Text of Our goal will be to interpret this quote by the end of this unit!
Our goal will be to interpret this quote by the end of this unit!
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
Monarchy on the eve of the Revolution Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
Let Them Eat Cake! YMarie Antoinette NEVER said that! YMadame Deficit YThe Austrian Whore
Causes of Revolution 1. Inspired by Enlightenment ideas Motto: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity 2. Inspired by the success of American Revolution 3. Financial difficulties Debt & heavy taxation 4. Weak leadership 5. Three Estates Voting inequity 6. Lattre de cachet
1. Enlightened ideas France has been a central point in the enlightenment. Louis XVs mistress patron of enlightenment Reading Revolution
2. American Revolution France supported to weaken the British Supplied guns and powder = large debt Supplied military leadership Strengthened ideas of individual liberty and representative government
3. Finances Debt, debt, and more debt Borrowed money from other nations Series of wars Lack of a central bank Refused to declare partial bankruptcy Louis XVI tried to institute own taxes declared void Called for a session of the Estates General
4. Weak Leader That says it all Louis XV disliked by people Court filled with scandal Weakened idea of divine right Louis XVI What I should like most is to be loved Dismissed any strong government officials he had
5. 1789:ancien regime= Old Regime 3 Large social classes (estates) 1 st Estate: Clergy 2 nd Estate: Nobility Paid no taxes 3 rd Estate: Commoners 98% of population Heavily taxed Discontented & Angry
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XVI insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! 300 648 That means 1200 ppl have a say!
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1 st What is the Third Estate? ( Everything! ( Qu'est-ce que le tiers tat?) Everything! 2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3 rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abb Sieys 1748-1836
6. Lettres de Cachet YThe French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal. YA carte-blanche warrant. YCardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV! YEliminated in 1790.
3 Stages of French Revolution 1 st Stage: 1789-17: Absolute Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy Meeting of Estates General (parliament) May 5, 1789 1 st time called into session since 1614
Oath of the Tennis Court June 20, 1789 Jacques Louis David
Storming of Bastille July 14, 1789 Rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly 1 st act of violence July 14 = French day of Independence 18 died 73 wounded 7 guards killed It held 7 prisoners ( 5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen)
August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Libert! Egalit! Fraternit!
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. 1 st used in 1789 1 st used in 1789 Officially adopted February 15, 1794 Officially adopted February 15, 1794 Citizen! Citizen!
The Liberty Cap: Bonne Rouge
Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Libert
Declaration of the Rights of Man August 26, 1789 Liberty, Property, Resistance to oppression! Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time. VWomen played a vital role in the Revolution. VBut, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. VDeclaration of the Rights of Women by de Gouges Olympe de Gouges
Womens March October 5, 1789 A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the bakers wife, and the bakers boy!
Constitutional/Limited monarchy is established in 1790 La Maresillaise French National Anthem French National Anthem Composed by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle on April 24, 1792 This was adopted July 14, 1795. Banned by Napoleon because of its revolutionary ideals. Reinstated in 1879.
National Convention 1 st act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on this date Decree of Fraternity: Offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!
Constitution Ruled on womens rights National Assembly created Monopolies, guilds, and workers associations prohibited Trade barriers abolished Reorganized religion Religious freedom to Jews & protestants Catholic land confiscated and monasteries closed
the Revolution is over Robespierre Not quite
Louis XVI & the royal family attempts to flee France - June 1791 Seen as his lack of support for the new constitution Austria and Prussia pledge to defend monarch Flight to Varennes
Stages of French Revolution 2 nd Stage: 1792-1795: Republic Anarchy Second Revolution Popularly elected National Convention declares France a Republic All documents henceforth will be dated, Year One of the French Republic September Massacres
Louis XVI executed January 21, 1793; he was 38 years old. 'I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France.'
Republic Divided Girondists Did not want to kill Louis XIV The Mountain led by Robespierre Both moved to end Tyranny French army defended the nation along the borders Prussia & Austria Declared war on Britain, Holland, and Spain Peasants revolted against military draft Counter-Revolution began Catholics, royalists, and foreign agents
Deadlock Committee on Public Safety led by Robespierre Emigries vs. Sans-culottes Mountain gained support of poor peasants June 2, 1793 Sans-culottes invaded the National Convention Arrested 29 Girondists for treason French provinces revolted and armies were driven back on al fronts
Guillotine Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin did not invent the execution machine that bears his name. A similar device known as the Halifax Gibbet had been in use in that Yorkshire town since 1286 and continued until 1650 a Scotsman, James Douglas Earl of Morton, built one in Edinburgh in 1556, which became known as the Maiden and remained in use until 1710 Guillotine facts: Total weight was about 1278 pounds Blade weighed over 88 pounds Height of side posts was just over 14 feet Distance the blade dropped was 88 inches Blade fell at 21 feet a second taking 1/70 of a second to fall Took 2/100 of a second for the head to be cut off Power at impact was 888 pound per square inch
Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin 1738 1821 French physician, president of the Chamber of the Provinces in 1775, founder of the French Academy of Medicine, and deputy to the French assembly in 1789.. Dr. Guillotin (Deputy of Paris) on October the 10th, 1789 proposed to the Constituent Assembly that all condemned criminals should be beheaded on the grounds of humanity and egalit (equality)! More humane, efficient means of decisive death!
Killed over 15,000 people by the end of the Revolution Basket by guillotine for fallen heads Method of execution was seen as being more humane than earlier forms Symbol of cruelty Guillotine
LAST OF THE EXECUTIONS Last public execution was in 1939 Eugene Weidmann convicted for six murders, was guillotined on June 17th 1939,outside the prison Saint Pierre at rue Georges Clmenceau in Versailles. Conspiracy, --- kidnapping, fraud, robbery, murder, resisting arrest 1939
Madame Guillotines Last Kiss Hamida Djandoubia Tunisian Immigrant was the last to die at the hands of the Maiden in 1977!!!!! He was convicted of the torture & murder of 21 year old Elisabeth Bousquet, his former girlfriend, in Marseille. Though the death penalty was grinding to a halt in 1970s France, Djandoubi was not the last person condemned ; the guillotine was only abolished with the election of the Francois Mitterand government in 1981!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!