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    Londons Royal Parks andGardens





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    IAI 2010

    Table of contents

    1)Argument ....3

    2) Introduction ...................................................................................4

    3) Chapter l ............................................................................5

    Hyde Park

    4) Chapter ll ..................................................................................12

    Regents Park

    5) Chapter lll ......................................................................................16

    Greenwich Park

    6) Chapter lV ................................................................................ 20

    St. Jamess Park

    7) Conclusion ..................................................................................... 28


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    8)Bibliography ................................................................................. 29


    The most fascinating part of British culture is its own history, a long journey of

    events and battles, of glorious day and hard periods, of great conquests in order to expand the

    British Empire. Every bit of the history left a print in the whole culture through great buildings

    and monuments, artefacts and manuscripts that are to be found in the museums.

    Having a passion for the past events, I tied to research what is the most representative

    element of the British history and where could I find it, and then, I realised that everything that

    this great country has are its beautiful parks, places not only for sports and leisure, but also forexposing to visitors the glorious past of the

    British Empire. For that reason, the whole

    country is covered in beautiful parks which are

    protected and managed by different

    organisations. But the best of all, one could

    find in the City of London.

    To explore the beauties of thenature mixed with the parts of history was a

    thrilling challenge for me, just like the

    explorers in their way to discover new places

    of interest around the Earth or like Americans during the gold rush. The excitement in learning

    so many things about the British dynasties and the conquests not through history books and

    encyclopaedias, but through these beautiful parks and gardens, was my main motivation in

    choosing this topic.

    The following pages constitute an open book of knowledge and precious information about

    the most important Londons Parks and Gardens, an important guide of the present and past

    natural and historical heritage


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    London carries out a great history which is reflected in every feature that the city has:

    architectural buildings, museums, event the people of London and the air that every visitor

    breathes there is impregnated with a glorious and a great history.

    Besides the historical artefacts and object visible to the public, London presents a

    variety of parks and gardens named by the critics as being the lungs of the city. It is necessary

    to point out the fact that all these parks and gardens are part of the English heritage and they

    were created and funded by numerous kings and queens who, at some point in history, ruled

    England, and over the time, the United Kingdom.

    If, in the beginning, the parks and gardens were property of the royal families and

    were used as amusements for the royal members, they were opened, eventually, to the public.

    The main purposes of these parks and gardens were to relax and enjoy the weather, especially

    during the summer days, to carry out some of the entertainment activities, and, the most

    important one, to hunt, a well-knows sport in the English high society.

    Among the numerous parks and gardens that the metropolis of London reveals to the

    public, the most interesting ones, regarding the historical and architectural values, are Hyde Park,

    St. Jamess Park, Regents Park and Greenwich Park, the last one placed on the suburbs of

    London. Their whole history and their most remarkable features will be widely discussed in the

    present paper, identifying their historical, cultural and touristic potential not only for the capital,

    but also for the entire country.


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    Chapter I

    Hyde Park

    Being the largest of the

    central London parks, Hyde Park was

    once a favourite deer-hunting ground for

    Henry VIII. Together with Kensington

    Gardens, the park covers 246 hectares of

    central London.

    The ancient manor of Hyde once formed part of the lands belonging to Westminster

    Abbey. In 1536, at the Dissolution of the Monasteries, this land was seized by Henry VIII and

    became part of the King's hunting grounds.

    It has remained a royal park

    ever since. In the early 17th century

    James I opened Hyde Park as London's

    first public park.

    Although it was plagued by

    highwaymen and duelling nobles, Hyde

    Park soon became one London's most

    prized public spaces and a fashionable

    place to see and be seen. Queen

    Caroline (wife of George II) was a keen

    landscape gardener and in the 1730s the


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    queen was behind the scheme that dammed the Westbourne River to create an artificial lake.

