1
1342 PARIS.—RUSSIA. PARIS. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) c Tlte Ancient Buildings of the Faculty of Medicine. t MANY efforts have been made to induce the Paris Munici- pality to preserve from demolition the interesting remains of ( the cradle of French medicine. The buildings, which con- sist of two amphitheatres-one of which goes by the name of ’’ 1’amphitheatre de Winslow," because that illustrious ana to- , mist once taught there-date from the fifteenth century and 1 are situated in the Latin Quarter, on the left bank of the Seine, opposite Notre Dame and in the angle of intersection of the Rue de la Bûcherie and the Rue de la Hotel Colbert. The large theatre serves now as a public washhouse, while Winslow’s theatre is occupied by several families of artisans. The sum of 200,000 francs is required to save this most interesting architectural and archaeological monument. In these days of vast military expenditure a certain hesitation in voting such an amount is excusable, but all medical men, and more particularly those who have had the advantage of studying in Paris, will without exception wish all success to the efforts now made by the Societe des Amis des llionu- ments to prevent the disappearance of such a unique struc- ture. Graduation i-n, Medicine in France during 1801-92. The seven French Faculties of Medicine admitted during the academical year 1891-92 635 persons to the degree of Doctor in Medicine. On consulting the table below it will be found that this constitutes an increase of 41 over the graduations of the previous vear : During the past ten years the number of diplomas delivered to doctors of medicine was 6090, or an average of 609 per annum. An Ingenious Plar. Surgeons are only too well aware of the difficulty of keeping an eye" on patients who leave hospital after an operation which has proved apparently successful. Professor Gayet of Lyons has devised a curious method of identifica- tion, which he has recently had occasion to put into practice. Having cured a man of an arterio-venous aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and being desirous that this happy result should be verified after the death of the patient, he paid his patient a certain sum for having tattooed on his arm the following lugubrious words : " Anevrisme arterio-veineux du sinus caverneux gueri; pricre d’autopsier. " The Tongne in ’’ la Grippe." " La grippe " is a disease which, simulating as it does various other pathological conditions, is often puzzling from a dia- gnostic point of view. Who, on being called to cases of "la grippe," has not thought of such possibilities as typhoid fever, acute tuberculosis, cholera, simple ’’embarras gastrique" &e. ? ? If one may believe M. Faisans (Soci6tc Médicale des Hôpitaux, May 19th), examination of the tongue will disperse all such doubts. The tongue in "la grippe" is of the normal size and form, not being broad and thick as in "embarras gastrique," or small, contracted and pointed, as in typhoid fever. It is always moist, unless some inflammatory complication be pre- sent or imminent ; it is smooth and even, the papillae not being prominent. But the chief characteristic feature of the tongue is its colour-it is the opaline tongue. This opaline colouration is sometimes uniformly spread over the whole lingual surface ; in other instances the middle and the base are opaline, the edges and tip being covered with distinct rounded opaline or bright red spots. This pathognomonic E appearance may be often noted from the first onset of the disease and may persist for a more or less prolonged period after recovery. Purgatives and emetics do not modify it in any degree. A Sign ot Aneurysm of the Aorta. The above condition is not always easy to diagnose. Statistics derived from an American source show that of thirty-two cases observed in two years a correct diagnosis during life was only arrived at in eleven. M. Potain drew attention the other day at the Charité to a charac- teristic sign present in a patient now under his care. It consists in a kind of tracheal shock-a sudden dipping of the windpipe-easily recognised by the finger. This rhythmic downward pull of the trachea is caused by the traction of the aneurysmal pouch, which, seated astride the bronchus, pulls on it at each cardiac contraction. This sign, better known as "tracheal tugging, " was described originally by Surgeon- Major Oliver (THE LANCET, vol. ii., 1878, p. 406) and sub- sequently in fuller detail by Dr. Macdonnell of Montreal (THE LANCET, 1891, vol. i., p. 535). May 30th. RUSSIA. (FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) C7tolera in Russia. WITH the approach of warmer weather speculation is rife as to the prospers of a reappearance of the cholera epidemic of last year. In a few of the governments of Russia the disease has never wholly disappeared, although the cold of the recent winter has been of a severity rarely experienced even in these northern climes. Between Feb. 26th (March 10th) and May 7th (19th), when the last bulletin was published, cases of cholera were reported from twenty out of the sixty governments of European Russia, from three governments of the Caucasus and from Tobolsk in Siberia. In the large majority of these districts the numbers returned have been quite small, in not a few only a single case of death having occurred during the ten weeks in question. The government which has suffered most in this period is that of Podolia, where there have been 1690 cases and 463 deaths from cholera. The last fortnightly return from this district shows, however, a distinct diminu- tion in the amount of sickness and death due to the epidemic. It is satisfactory to note that in the last weekly bulletin issued by the Medical Department of the Ministry of the Interior there appears the name of only one government- that of Saratof-with three cases and two deaths from cholera. Unfortunately, however, this cannot be held to imply that the disease is extinct elsewhere, as many of the governments do not make returns every week. In the period named there were in all 2388 cases of cholera in the Russian empire, with 733 deaths. The Government authorities are actively pre. paring to cope with a revival of the epidemic. At the present time a series of meetings is being held in the Ministry of Ways and Communications to decide on the next measures to be adopted on the railways and waterways should the experiences of last summer be repeated. In St. Petersburg not a single case of cholera has been reported since the middle of December. The winter is stated to have been a healthy one in the capital, notwithstanding the intense and prolonged cold. With the advent of spring and the melting of the accumulated masses of snow and ice, the amount of sickness has greatly increased, and a large number of cases of influenza and typhoid fever are reported. Sanitary Exhibition. An exhibition of objects connected with Hygiene and Sani- tation is to be held in St. Petersburg this summer. It is expected to open on May 21st (June 2nd) and to remain open for three or four months. The exhibition is due to the initia- tive of the Russian Society for preserving the Public Health. It is the first of the kind held in Russia. Various Government institutions will lend their support, and a large number of learned societies both in St. Petersburg and in the provinces will send exhibits. The catalogue is to contain full descrip- tions of the various objects displayed, and will, it is expected, form an instructive volume. Cattle Plag2te. For the past ten months cattle plague (tchuma) has com- mitted fearful ravages amongst the horned cattle in the pro- . vince of the Don Cossacks and in the government of Voronezh. : The disease has now spread to the Tambof Government and it is feared that as the warmer weather comes and the cattle Lare sent freely to pasture there may be a widespread epizootic, unless the laws relating to the extinction of the plague are stringently applied. St. Petersburg, May 14th.

