PAIRED SIDE IMPACT CRASH TESTING of a 15 ?· PAIRED SIDE IMPACT CRASH TESTING of a 15 PASSENGER VAN…

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<ul><li><p>15PassengerVanSafetyReview</p><p>PhaseIII:</p><p>TRANSPORTCANADA</p><p>PAIREDSIDEIMPACTCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;anMFABINTERNALRESEARCHREPORTASFB11 05</p><p>October5,2012</p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p> ii </p><p>DISCLAIMERThisresearchreportwaspreparedbyTransportCanadaandisnotmeanttocritiqueorendorseanycommercialvehicleorproduct.ItismeanttoinformTransportCanadasgeneralapproachtovehiclesafetyissuesandsuggestpolicyoptions.Thisisanunpublishedreportandanycitationofitshouldindicatethis. </p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p> iii </p><p>TABLEOFCONTENTSTABLEOFCONTENTS....................................................................................................................................iii</p><p>TABLEOFFIGURES.......................................................................................................................................iv</p><p>EXECUTIVESUMMARY..................................................................................................................................v</p><p>INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................................1</p><p>TESTMEHODOLOGY......................................................................................................................................2</p><p>TestVehicles:............................................................................................................................................2</p><p>Striking(Bullet)Vehicles:..........................................................................................................................2</p><p>CrashConfiguration:.................................................................................................................................2</p><p>CrashTestDummiesandPlacementInTestVehicles:.............................................................................3</p><p>CAMERASandPLACEMENT:.....................................................................................................................4</p><p>Instrumentation........................................................................................................................................5</p><p>RESULTS........................................................................................................................................................6</p><p>VehicleKinematics....................................................................................................................................6</p><p>VehicleIntrusion.......................................................................................................................................9</p><p>OccupantKinematics..............................................................................................................................10</p><p>Frontrowkinematics:.........................................................................................................................12</p><p>Secondrowkinematics:......................................................................................................................13</p><p>Thirdrowkinematics:.........................................................................................................................15</p><p>InjuryMeasures......................................................................................................................................19</p><p>StrucksideOccupants.........................................................................................................................21</p><p>Farside(nonstruck)Occupants.........................................................................................................22</p><p>DISCUSSION.................................................................................................................................................23</p><p>StrucksideOccupants.........................................................................................................................23</p><p>NonStrucksideOccupants.................................................................................................................26</p><p>CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................................................27</p><p>FUTUREWORK............................................................................................................................................29</p><p>REFERENCES................................................................................................................................................29</p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p> iv </p><p>TABLEOFFIGURESFigure1.Testconfigurationforthepairedcomparisonsideimpacttest....................................................2Figure2.Occupancyin15passengervan(4rowsofbenches)....................................................................4Figure3.Occupancyin12passengerMFAB(3rowsofdoubleseats).........................................................4Figure4.Approximatecameraplacement15passengervan(6).................................................................5Figure5.Approximatecameraplacementin12passengerMFAB(6).........................................................5Figure6.Sequenceofmotionofthetestandbulletvehiclesrecordedbyhighspeedvideocameras.......7Figure7.Timehistorytracesoftheaccelerationsrecordedineachtestvehicle........................................8Figure8.LocationofimpactpointandviewofimprintleftbytheF150ontheE350(left)andMFAB(right)............................................................................................................................................................9Figure9.ObliqueviewofintrusionobservedafterthetestsfortheE350(left)andMFAB(right).............9Figure10.OccupantseatingintheE350andMFABpriortothecrashtests.............................................10Figure11.RelativepositionsoftheheadandhiptargetsofthestrucksideoccupantswithrespecttobulletvehicleimpactfortheE350vanandMFAB......................................................................................10Figure12.ComparisonofinteriortrimandseatbeltanchoragesintheE350(left)andMFAB(right)......11Figure13.MotionduringthecrashoffrontrowoccupantsseatedintheE350(left)andMFAB(right)..12Figure14.MotionduringthecrashofthesecondrowoccupantsseatedintheE350(left)andMFAB(right)..........................................................................................................................................................13Figure15.PhotosoffinalrestingpositionoftheES2redummyfollowingthetest..................................15Figure16.MotionduringthecrashoftherearmostrowoccupantsseatedintheE350(left)andMFAB(right)..........................................................................................................................................................15Figure17.Photostakenafterthecrashoftherearmoststrucksidedummychestandsidestructures...16Figure18PhotosoffinalrestingpositionoffarsidedummyseatedinrearrowofE350(left)andMFAB(right)..........................................................................................................................................................17Figure19.ProfileoftheinteriortrimandwindowoftheE350van(black)andtheinteriorwalloftheMFAB(grey)................................................................................................................................................23</p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p> v </p><p>EXECUTIVESUMMARYInJanuary2008,eightpassengersdiedafterthe15passengervantheyweretravelling inwasstruck, at highway speed, by a tractortrailer near Bathurst, N.B.. On September 30, 2010,formerTransportCanadaMinisterStrahlcommittedthedepartmenttoconductacrashtestofa15passengervanasrequestedbyalobbygroupofconcernedcitizenswithastrongpersonalinterestinvanandbussafetyforstudenttransportation(www.vanangels.ca).</p><p>Theobjectiveofthetestwastocomparetheprotectionavailabletorestrainedoccupantsofa15passenger van to that available to restrained occupants in an MFAB (MultiFunctionalActivityBus)inaseveresideimpactcrashtest.Theseverityofthetests,asdeterminedbythesizeandimpactspeedofthebulletvehicle,wassubstantiallygreaterthantheseverityofteststhat are conducted for regulatory compliance and consumer safety rating side impactprotectionprogramsworldwide.</p><p>Amodelyear2011,Girardinmultifunctionalactivitybus(MFAB)andamodelyear2011FordE35015passengervanwereeach impactedat90degrees inthe leftrearaxlebya2009FordF150pickuptrucktravellingat75km/h.Therearaxleswereselectedasthelocationofimpacttoensurethatthestrikingbulletimpactedstructuralelementsthatwerecommontobothtestvehicles.</p><p>Sevencrashtestdummieswereplacedonboardeachvehicleincomparableseatinglocations.The dummies were representative in size to mid size men and small women. All wereinstrumented with stateoftheart sensors in the head, chest and pelvis. All were seateduprightandallwere restrainedwith theavailable lapshoulder seatbelt.Themotionsof thedummiesduringthecrashwererecordedwithseveralhighspeedvideocameras.</p><p>The injurymeasuresobtained from thedummies thatwere seatedon the struck sideof theE350weregenerallygreaterthanforthesamedummiesseatedintheMFAB.Twoofthethreedummyheadswereejected from thewindowof theE350whileonlyanarmof thedummyseatedintherearmostrowoftheMFABbrokethroughthewindow.</p><p>The distance between the struck side dummies and the sidewalls influenced the injurymeasures. The interior trim profile of the E350 created an irregular profile and gapwhichallowedthedummytoaccelerateandpivot,priortostrikingtheadjacentwindow.IntheMFAB,thedummieswererestingagainsttheflatprofileofthesidewallimmediatelypriortothecrash.The outwardmotions of the headswere stopped by the rigid frames centered across eachwindowintheMFAB.