    Known as the Serpentine, this became the park's central feature; popular for both boating and


    In 1851 Hyde Park was the setting for the Great Exhibition. Joseph Paxton's

    magnificent 'Crystal Palace' stood between the Serpentine and the Prince of Wales Gate. In 1852

    the vast glass building was dismantled and rebuilt in south-east London. That area is still named

    after the great glass-house,

    although the actual Crystal

    Palace was destroyed by fire in


    The following

    description of Hyde Park is from

    the Memoirs of Count Grammont

    in the reign of Charles II.: "Hyde

    Park, everyone knows, is the promenade of London: nothing was so much in fashion, during the

    fine weather, as that promenade, which was the rendezvous of magnificence and beauty: every

    one, therefore, who had either sparkling eyes, or a splendid equipage, constantly repaired thither,

    and the king seemed pleased with the


    The entrance into Hyde Park

    from the west end of Piccadilly, at "the

    Corner," is imposing and magnificent in

    the extreme. The park itself open and airy

    place and with the trees in Kensington

    Gardens and the handsome houses on theeast, north, and south, presents a

    remarkably interesting and pleasant view. At the beginning of the present century, it wore a

    different appearance from that of today. For instance, from a print of 1808, it is clear that on the

    1Walford E., 1878. Old and New London: Volume 4. Published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London,

    England, p. 406-441


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    left, inside the entrance at Hyde Park Corner, was the under-keeper's lodge, a wooden structure.

    At the bottom of an old view of Kensington Palace, among the topographical illustrations

    belonging to George III., is the following inscription: "The avenue leading from St. James's

    through Hyde Park to Kensington Palace is very grand. On each side of it landthorns are placed

    at equal distances, which being lighted in the dark seasons for the conveniency of the courtiers,

    appear inconceivably magnificent."1

    Hyde Park far

    surpasses that of St. James's in

    pure rural scenery. Its trees may

    not be greener or leafier, but

    there is in its appearance less of

    art and more of nature, and this

    is evidenced by the beauty of the

    Serpentine River.

    The Park reaches

    from Piccadilly as far westwards

    as Kensington Gardens, and it

    lies between the roads leading to Kensington and Bayswater, the former a continuation of

    Piccadilly, and the latter of Oxford Street. It originally contained a little over 620 acres; but by

    enclosing and taking part of it into Kensington Gardens, and by other grants of land for building

    between Park Lane and Hyde Park Corner, it has been reduced to a fewer than four hundred. It

    has eight principal entrances. The first is at Hyde Park Corner. It consists of a triple archway,

    combined with an iron screen, and was erected from the designs of Mr. Decimus Burton, in


    In Park Lane is Stanhope Gate, opened about 1750; and also Grosvenor Gate, whichwas erected by a public subscription among the neighbouring residents, and named after Sir

    Richard Grosvenor. At the north-east corner of the Park, at the western end of Oxford Street, is

    Cumberland Gate, now adorned with the "Marble Arch," of which we shall have more to say

    1Walford E., 1878. Old and New London: Volume 4. Published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London,

    England, p. 406-441


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    presently. In the Bayswater Road is the Victoria Gate, opposite Sussex Square. The entrances on

    the south side are the Albert Gate, Knightsbridge, nearly opposite the road leading into Lowndes

    Square; the Prince of Wales's Gate, near the site of the old "Half-way House," and close by the

    spot where on stood the "Great Exhibition" of 1851; whilst further westward is the Kensington


    At a very early period, the Park was fenced in with deer-palings. In the reign of

    Charles II these were superseded by a

    brick wall, which again, in the reign of

    George IV., gave place to an open iron

    railing. As late as the year 1826 the south

    side was disfigured by two large

    erectionsthe one a riding-house, and

    the other an engine house belonging to

    the Chelsea Water-works Company. The

    former building, known as the Duke of

    Gloucester's Riding House, was built in

    1768, but pulled down in 1820, having

    served as the head-quarters of the

    Westminster Volunteer Cavalry during

    the war against Napoleon. Its site was

    afterwards occupied for a time by an

    exhibition of a picture of the Battle of

    Waterloo, painted by a Dutch artist,

    which enjoyed a season's popularity as one of the sights for "country cousins" in London, and is

    now in the Royal Museum of the Pavilion, near Haarlem, in Holland. The license of the Chelsea

    Water-works Company terminated towards the end of the reign of William IV., when the engine-house opposite Grosvenor Gate was taken down, and the circular space which it occupied was

    turned into a basin, with a fountain in the centre. This was filled up about the year 1860, and the

    place converted into a circular Dutch garden.