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Page 1: PARIS

1342 PARIS.—RUSSIA.

PARIS.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.) c

Tlte Ancient Buildings of the Faculty of Medicine. tMANY efforts have been made to induce the Paris Munici-

pality to preserve from demolition the interesting remains of (the cradle of French medicine. The buildings, which con-sist of two amphitheatres-one of which goes by the name of’’ 1’amphitheatre de Winslow," because that illustrious ana to- ,mist once taught there-date from the fifteenth century and 1are situated in the Latin Quarter, on the left bank of the ‘Seine, opposite Notre Dame and in the angle of intersection of the Rue de la Bûcherie and the Rue de la Hotel Colbert.The large theatre serves now as a public washhouse, whileWinslow’s theatre is occupied by several families of artisans.The sum of 200,000 francs is required to save this mostinteresting architectural and archaeological monument. Inthese days of vast military expenditure a certain hesitationin voting such an amount is excusable, but all medical men,and more particularly those who have had the advantage ofstudying in Paris, will without exception wish all success tothe efforts now made by the Societe des Amis des llionu-ments to prevent the disappearance of such a unique struc-ture.

Graduation i-n, Medicine in France during 1801-92.The seven French Faculties of Medicine admitted during

the academical year 1891-92 635 persons to the degree ofDoctor in Medicine. On consulting the table below it willbe found that this constitutes an increase of 41 over thegraduations of the previous vear :

During the past ten years the number of diplomas deliveredto doctors of medicine was 6090, or an average of 609 per annum.

An Ingenious Plar.Surgeons are only too well aware of the difficulty of

keeping an eye" on patients who leave hospital after anoperation which has proved apparently successful. Professor

Gayet of Lyons has devised a curious method of identifica-tion, which he has recently had occasion to put into practice.Having cured a man of an arterio-venous aneurysm of theinternal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and beingdesirous that this happy result should be verified after thedeath of the patient, he paid his patient a certain sum forhaving tattooed on his arm the following lugubrious words :" Anevrisme arterio-veineux du sinus caverneux gueri; pricred’autopsier. "

