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8/23/16 1 • Overview of Gestalt theories of perception • Lines and Shape • Project 1 GESTALT THEORY: “The study of gestalt originated in Germany in the 1920s [specifically Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka]. It is a form of psychology that is interested in higher order cognitive processes relative to behaviorism. The visual world is so complex that the mind has developed strategies for coping with the confusion. The mind tries to find the simplest solution to a problem. One of the ways it does this is to form groups of items that have certain characteristics in common. The aspects of gestalt theory that interests designers are related to gestalt's investigations of visual perception, principally the relationship between the parts and the whole of visual experience.” GESTALT THEORY: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. We tend to group similar shapes together as a coherent object and then attach some kind of meaning to the result. This principle of organization holds that there is an innate tendency to perceive a line as continuing its established direction. That is, we tend to continue contours when we perceive them to be heading in an implied direction. We tend to make our experience as complete as possible Ø Gestalt theory seeks completeness. With shapes that aren't closed, our mind will "fill in the gaps".

Overview of Gestalt GESTALT THEORY · • Overview of Gestalt theories of perception • Lines and Shape • Project 1 GESTALT THEORY: “The study of gestalt originated in Germany

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8/23/16

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• Overview of Gestalt theories of perception • Lines and Shape • Project 1

GESTALT THEORY: “The study of gestalt originated in Germany in the 1920s [specifically Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka]. It is a form of psychology that is interested in higher order cognitive processes relative to behaviorism. The visual world is so complex that the mind has developed strategies for coping with the confusion. The mind tries to find the simplest solution to a problem. One of the ways it does this is to form groups of items that have certain characteristics in common. The aspects of gestalt theory that interests designers are related to gestalt's investigations of visual perception, principally the relationship between the parts and the whole of visual experience.”

GESTALT THEORY: The whole is more than the sum of its parts.

We tend to group similar shapes together as a coherent object and then attach some kind of meaning to the result.

This principle of organization holds that there is an innate tendency to perceive a line as continuing its established direction. That is, we tend to continue contours when we perceive them to be heading in an implied direction.

We tend to make our experience as complete as possible Ø Gestalt theory seeks completeness.

With shapes that aren't closed, our mind will "fill in the gaps".

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We tend to group things together that are close together in space. Objects that are grouped together then become a single perceived object.

The Figure-Ground phenomenon captures the idea that in perceiving a visual field, some objects take a prominent role while others recede into the background. Your mind can perceive them as two distinct shapes but only focus on one or the other. (The above is ambiguous figure-ground.)

• Overview of Gestalt theories of perception • Lines and Shape • Project 1

A line is simply a point

set in motion.

Lines define shape and form

and shapes define objects.

Lines convey mood and feeling.

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D Saul Steinberg. Untitled. c. 1959. Ink on paper. Originally published in The New Yorker, March 14, 1959. The Saul Steinberg Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Brush and ink on paper, 1’ 7 5/8” x 2ユ” 2” (49.7x 66 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Peter A. Rubel).

Straight lines Also called “geometric” lines in regards to art.

Line directions: Horizontal- Associated with rest, continuity, sameness, placid

Vertical- Associated with strength, masculinity, stability

Diagonal(s)- Depending on its direction,

Down: effect to mean instability, anger, uneasiness, fragility if going from left to right Up: imply speed, life force, and action.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, Chicago, IL Nave in Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, France

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Curvy lines Also called “organic” lines in regards to art.

Usually more approachable and relate to the human figure, comfort, relaxation, safety

Frank Gehry, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, CA

Actual Line Implied Line Psychic Line

Actual Line Implied Line Psychic Line

Actual Line Implied Line Psychic Line

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Lines define shape and form

and shapes define objects.

Property/scale of shape

1 Large scale can make for a very obvious focal point, or create visual emphasis.

2 Regular placement and

geometric repeating elements give a feel of calm and quiet order.

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3 Large figures crowded together

can impart a feeling of claustrophobia and chaos.

Cropping for visual tension.

• Overview of Gestalt theories of perception • Lines and Shape • Project 1

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friend/enemy hard/soft true/false tight/loose

liberal/conservative tense/peaceful

friend/enemy hard/soft true/false

tight/loose liberal/conservative

tense/peaceful

infest omnipotent harmonize encourage

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infest omnipotent harmonize encourage

infest omnipotent harmonize encourage

infest omnipotent harmonize encourage

infest omnipotent harmonize encourage

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IF computers not ready for Software Review on Wed, Aug. 24th, do the following: Wed Aug 24th: Line and Gestalt Lecture. Begin Project 1 thumbnail sketches. Fri Aug. 26th: Work day. Mon Aug. 29th: All tight thumbnail sketches DUE. At least 48 for Lines and at least 24 for circles (Shapes and Space).