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    The enclosure

    at the north-west corner

    was well planted with

    trees, and stocked with

    cows and deer, and had a

    keeper's lodge. Sir

    Richard Phillips writes

    thus, in "Modern

    London," published by

    him in 1804:"Beneath a

    row of trees, running

    parallel with the keeper's

    garden, are two springs,

    greatly resorted to: the one is a mineral, and is drunk; the other is used to bathe weak eyes with.

    At the former, in fine weather, sits a woman, with a table, and chairs, and glasses, for the

    accommodation of visitors. People of fashion often go in their carriages to the entrance of this

    enclosure, which is more than a hundred yards from the first spring, and send their servants with

    jugs for the water, or send their children to drink at the spring. The brim of the further spring is

    frequently surrounded by persons, chiefly of the lower orders, bathing their eyes. The water is

    constantly clear, from the vast quantity which the spring casts up, and is continually running off

    by an outlet from a small square reservoir."1

    Of the recent improvements in this park, Walker speaks thus, in his "Original," in

    1835:"The widened, extended, and well-kept rides and drives in Hyde Park, with the bridge,

    and the improvement of the Serpentine, form a most advantageous comparison with their former


    The statue of Achilles stands on a gently sloping mound in the Park, facing the

    entrance, about a hundred yards north of Apsley House. It was executed by Sir Richard

    Westmacott in 1822. The figure is said to have been copied from one of the antique statues on

    1Walford E., 1878. Old and New London: Volume 4. Published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London,

    England, p. 406-441



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    the Monte Cavallo at Rome. The statue appears as if in the act of striking. On the pedestal is this

    inscription:"To Arthur, Duke of Wellington, and his brave companions in arms, this statue of

    Achilles, cast from cannon taken in the battles of Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo,

    is inscribed by their countrywomen." 1 This statue, which was erected by a subscription among

    the ladies of England as a monument in honour of the military successes of the Duke of

    Wellington, is open to grave objections, besides the fact that the figure is undraped.

    Considerable alterations and improvements have been made in the Serpentine at

    different periods. It originally received the water of a stream which had its rise in the

    neighbourhood of Hampstead; but as this stream was for many years the Bayswater sewer, the

    result was that we had about fifty acres of stagnant water and other matters, the depth varying

    from one to thirty feet. To remedy this state of things the Bayswater sewer was cut from the

    Serpentine in 1834, and the loss of water, or rather of sewerage, which the river sustained in

    consequence was supplied from the Thames by the Chelsea Waterworks Company. The

    accumulation of putrid matter, nevertheless, still remained for many years in the bed of the river;

    but in the end it became absolutely necessary, in consequence of the effluvia arising from it

    during the hot weather, to remove the mud deposits, and to take means for ensuring a constant

    stream of pure water throughout.

    The marble arch had stood in front of the chief entrance to Buckingham Palace,

    bearing the royal banner of England, and carrying the imagination back to the age of chivalry.

    The arch, which was adapted by Mr. Nash from the Arch of Constantine at Rome, was not

    included in the design for building the new front of Buckingham Palace. It cost 80,000; the

    metal gates alone cost 3,000. It was originally intended to have been surmounted by an

    equestrian statue of George IV., by Sir Francis Chantrey. The material is Carrara marble, and it

    consists of a centre gateway and two side openings. On each face are four Corinthian columns,

    the other sculpture being a keystone to the centre archway, and a pair of figures in the spandrels,

    a panel of figures over each side entrance, and wreaths at each end; these were executed by

    Flaxman, Westmeath, and Rossi. The centre gates are bronzed, and ornamented with a beautiful

    scroll-work, with six openings, two filled with St. George and the Dragon, two with "G. R.," and

    1Brady J., 1838.A New Pocket Guide to London and its Environs. Published byJohn W. Parker, West Strand,

    London, UK, p. 73


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    above, two lions passant guardant. They were designed and cast by Samuel Parker, of Argyll

    Street, and are said to be the largest and most superb in Europe, not excepting those of the Ducal

    Palace at Venice, or of the Louvre at Paris. The frieze and semicircle intended to fill up the

    archway, the most beautiful part of the design, were unfortunately mutilated in the removal, and

    could not be restored.

    Today, despite being surrounded by some of the world's busiest streets, Hyde Park is

    a peaceful haven for the capital's office workers and tourists. At 1.5 miles long and just under

    0.5 mile wide, it is central London's largest park. There are 350 acres of woods, grasslands, lake

    and gardens.