The Tongne in ’’ la Grippe."" La grippe " is a disease which, simulating as it does various

other pathological conditions, is often puzzling from a dia-gnostic point of view. Who, on being called to cases of "lagrippe," has not thought of such possibilities as typhoid fever,acute tuberculosis, cholera, simple ’’embarras gastrique" &e. ? ?If one may believe M. Faisans (Soci6tc Médicale des Hôpitaux,May 19th), examination of the tongue will disperse all suchdoubts. The tongue in "la grippe" is of the normal size andform, not being broad and thick as in "embarras gastrique,"or small, contracted and pointed, as in typhoid fever. It is

always moist, unless some inflammatory complication be pre-sent or imminent ; it is smooth and even, the papillae notbeing prominent. But the chief characteristic feature of the

tongue is its colour-it is the opaline tongue. This opalinecolouration is sometimes uniformly spread over the wholelingual surface ; in other instances the middle and the baseare opaline, the edges and tip being covered with distinctrounded opaline or bright red spots. This pathognomonic

E appearance may be often noted from the first onset of thedisease and may persist for a more or less prolonged periodafter recovery. Purgatives and emetics do not modify it inany degree.

A Sign ot Aneurysm of the Aorta.The above condition is not always easy to diagnose.

Statistics derived from an American source show that of

thirty-two cases observed in two years a correct diagnosisduring life was only arrived at in eleven. M. Potaindrew attention the other day at the Charité to a charac-teristic sign present in a patient now under his care. Itconsists in a kind of tracheal shock-a sudden dipping of thewindpipe-easily recognised by the finger. This rhythmicdownward pull of the trachea is caused by the traction of theaneurysmal pouch, which, seated astride the bronchus, pullson it at each cardiac contraction. This sign, better knownas "tracheal tugging, " was described originally by Surgeon-Major Oliver (THE LANCET, vol. ii., 1878, p. 406) and sub-sequently in fuller detail by Dr. Macdonnell of Montreal(THE LANCET, 1891, vol. i., p. 535).May 30th.

RUSSIA.

(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)

C7tolera in Russia.WITH the approach of warmer weather speculation is

rife as to the prospers of a reappearance of the choleraepidemic of last year. In a few of the governmentsof Russia the disease has never wholly disappeared,although the cold of the recent winter has been of a

severity rarely experienced even in these northern climes.Between Feb. 26th (March 10th) and May 7th (19th),when the last bulletin was published, cases of cholera werereported from twenty out of the sixty governments of

European Russia, from three governments of the Caucasusand from Tobolsk in Siberia. In the large majority of thesedistricts the numbers returned have been quite small, in nota few only a single case of death having occurred during theten weeks in question. The government which has sufferedmost in this period is that of Podolia, where there have been1690 cases and 463 deaths from cholera. The last fortnightlyreturn from this district shows, however, a distinct diminu-tion in the amount of sickness and death due to the epidemic.It is satisfactory to note that in the last weekly bulletinissued by the Medical Department of the Ministry of theInterior there appears the name of only one government-that of Saratof-with three cases and two deaths from cholera.Unfortunately, however, this cannot be held to imply that thedisease is extinct elsewhere, as many of the governmentsdo not make returns every week. In the period named therewere in all 2388 cases of cholera in the Russian empire, with733 deaths. The Government authorities are actively pre.paring to cope with a revival of the epidemic. At the

present time a series of meetings is being held in the Ministryof Ways and Communications to decide on the next measuresto be adopted on the railways and waterways should theexperiences of last summer be repeated. In St. Petersburgnot a single case of cholera has been reported since themiddle of December. The winter is stated to have been a

healthy one in the capital, notwithstanding the intenseand prolonged cold. With the advent of spring and themelting of the accumulated masses of snow and ice, theamount of sickness has greatly increased, and a large numberof cases of influenza and typhoid fever are reported.

Sanitary Exhibition.An exhibition of objects connected with Hygiene and Sani-

tation is to be held in St. Petersburg this summer. It is

expected to open on May 21st (June 2nd) and to remain openfor three or four months. The exhibition is due to the initia-tive of the Russian Society for preserving the Public Health.It is the first of the kind held in Russia. Various Governmentinstitutions will lend their support, and a large number oflearned societies both in St. Petersburg and in the provinces

will send exhibits. The catalogue is to contain full descrip-tions of the various objects displayed, and will, it is expected,form an instructive volume.

’ Cattle Plag2te.For the past ten months cattle plague (tchuma) has com-

mitted fearful ravages amongst the horned cattle in the pro-. vince of the Don Cossacks and in the government of Voronezh.: The disease has now spread to the Tambof Government and

it is feared that as the warmer weather comes and the cattleLare sent freely to pasture there may be a widespread epizootic,

unless the laws relating to the extinction of the plague arestringently applied.

St. Petersburg, May 14th.