</p><p>Ina real collision, thepositionsof theoccupantsat themomentof impactdependon theirinitial posture and the vehicle manoeuvres that take place just prior to the impact. Any</p><p>http://www.vanangels.ca/</p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p> vi </p><p>behaviourorvehiclemotionthatcausestheoccupantstodistancethemselvesfromthesurfacetheywilleventuallycollidewithduringthecrash,increasestheirriskofinjurybyallowingthemtoacceleratepriortohittingthesurface.Also, sincethewindowframes intheMFABarenotprotectedwith energy absorbingmaterials, the risk of injury to the head during a collisioninvolvinghumanoccupantscannotbediscounted.</p><p>Allof thedummiesplaced across the aisle from the impactpoint inboth the E350 and theMFABslippedoutoftheshoulderbelts. IntheE350spacingbetweenadjacentoccupantswassufficientlyconstrainedsothatthefarsidedummiescollidedwiththestrucksidedummies.IntheMFABthesmallfemaledummieseitherslidintotheaisleorwerecatapultedintotheaisle.Themid sizemale dummy in theMFAB crossed the aisle and collidedwith the struck sidedummy.Thedummyresponsessuggestthatforhumanpassengersexposedtotheseconditionstherewouldbeariskofmoderatetosevereheadinjuryandariskofseriousseatbeltrelatedinjuriesforallthoseseatedonthefarsideoftheimpact,inbothstruckvehicles.</p><p>The results of the paired crash tests are comparable to side impact testing of othermotorvehicles conducted by Transport Canada.As previouslymentioned, the severity of the testswassubstantiallygreaterthantheseverityofteststhatareconductedforregulatorycomplianceand consumer safety rating side impact protection programs. The effects on the dummyoccupantsweresignificantinbothcasesandsotherewillbenofurthertestingatmoresevereconditions.</p><p>Aknowncountermeasurethatcanreducetheriskofhead injury forstrucksideoccupants isinflatable curtain technology. The countermeasures to limit occupant ejection from theshoulderportionoftheseatbeltandpreventsubsequentoccupanttooccupantcontact inalltypes of passenger vehicles are still under development. Potential candidatemeasuresmayincludeimproveddesignsofrestraintsandseatsandtheintroductionofinboardsideairbags.</p><p>Aspartof itsregulatoryprogram,TransportCanadawillcontinuetoassesstheapplicabilityofcountermeasuresfortheprotectionofoccupantsof lightdutyvehicles ingeneral,duringsideimpact collisions. This will be undertaken in the context of the CanadaU.S. RegulatoryCooperation Council and the activities thereunder.</p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p> 1 </p><p>INTRODUCTIONInJanuary2008,eightpassengersdiedafterthe15passengervantheyweretravelling inwasstruck, at highway speed, by a tractortrailer near Bathurst, N.B.. On September 30, 2010,formerTransportCanadaMinisterStrahlcommittedthedepartmenttoconductacrashtestofa15passenervanasrequestedbya lobbygroupofconcernedcitizenswithastrongpersonalinterestinvanandbussafetyforstudenttransportation(www.vanangels.ca).</p><p>The 15passenger van is a preferred mode of transportation for a broad spectrum ofapplicationsandpassengertypes including;schooland/orsenioroutings,communityevents,andvariousshuttleservices.Analternativemodeoftransportationforschoolrelatedactivitiesisthemultifunctionalbus(MFAB).Thestructureofthesebusesissimilartothatofsmallschoolbusesexceptthattheyarenotequippedwithcertainsafetyfeaturesthatarerequiredforthesecure embarkation and disembarkation of school children, for example, stop lamps andextendablestopsigns.</p><p>The intentionofthecrashworthinesstestingwasnottoreplicatethetragicBathurstcollision.Becauseofthehighspeedatwhichthecollisionoccurred(theclosingspeedwasestimatedbythecollisioninvestigatorsasbeingabout160km/h)andtheextremedifferenceinsizebetweenthestrikingtransporttruckandthe15passengervaninquestion(themassofthetruckatthetimeofimpactwasestimatedbytheinvestigatorstobemorethanfivetimesthatofthevan),thecrashwaslikely,fartoocatastrophic,foranyknowncrashworthinesscountermeasurestohaveprevented the lossof life.Theobjectiveof the testprogram therefore,was instead, tocompare the protection available to restrained occupants of a 15passenger van to thatavailable to restrainedoccupants in anMFAB in a severe side impact crash test involving abulletvehiclethatisrepresentativeofthetypethathastypicallybeenassociatedwithcausingserious injury inside impactcollisions inthefield. Thebulletvehicleswereofsimilarmasstoboth struck vehicles. These collisions nevertheless exceeded the severity of regulatorycomplianceandconsumerfocussedvehicleratingprogramsusedworldwide.</p><p>Thisreportdescribesthetestmethodologyforthepairedtestprogram,presentstheresultsofthecrashtestsanddiscussestheimplicationsofthefindingswithrespecttopossiblecountermeasures.</p><p>http://www.vanangels.ca/</p></li><li><p>PAIREDCRASHTESTINGofa15PASSENGERVAN&amp;MFAB</p><p>TESTMEHODOLOGY</p><p>TestVehicles:1. 2011FORDE350van 15passengercapacity testmass:3382kg2. 2011GIRARDINMFAB 12passengercapacity testmass:3642kg</p><p>Striking(Bullet)Vehicles:1. 2009FordF150 testmass:2814kg2. 2009FordF150 testmass:2813kg</p><p>CrashConfiguration:The crash configuration consistedofaperpendicular impact (90degrees) into the stationarytestvehicle.Two identicalFordF150pickuptruckswereusedasbulletvehiclestostrikethesideofthestationaryE350vanandthestationaryGirardinMFABataspeedof75km/h.ThecenterofthefrontbumperoftheFordF150wasalignedtostriketheleftrearaxle(driverside)oftheE350,asshowninFigure1a&amp;c;andtheleftrearaxle(driverside)oftheMFAB,show...</p></li></ul>