    Hyde Park also has a

    horse riding track, originally laid

    out from the West End to

    Kensington Palace by William

    III. This famous track is known

    as Rotten Row, a corruption of

    'route du roi'. Other highlights

    include a children's playground

    and boating on the Serpentine.

    In the summer there are Sunday

    afternoon concerts at the bandstand and open air music concerts are also regularly held here.

    On Sunday mornings, Speaker's Corner, at the north-east corner near Marble Arch, is

    a venue for free speech (an 1872 law made it legal for a speaker to assemble a crowd and address

    them on any subject).

    At around 10.30 am every day the Household Cavalry can be observed riding

    through the park from Hyde Park Barracks to Buckingham Palace. On royal anniversaries and

    other important occasions a 41-gun salute is fired in Hyde Park, opposite the Dorchester Hotel in

    Park Lane.

    Chapter II


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    Regents Park

    Regents Park covers most of the London district with the same name, comprises

    about 450 acres and is situated on the north-west side of London having a modern foundation

    and being once the site for Marylebone Park.

    Originally part of the Middlesex

    Forest, this land became a royal hunting


    Design in the 18th century by John

    Nash to surround a palace for the prince

    regent, Regents Park is the most classically

    beautiful of Londons parks. It was named

    after George IV, then Prince Regent, who is

    said to have contemplated building a palace on the north-east side. The designer reserved the

    inner-circle, now the Botanical Garden, as the site for this palace. The park wasnt opened to the

    public till 1838.

    The architect's original concept was to establish an urban idyll, with 56 villas in

    Classical styles, and a pleasure palace for the

    Prince Regent. But only eight villas, and no

    palace, were constructed inside the park, three of

    the villas have survived along the edge of the Inner



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    Terrace, to the east of the

    park, was also part of the

    architect's plan. Dating from

    1828, it is the longest and

    most ornate of Nash's

    terraces, with a central block

    of raised columns topped by a

    decorated triangular

    pediment. Cumberland

    Terrace was designed to be

    seen from the palace planned for the Prince Regent. As Prince Regent was busy with his plans

    for Buckingham Palace, the palace in Regent's Park was never built. Nash wanted the Regent's

    Canal to run through the park but was persuaded that the bad language of the bargees would

    offend the refined residents of the area. 1

    Today Regent's Park, surrounded by Regency buildings, is London's most civilized

    park. Lively in the summer, with two boating lakes, one for children, three playgrounds, tennis

    courts, bandstand music, a caf and an open-air theatre.

    Its core is a rose garden planted around a small lake alive with waterfall and spanned

    by Japanese bridges. Several fine villas with ample grounds were built here such as the

    handsome villa of the Marquis of Hertford on the north-west side and Mr. Bishops mansion and


    Many varieties of water birds can be seen on the boating lake, including herons that

    nest on the islands. Broad Walk, leading north towards London Zoo, provides a picturesque



    1Porter D., 2010.Frommers London 2010. Wiley Publishing Inc., New Jersey, USA, p. 302.


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    The Outer Circle, the main road running around the park, is over 2 miles long,

    bordered to the north by Regent's Canal, to the west and east by Palladian mansions and to the

    south by Nash's Park Crescent and the Marylebone Road.

    The park is home to the Open Air Theatre and the London Zoo. The garden of Baron

    Goldsmid near the inner circle enhances the beauty of the park being so well seen from the

    opposite side of the lake. The Coliseum, on the east side, with its ample dome, contributes much

    to the effect from various points.

    The best features of the park are the long straight walks, the ornamental water with

    its bridges, the broad open space on the north-western side and the villas and terraces. The Long

    Walk is about a mile length and extends from the south end nearly to Primrose Hill. It is forty

    feet wide, on the rise most of the way and attaining the top of the low hill near the end. On either

    side of it, there are four lines of trees

    which are all elms towards the upper


    The ornamental water is of a

    good form with its terminations well

    covered and several islands covered by

    trees. It lies in the midst of villas and

    terraces on the south side of the park. Some noble weeping willows are placed along its southern

    margins. Three light suspension bridges two of which carry the walk across an island at the

    western end of the lake are neat and elegant, but the close wire fence at their sides interferes with

    the beauty of their form.

