensary,waiting-room, and eight beds, with accommodationfor staff, at an approximate cost of £800 ; also theprovision of six sleeping shelters to cost .f:2S each. Itis also suggested that a surgeon-dentist be appointedand that tuberculosis dispensaries be opened in

Strabane, Omagh, Dungannon, Cookstown, and

Clogher. It is left optional to the SanatoriumCommittee to select a suitable site for a sanatoriumto contain 20 beds. It is roughly estimated thatthe expenses of this scheme will be .f:2886 annually.Dec. 15th.

PARIS.

Decrease of Vaccination in France.THE chief of the vaccination institute at the

Académie de Medecine de Paris, as the result of anexamination of the French vaccination statistics forsome years past, finds that vaccination is decreasingin many of the departments. The legally prescribedrevaccinations are but little attended to save whenthere occurs an occasional epidemic; but there is aremarkable diminution in the primary vaccinationsin infancy which the law demands, notwithstandingthe numerous affairs of life in which citizens ofeither sex cannot escape the demand for the

production of a vaccination certificate-such as

entry to private or public schools, servicein the army, admission to any administrativeoffice, and so forth. Nevertheless, many folks

manage to escape it, rather through negligencethan from any considered antivaccination ideas,for there are few antivaccinators in France. Not-

withstanding that every child is required by lawto be vaccinated in infancy numbers of conscriptsjoin their regiments who have never been vac-

cinated. They are at once vaccinated, of course,by order of the medical officer. M. Camus’s statisticsshow a lessened vaccination rate throughout France.Primary vaccination, though increasing for thelarge cities like Paris, Lyons, Lille, Bordeaux, andMarseilles, is diminishing in 60 departments. Last

year in only 38 departments was there a diminutionas compared with the preceding year. It is truethat the number of cases of variola continuesto diminish yearly, the reason being doubtless

that in consequence of the severe epidemicof 1907 almost the entire population got vac-

cinated in a panic, the acquired immunityfrom which still persists. But it is to be fearedthat if any great movement of the population shouldtake place, as, for instance, a military mobilisa-tion, the disease would reappear. M. Camus callson the Government, therefore, to keep closer watchon the regular and continued administration of thelaw.

An Uncommon Intestinal Parasite.

Professor Blanchard has reported to the Academiede Medecine the sixth case noted in France (thesixty-seventh in scientific literature) of infection bythe dipylidium caninum. The present case occurredin an infant 7’2 months old. The organism is

parasitic in the dog, from which it is conveyed byfleas, through milk and other foods which theyfrequently contaminate. This kind of tænia, whichseems to cause infection more frequently now thanformerly, gives rise to an ensemble of symptomsamong which epileptiform attacks predominate.

Alopecia of Dental Causcctiori.Dr. Jacquet has long been a believer that

alopecia is a trophoneurosis of purely reflex andnon-parasitic origin, and has reported many obser-vations in which when the alopecia coincided withdental lesions the cure of the latter has been

accompanied by the disappearance of the former.He has now added a very curious case whichpossesses almost the weight of a physiologicalexperiment. A lady had periodontitis. The toothwas loose in its socket, and each time it was movedshe immediately felt a sharp pain in the left

parietal region, always at the same spot. One dayshe had the tooth removed, and almost immediatelya patch of alopecia appeared exactly at the spotwhere the pain used to manifest itself. This patchdid not last long, but underwent a spontaneouscure.

A New Culture Medium for the Gonococcus.M. Auguste Lumiere and M. Jean Chevrotier have

brought before the Académie des Sciences a newculture medium for the gonococcus. It consists of6 grammes of albumin in a litre of beer wort. Thisis put into the autoclave at a temperature of 115° C.,filtered, rendered alkaline, and sterilised afresh at110° C. for 10 minutes. It is improved by the addi-tion of 1½ c.c. of horse or ass serum to 15 c.c. ofwort, though this is not essential. With this liquidit has been possible to obtain cultures from pustaken at the hospital in the morning and left forsome eight hours at ordinary temperatures, thensown without reheating. The culture shows itselffertile next day, after a night passed in the ctuve.This discovery is interesting in view of the produc-tion of antigonococcic vaccines. The fact from whichthis process was developed-viz., that beer favours.the development of the gonococcus-is in line withthe well-known fact that the ingestion of beer in aperson infected with the gonococcus increases theintensity of the urethritis.

Death of Dr. Enapis.Dr. Empis, to whom reference was made in this

column last week, has just died. He was the doyenof the Académie de Medecine. He had been médecindes h6pitaztx of Paris, professor .agrégé of the Facultyof Medicine, and President of the Academy in 1883.His name is associated with some remarkable studieson acute miliary tuberculosis, of which he has lefta classical description.

Dec. 15th.