    The whole of the park needed to be thoroughly drained; its clayey subsoil having

    long caused a damp unhealthy atmosphere to hang over the district during autumn and winter.

    The advantage of good drainage cannot be overestimated whether as it respects the public health

    and comfort or the progress of the trees.


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    Passing along the western

    road from the Portland Place to the inner

    circle, there is a very picturesque and

    pleasing nook of water on the right

    where the value of a tangled mass of

    shrubs for clothing the banks will be

    very conspicuously seen.

    Almost adjoining Regents

    Park on the north-west side is Primrose

    Hill to which the public have free access and which is a very favourite spot for a summer ramble.

    It is in the form of a large roundish swell or knoll and, being unplanted, afford views of a very

    ample and diversified.


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    Chapter III

    Greenwich Park

    Greenwich Park was design by Le Notre

    almost in the same time as St. James Park and spread

    over 200 acres. Except in the remains of many of the

    avenues, there are not very strong traces of the formal

    style of that artist left, as it is not on a beautifullyvaried surface like this that straight walks and regular

    lines of trees are at all tolerable. This beautiful park is

    set on a hill between Blackheath and the River

    Thames, and once formed the grounds of Greenwich

    Palace and the land is owned by the Crown to this


    Greenwich Park was enclosed by Henry

    VI in 1433 and its brick wall was constructed in the

    reign of James I. The remains of a Roman temple and Saxon mounds have been found here but

    this lovely riverside park is more famous for its Tudor and Stuart history.

    Henry VIII was born at Greenwich Palace, then known as Placentia, in 1491. Deer

    were introduced in 1515, and a herd still grazes the 13 acre Wilderness. With its hunting

    grounds and proximity to his home fleet at anchor on the Thames, Greenwich Palace remained

    Henry's favourite residence. His daughters Mary I and Elizabeth I were both born here. It was at

    Greenwich that Sir Walter Raleigh put his cloak over a puddle so Elizabeth I would not get her

    feet wet.

    In 1616 James I commissioned Inigo Jones to rebuild the Tudor palace, and the

    resulting 'Queen's House' was the first Palladian villa built in England. Later in the 17th century


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    the park was redesigned by Andr Le Ntre,

    the French landscape gardener, who had laid

    out the gardens at Versailles. The broad

    avenue, rising south up the hill, formed part

    of his plan. Charles II's designs for a new

    palace were later adapted to become the Old

    Royal Naval College.1

    A particularity of this park is the

    ground itself undulated with great variety, in

    some parts thrown up into the softest swell and in other places assuming a bolder and more

    sudden elevation. Around the site of the Observatory, it is particularly steep and attains a

    considerable height.

    The park contains a great variety of noble specimen of ancient trees and, in some

    respect; there isnt other London park at all equal with it. Some of the trees are Spanish

    chestnuts. Many of these are truly fine and venerable and would command admiration even if

    found in the heart of a purely rural district. The elms are abundant and also, large and noble; also

    there are some picturesque Scotch firs in the neighbourhood of the observatory old enough to

    show the peculiar warm reddish colouring of the stems and the characteristic horizontal or tufted


    The most noticeable feature of the park is the Royal Observatory situated on the most

    commanding site and making a conspicuous feature in itself while the platform around it is

    highly favourable for views. The observatory has a very striking view of the river Thames along

    which many large vessels are generally tacking their course either in or out of London and the

    sight of these in a clear sunny day from Greenwich Park with the old trees below partially to

    cover the town, is such as can nowhere else be matched. The Hospital has an imposingappearance between the park and the river and several church spires come into view to break the

    outline. Behind the hill on which the Observatory stands, the park has a pleasing wilderness of

    1Rev. Lysons D., The Environs of London: Being a Historical Account of the Towns, Villages and Hamlets,

    within Twelve Miles of the Capital: Interspersed with Biographical anecdotes. Vol. I, Part II, the 2nd edition,

    London, England, p. 519


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    aspect, which, combined with the size

    and age of the trees, presents a marked

    contrast to the scene of habitation and

    bustle on the sides towards the river.

    On One-tree Hill, which is a

    bold and half-detached knoll, the tree that

    gave the name of the spot is dead, and

    here there are generally, a number of old

    pensioners congregated, who while away

    their time here in summer by show to

    visitors, views of the river through telescopes and through coloured glass of various shades, the

    effect of the later being very peculiar.

    The Old Royal Observatory and Flamstead House, created by Sir Christopher Wren,

    stand at the top of the hill. The meridian (0 longitude), which passes through Greenwich Park at

    the Old Royal Observatory, divides the globe into East and West. At 13:00 every day the

    Observatory's big red ball can be seen to drop. This event, which has taken place every day since

    1833, was to enable the makers of chronometers, navigators' clocks and sailors on the Thames to

    set their clocks by it. 1

    From the top of the hill

    there are superb views over the

    National Maritime Museum and

    Docklands and on a fine day most of

    London can be seen.

    To the south-west of the

    park stands the Ranger's House,

    dating from 1700. This was allotted

    to the Park Ranger in 1815 but now it

    has the Suffolk Collection of 17th

    1July - December 1839.Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine. Vol. XLVI, Published by William Blackwood and sons, Edinburgh,

    Scotland, p. 75.

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    century English portraits by Sir Peter Lely, William Larkin and others, as well as a display of

    historic musical instruments.

    Other features of the park include a pond with wildfowl, a flower garden, and a

    children's playground. In the summer brass bands perform in the park and there special events

    such as open air theatre, puppet shows in the playground and caf music.

    The information centre has details of these events and displays about the history of

    Greenwich Park.


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    Chapter IV

    St. Jamess Park

    Londons St Jamess Park is the oldest Royal Park in the city and the site of many

    special events. The 23-hectare (58 acre) park boasts beautiful gardens, a lake thats home to local

    waterfowl, and lots of wide open space.The park lies at the Southernmost tip of the St. James's

    area, which was named after a

    leper hospital dedicated to St.James the Less.

    St. James's Park is bounded by

    Buckingham Palace to the West,

    The Mall and St. James's Palace

    to the North, Horse Guards to

    the East, and Birdcage Walk to

    the South. The park has a small

    lake, St. James's Park Lake, with two islands, Duck Island (named for the lake's collection of

    waterfowl), and West Island. A bridge across the lake affords a Westward view of Buckingham

    Palace framed by trees and fountains, and a view of the main building of the Foreign and

    Commonwealth Office, similarly framed, to the East.

    The park is the most easterly of a near-continuous chain of parks that also comprise

    (moving Westward) Green Park, Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens. The closest London

    Underground stations are St. James's Park, Victoria, and Westminster.1

    The land on which pristine St Jamess Park sits was acquired by Henry VIII in 1532.

    At this site, he built St Jamess Palace. Later, Elizabeth I, who loved pageantry, held many

    special events in the park, and her successor, King Charles II, made many additions to the park,

    1Porter D., 2010.Frommers London 2010. Wiley Publishing Inc., New Jersey, USA, p. 302-303.


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    including more trees and grassy areas.

    The changes of the park were made by

    the French architect Le Notre who also

    designed the gardens of Versailles. At

    this period, a chain of small ponds was

    converted into a lake. Charles II was

    the first to open the park to the public.

    In the times of George IV, the park was

    again remodelled, the lake was greatly

    enlarged and a number of new

    plantations were added. 1

    Throughout the centuries, the park was used as a Royal Zoo, a reservoir, and even a

    bowling alley, all of which took their toll on the park in one way or another. In the 1830s, John

    Nash redesigned the park, making it more romantic in style and revitalizing the trees, lawns, and


    During the reigns of Elisabeth I and the first two Stuarts, St Jamess Park was

    consider to be a nursery for deer and an appendage to the tilt yard.

    Entering by the steps near the

    Duke of Yorks column, in Waterloo

    Place or by Horse Guards, in Whitehall,

    the park reveals to the visitors its

    beauties and its places of interest.

    Passing westward there are four routes:

    one on each side of the water within the

    enclosure, with devious paths amidstpleasant shrubberies, each conducting

    into the roads. The road in the north is

    bounded by Carlton House Terrace, by Marlborough House, by St. Jamess Palace and by

    1Kemp E., 1851. The Parks, Gardens etc. of London and its Suburbs Described and Illustrated for the Guidance

    of Strangers. Published byJohn Weale, 59, High Holporn, London, England, p. 9-11.


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    Stafford House. The southern road is bounded by Queen Square, the Wellington Barracks and

    the Stationary Office. From Buckingham Palace, the road leads up to Constitution Hill. The

    paths through the Green Park conduct into Piccadilly or to the gate near triumphal arch at Hyde

    Park Corner, which is surmounted by the colossal equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington.

    This park is conspicuous for its fine sheet of water which is kept full and pure from a

    supply from several water-works and is much enlivened by an extensive collection of aquatic

    birds, belonging to the Ornithological Society, which are a constant source of interest and

    amusement to the public. The eastern end of the lake

    is well masked by a long island, which is almost

    entirely clothed with willows. There is also here a

    Swiss Cottage belonging to the Ornithological

    Society and use as a residence of their keeper. There

    is a fountain at the western end opposite

    Buckingham Palace. The margins of the water, on

    the northern side, there is a gravel walk for some

    distance and being unprotected against the action of

    winds, forms a hard and disagreeable line.1

    Numerous walks conduct the pedestrians

    between the new plantations and along the side of

    the water, but the public also, has free access to the

    grass in all parts. In addition to a considerable number of fine old elms, there is a large collection

    of ornamental trees and shrubs in the younger plantations, and most of the rare kinds have their

    names, native country, year of introduction and tribe to which they belong written on iron labels.

    The borders are also filled with all kinds of plants.

    Among the tree which thrive best here is the Western Plane which is in a remarkablehealthy and flourishing state and retains its greenness during the driest summer weather, as well

    as late in the autumn. The White Polar is also very thriving and there are many excellent Thorns

    1 Kemp E., 1851. The Parks, Gardens etc. of London and its Suburbs Described and Illustrated for the Guidance

    of Strangers. Published byJohn Weale, 59, High Holporn, London, England, p. 9-11.


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    of various kinds, Hollies, Pyruses and Ailanthus glandulosus. In point of effect and keeping the

    superiority in the plants, the south side of the lake is the best.1

    On the other side of the park there was a place of resort preferred by the lodgers:

    Spring Garden and Mulberry Garden. The last one was planted by orders of James I who

    attempted in 1608 to produce silk in England and to that end imported hundred thousand

    mulberry trees from France.

    With the restoration of Charles II, begin the era of the parks existence as a public

    haunt. The design according to which the park was laid out has been generally attributed to Le

    Notre. The park exhibited long rows of young elms and lime-trees fenced round with palings to

    protect them from injuries. Such rows exist in front of the old Horse Guards and another one

    following the line of the canals. These are occasionally relieved by some fine old trees as in

    Tempests view.

    The elegance of the park,

    with the attractions of the rare animals

    and the mall for the gamesters,

    rendered it immediately the favourite

    haunt of the court. The mall received

    its name from a game at ball: Pall


    The principal

    circumstances worthy to notice in this

    park is the glimpses or views which are obtained in walking about it, of some many noble

    architectural objects, to which the old elm trees from such varied and excellent foregrounds

    supports or frames. In no other place are so many striking combinations of this kind produces.

    From several of the London bridges, a far greater variety of objects may be taking in at a glance.

    As seen from this park, there are the towers of Westminster Abbey, which are well introduced

    and well accompanied from so many points; the House of Parliament; the Buckingham Palace as

    1Brady J., 1838.A New Pocket Guide to London and its Environs. Published byJohn W. Parker, West Strand,

    London, UK, p. 71-72.

    2Nicholson L., 1998.London. Published by Abbeville Press, 22 Cortland Street, New York, USA, p. 56-58.


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    viewed from the east end of the lake, near the Swiss Cottage, the entire length of the lake

    stretching out between the palace and the observer; the Duke of Yorks and Nelsons Columns;

    with Carlton Terrace, Marlborough House and a variety of other mansions. Even inferior houses

    or such as have no greater architectural pretensions, acquire a character, and make pleasing parts

    of a picture, when they appear half shrouded with venerable trees.

    On the other side of the park is the Mall, which is composed of four broad avenues of

    trees, three of which are appropriated to pedestrians only. One of these avenues conducts to the

    centre of Buckingham Palace, which is thus advantageously seen at the end of the long vista.

    Beneath the trees forming these avenues, which are elms, limes and planes, there are a great

    number of seats provided for the public use.

    St. Jamess Park was intimately associated with anecdotes of the private life of

    Charles II. Cibber wrote that his indolent amusement of playing with his dogs and feeding his

    ducks in St. Jamess Park made the common people adore him. Also, the beauties of St.

    Jamess Park could be found in literature where the park was a muse for the poets that dedicated

    beautiful poems to it. For example, The New Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal (1823)

    printed the following poem:1

    1January June, 1823. The New Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal. Vol. V, Published by Oliver Everett,

    13 Cornhill, Boston, USA, p. 507


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    St James's Park provides habitats for a variety of different species of fauna. The

    parks lake is home to 15 different species of waterfowl, including pelicans, who were

    introduced to the park in the mid 1600s.

    The park welcomes more than 5.5 million visitors per year and has become quite

    popular with the movie industry. Visitors can often view film crews shooting.

    In addition to St Jamess Palace, two other palaces skirt the park - Westminster, the

    oldest; and Buckingham Palace, where monarchs have resided since 1837.

    St. James's Park is located in the heart of London, right near Whitehall and Downing

    Street. Nearby are popular sites like the Horse Guards, Trafalgar Square and Westminster Abbey.


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    Most visitors simply

    enjoy strolling through the park,

    watching the wildlife. Theres also

    a childrens playground for the

    little ones and deck chairs for

    relaxing in the warm summer

    months. Ceremonial parades and

    important national events are often

    held at the adjoining avenue known

    as The Mall.


    The Royal Parks of London were owned by the monarchy of England or the United

    Kingdom for the recreation of the royal family. With increasing urbanisation of London, some of

    these were preserved as freely accessible open space and became public parks. There are today

    eight parks formally described by this name: Bushy Park, The Green Park, Greenwich Park,

    Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, The Regent's Park, Richmond Park and St. James's Park.


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    Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens (which are adjacent), Regent's Park and St

    James's Park are the largest green spaces in central London. One of the Royal Parks of London,

    Greenwich Park is a former deer-park in Greenwich and one of the largest single green spaces in

    south east London. Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in central London, England, and one of

    the Royal Parks of London. For other meanings, Regents Park, officially The Regents Park is one

    of the Royal Parks of London.

    All Londons Royal Parks are managed by the Royal Parks Agency and are policed

    by the Metropolitan Police. The previous force policing the parks, the Royal Parks Constabulary,

    was abolished in April 2004. The main form of funding for the Royal Parks is a central

    government grant. This contrasts with most of London's other parks, which are funded by local

    borough councils. The Royal Parks Agency generates additional income from commercial

    activities such as catering and staging public events such as concerts. Metropolitan Police

    redirects here. The Royal Parks Constabulary (RPC) is the police force responsible for the eight

    Royal Parks of London and a number of other locations in London, England.


    Brady J., 1838.A New Pocket Guide to London and its Environs. Published byJohn W. Parker,West Strand, London, UK.

    Kemp E., 1851. The Parks, Gardens etc. of London and its Suburbs Described and Illustratedfor the Guidance of Strangers. Published byJohn Weale, 59, High Holporn, London,



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    Lambert B., 1806.The History and Survey of London and its Environs. From the earliest periodto the present time. Vol. III, Published by Dewick and Clark, Aldresgate Street,

    London, England.

    Nicholson L., 1998.London. Published by Abbeville Press, 22 Cortland Street, New York, USA.

    Porter D., 2010.Frommers London 2010. Wiley Publishing Inc., New Jersey, USA.

    Rev. Lysons D., The Environs of London: Being a Historical Account of the Towns, Villagesand Hamlets, within Twelve Miles of the Capital: Interspersed with Biographical

    anecdotes. Vol. I, Part II, the 2nd edition, London, England.

    Smith R., 1836.The Friend. A religious and Literary Journal. Vol. IX, Published by AdamWaldie, Philadelphia, USA.

    Walford E., 1878. Old and New London: Volume 4. Published by Centre for Metropolitan

    History, London, England.

    January June, 1823. The New Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal. Vol. V, Published byOliver Everett, 13 Cornhill, Boston, USA.

    July - December 1839.Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine. Vol. XLVI, Published by WilliamBlackwood and sons, Edinburgh, Scotland.

    The Royal Parks. Londons Personal Space. [online] Available at: , [accessed 1 may 2010].